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济南市儿童医院官网专家在线咨询泰安妇幼保健医院医生有哪些Rising incomes, rapid urbanisation and concerns over the toxic smog that enshrouds many of its cities are driving China away from coal and oil and towards natural gas.不断增长的收入、快速推进的城镇化以及人们对笼罩多个中国城市的有毒雾霾的担忧,正促使中国改变对煤炭和石油的依赖,更多地使用天然气。Gas usage has risen almost sevenfold in 13 years to 168bn cubic metres, and China has become the largest consumer after the US and Russia.过去的13年中,中国天然气用量几乎增长了6倍,达到1680亿立方米,中国也成为位居美国和俄罗斯之后的第三大天然气消费国。Further increases are expected. The power, industrial and transport sectors are forecast to drive demand to 315bcm by 2019, according to the International Energy Agency, the wealthy nations’ energy watchdog, and Beijing has set its sights even higher.中国天然气用量有望进一步增长。作为富裕国家能源监督机构的国际能源署(IEA)预测,到2019年时,中国电力、工业和交通部门将推动中国天然气需求量增至3150亿立方米,而中国政府设立的目标则更为高远。But uncertainty remains about the pace of growth into the next decade.但是在下一个十年,中国天然气的发展步伐还存在一些不确定的地方。“Natural gas demand in China has potential to grow much more rapidly than it is now,” says Anne-Sophie Corbeau, senior IEA gas analyst. “However, there is still a lot standing in its way. In some ways we are less optimistic about the Chinese.”“中国天然气需求有潜力实现比现在快得多的增长,”国际能源署高级天然气分析师安妮-索菲#8226;科尔(Anne-Sophie Corbeau)说,“然而,在其前进的路上还有很多障碍。在某些方面,我们对中国的天然气前景不那么看好。”The expansion of the country’s gas sector is a massive logistical and capital investment challenge. Supply availability, delivery infrastructure, pricing levels and policy, and funding to promote gas over other fuels are all factors that dictate the speed at which the switch occurs.中国天然气行业的扩张将给物流和资本投资带来巨大挑战。供应能力、输送基础设施、定价标准和政策、以及推广天然气以取代其他燃料所需的资金,这些都是决定能源结构转换速度的因素。The government wants to boost gas’s share of total energy consumption from 4 per cent to about 8 per cent by the end of 2015 and 10 per cent by 2020, to reduce the plumes of black clouds resulting from heavy coal use.中国政府希望提高天然气在能耗总量中所占的比重,目标是到2015年底将这一比重从现在的4%提高到8%左右,到2020年提高到10%,以减少大量燃烧煤炭造成的黑云。But China’s ability to construct the vast infrastructure network needed to produce, import and transport enough gas to meet demand is under scrutiny.然而,生产、进口和输送足够多的天然气以满足中国的需求,需要庞大的基础设施网络,中国是否有能力建好这个网络,正受到密切的关注。“There is a lot of pent-up demand, particularly over the last decade, but infrastructure and the availability of supply have been a constraint,” says Michael Stoppard, gas strategist at IHS. “They really haven’t been able to develop the gas quickly enough.”“有很多被压抑的需求,特别是在过去10年里,但基础设施和供应能力一直是瓶颈,”咨询机构IHS的天然气策略师迈克尔#8226;斯托帕德(Michael Stoppard)说,“他们确实未能以足够快的速度发展天然气。”Pipelines have been at the top of the agenda. After a decade of negotiations, China struck a 0bn supply deal with Russia in May as part of a long-term strategy to raise gas imports via pipeline and liquefied natural gas. China is also connected to pipeline corridors in central Asia and Myanmar. But these will take years to ramp up to full potential, says Ella Chou at the Brookings Institution’s China Center.管道建设是当务之急。在经过10年的谈判后,中国在5月份与俄罗斯签订了一项价值4000亿美元的天然气供应合同,这是中国通过输气管道和液化气方式提高天然气进口量的长期战略的一部分。另外,中国还连入了中亚和缅甸的管道走廊。但布鲁金斯学会中国中心(Brookings Institution#39;s China Center)的Ella Chou表示,这些举措需要数年时间才能发挥最大潜能。The country, which is believed to hold the world’s largest reserves of shale gas, hopes to replicate the US production boom in the form of tight gas, coal-bed methane and coal-to-gas conversion. But unlike the US shale industry, China does not have thousands of independent oil and gas entrepreneurs competing to expand production.中国被认为是世界上页岩气储量最大的国家。它希望通过发展致密气、煤层气和煤转气来复制美国的天然气繁荣。但中国的页岩油气行业与美国不同,中国没有成千上万独立的油气企业家相互竞争来提高产量。Everything depends on state-owned companies that lack development experience. Exploration rights, geological surveys and the adaptation of drilling and exploration technologies to suit the country have proved problematic, as has pulling together the relevant statistics.在中国,一切都依赖国有企业,这些企业缺乏发展经验。勘探权、地质勘测、改进钻探和勘探技术以适应中国情况,都被明是困难重重,将相关统计数据汇集在一起也是如此。Beijing has halved its target for shale gas production by 2020 to 30bcm, according to Reuters, after efforts to unlock the unconventional fuel ran into difficulties.路透社(Reuters)消息称,尝试开采非常规能源遇到困难后,北京方面将2020年的页岩气开采目标减半到300亿立方米。China became a net gas importer in 2007 and import dependency reached 32 per cent last year. Aside from questions over how quickly indigenous production can increase and whether China can contract enough imports by pipeline, there is a shortage of LNG storage facilities.2007年中国成为了天然气净进口国,去年中国对进口天然气的依存度达到32%。国内产量能以多快的速度增长,中国是否能签订合同进口足够多的管道天然气——除了这两个问题以外,中国还面临着液化天然气贮藏设施短缺的困境。“On top of its long-term contracted gas [deals with] Turkmenistan, Myanmar, Russia, and LNG deals with the Qataris, Australians and Canadians, the ability of the Chinese to continue to grow domestic production – conventional and unconventional – quickly will dictate the needs of extra uncontracted gas that could be at a lower cost,” says Thierry Bros, senior analyst at Société Générale in Paris.“除了与土库曼斯坦、缅甸、俄罗斯达成的长期合约天然气(交易)以及与卡塔尔、澳大利亚和加拿大达成的液化天然气交易以外,中国继续快速提高国内常规和非常规天然气产量的能力,将决定对额外的非合约天然气的需求,这些天然气的价格可能更低,”法国兴业(Société Générale)驻巴黎的高级分析师蒂埃里#8226;布罗斯(Thierry Bros)说。Ultimately demand will be determined by price, analysts say, because of the many alternatives to imported gas that are cost-competitive. The single biggest competitor is power from coal transported via transmission lines to the coastal regions.分析师表示,最终,需求将由价格决定,因为进口天然气的许多替代品的价格也颇具竞争力。其中煤电是最有力的竞争者,煤电通过输电线路传输至沿海地区。Until 2006 growth in consumption was met entirely by relatively low-cost domestic gas supply. However, higher-priced imports have been added to the mix, and their cost has risen considerably with the oil price.2006年之前,价格相对低廉的国内供应的天然气完全可以满足消费量的增长。但是,由于价格较高的进口天然气也进入市场,导致天然气价格随油价猛涨。“Policy makers often have to strike a balance between providing affordable gas supplies to encourage gas penetration, and setting a price that will serve as an incentive for more domestic production and higher imports,” writes Michael Chen of the Oxford Institute for Energy Studies in a report.“是提供较为廉价的天然气供应来推广天然气的使用,还是将定价作为激励措施来促使国内提高天然气产量并增大进口量,政策制定者不得不经常在二者中求得平衡,”牛津能源研究所(Oxford Institute for Energy Studies)的Michael Chen在一份报告中写道。Manufacturers, which are aly paying relatively high prices, want to stay competitive in the global market, while Chinese households want to keep their costs low.那些已在付相对较高价格的制造业企业,希望在国际市场上保持竞争力,中国的家庭则希望生活成本不要升高。But without even higher prices, the national oil companies will continue to face significant financial losses, diminishing any incentive around exploration, production and developing unconventional reserves.但是,如果天然气价格无法进一步提高,中国国有石油公司将继续面临巨额经济损失,从而削弱勘探、生产以及发展非常规储备的动力。 /201408/320475济阳县人民医院无痛人流好吗 济南真爱妇儿医院治霉菌阴道炎怎么样

平阴县中医医院咨询North America is likely to be a net exporter of liquid fuels in the next decade, as production grows while demand in the US and Canada stagnates, according to ExxonMobil, the world’s largest listed oil company.全球最大的上市石油公司埃克森美孚(ExxonMobil)表示,随着北美产量增长,而美国和加拿大需求停滞,北美可能在未来十年成为液态燃料的净出口地。It is the first time the company has made the forecast, following an upward revision of its expectations for North America’s oil production as a result of the boom in shale oil from formations such as the Bakken of North Dakota and the Eagle Ford of south Texas.这是埃克森美孚首次做出上述预测。此前由于北达科他州的巴肯页岩(Bakken Shale)和得克萨斯州南部的鹰福特(Eagle Ford)等区块的页岩油产量大幅增长,该公司上调了对北美石油产量的预测。Exxon predicted in its latest annual energy outlook, published yesterday, that exports of oil and related liquids from the US, Canada and Mexico would exceed imports after around 2020, thanks to rising output of shale oil, heavy crude from Canada’s oil sands, and natural gas liquids such as ethane.埃克森美孚在昨日发布的最新年度能源前景展望中预测,得益于页岩油、从加拿大油砂提炼的重质原油以及乙烷等天然气液的产量增长,美国、加拿大和墨西哥的石油和相关液态燃料出口将在2020年左右之后超过进口。It reflects the company’s argument that tight US restrictions on foreign sales of crude oil, in place since the 1970s, will have to be eased.这反映出该公司的一个观点,即美国将不得不放松自上世纪70年代出台的针对原油出口的严格限制。Bill Colton, vice-president of strategic planning, said economic logic pointed to US crude exports being liberalised in the next few years, and if the government blocked those sales it would hold back growth of North American production.埃克森美孚负责企业战略规划的副总裁比尔#8226;科尔顿(Bill Colton)表示,从经济逻辑来看,美国将在今后几年放开原油出口限制,因为如果美国政府阻止这些出口销售,就会抑制北美产量的增长。Exxon also predicted restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions that would have the same impact as a price on emitted carbon dioxide of about a tonne in the US and the EU and about a tonne in China by 2040.埃克森美孚还预计将有限制温室气体排放的措施出台,其效果将相当于对二氧化碳排放收费——到2040年在美国和欧盟相当于每吨收费约80美元,中国每吨约40美元。It expects global carbon dioxide emissions to peak around 2030 and decline 5 per cent over the following 10 years, as coal is replaced for power generation by gas, nuclear and renewable energy.该公司预计,随着煤炭发电被天然气、核能和可再生能源发电代替,全球二氧化碳排放将在2030年左右达到峰值,并在随后的十年里下降5%。The principal theme is that demand for energy, including oil, has peaked in developed countries, but will continue to rise strongly in emerging economies as the “global middle class” grows from about 2bn to about 5bn people.该公司的主要观点是,包括石油在内的能源需求在发达国家已达到峰值,但随着“全球中产阶级”数量从大约20亿人增长至大约50亿人,能源需求在新兴经济体仍会继续强劲增长。Energy efficiency improvements are expected to curb demand as the world economy grows: Exxon expects there will be twice as many cars in the world in 2040, but they will use only the same amount of petrol and diesel because they will be twice as fuel-efficient.能效改善有望遏制能源需求随着世界经济增长而增长:埃克森美孚预计到2040年全球汽车数量将会增长一倍,但由于能效提高一倍,它们的汽油和柴油使用量不变。Demand is expected to rise, however, for other types of transport, particularly road freight, and Exxon expects the world to be using 115m barrels of oil per day in 2040, up from 89m b/d last year.然而,预计其他运输方式(特别是公路货运)的需求将会增长,埃克森美孚预测全球在2040年的原油使用量为1.15亿桶/日,而去年是8900万桶/日。Environmental groups criticised the forecasts for reflecting policy objectives. Exxon said their main use is as a framework for its investment decisions.环保集团批评这些预测反映政策目标。埃克森美孚表示,它们的主要用途是作为其投资决策框架。 /201412/348058天桥区人民医院可以做引产吗 济南真爱医院医院在线咨询

济宁人民医院位置China#39;s consumer price inflation stayed benign last month, continuing to provide relief for consumers who are struggling with effects of the nation#39;s economic growth slowdown.上个月中国消费者价格指数(CPI)保持温和增长,对于正在艰难应对中国经济增长放缓效应的消费者来说,这一消息再次令他们松了一口气。CPI was 1.8 per cent in April, year on year. Within that, food prices rose 2.3 per cent, compared to a 4.1 per cent increase in March.4月份CPI同比增长1.8%。其中,食品价格指数同比上涨2.3%,与此相比3月份食品价格指数上涨4.1%。Food is the biggest short term factor driving China#39;s inflation.食品是驱动中国通胀的最大短期因素。Meanwhile producer prices, which have been in deflationary territory since March 2012, declined by another 2 per cent, year on year.与此同时,自2012年3月份以来一直处于通缩状态的生产者价格指数(PPI)再一次同比下降2%。The falling factory gate prices reflect the excess capacity in China#39;s industrial sector, as successive rounds of economic stimulus have prompted businesses in industries such as steel making and ship building to expand beyond levels of actual customer demand.不断下跌的出厂价格反映了中国工业部门的产能过剩状况,这是因为连续几轮经济刺激促使炼钢和造船等工业的业务扩张超出了客户实际需求。Meanwhile, Chinese manufacturing growth is slowing down, according to HS#39;s latest purchasing managers#39; index.与此同时,汇丰(HS)最新公布的采购经理人指数(PMI)表明,中国制造业增速正在放缓。The bank reported that goods producers in China cut their staffing levels for the sixth month running in April.根据汇丰的报告,4月份中国制造商连续第6个月缩减人员编制。In a separate survey, HS said China#39;s non manufacturing companies were not increasing staffing numbers and that service sector employment was at its lowest in seven months.在另一份调查中,汇丰表示中国非制造业企业并未扩大人员编制,并表示务业就业率处于7个月的最低点。 /201405/296902 济南做无痛人流哪个医院好肥城市看妇科炎症多少钱



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