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2019年09月24日 00:34:07 | 作者:39门户 | 来源:新华社
Have you heard of the ;makeup tax;? It refers to the time and money women spend on their appearances in the hopes of doing well at work. Many career women fear that if they don#39;t live up to society#39;s expectations, they will lose out on promotions and pay raises.你听过;化妆税;吗?它指的是女人为了事业成功而花在经营仪表上的时间和金钱。很多职业女性担心一旦自己辜负了社会(对女性美丽外表)的期望,她们将会失去升职加薪的机会。The ;makeup tax; affects a lot of women. US presidential candidate and former secretary of state Hillary Clinton is no exception. Last month, in an online Qamp;A session on Facebook, Clinton was asked about her morning grooming routine by Libby Brittain, a female Facebook staffer. Brittain complained that she has to spend more than 30 minutes getting y for work while her boyfriend ;zip[s] out the door;.;化妆税;影响了大批女性,连美国总统候选人、前国务卿希拉里·克林顿也不例外。上个月,在脸书的一档在线问答互动活动上,脸书公司的女性雇员莉比·布里顿问希拉里是如何应对日常打扮的。布里顿还抱怨说自己每天要花30分钟以上用来梳洗准备才能去工作,而她的男朋友;开门就能去上班;。;I wonder about how the ‘hair and makeup tax#39; affects other women–especially ones I admire in high-pressure, public-facing jobs,; wrote Brittain, who added that as a ;young professional woman; she#39;d like to know how Clinton handles it while ;staying focused on the ‘real#39; work ahead;.布里顿写道:;我想知道‘美发和化妆税#39;是如何影响其他女性的,特别是那些我崇拜的,身居要职,工作压力大还经常要抛头露面的女性;,之后她又补充说,作为一个;年轻的职业女性;,她想知道克林顿是如何在一堆;真实弹;的工作摆在面前时还兼顾美发和化妆的。Clinton acknowledged that the ;makeup tax; is a problem. ;Amen, sister,; she wrote in her answer. ;It#39;s a daily challenge. I do the best I can –and as you may have noticed, some days are better than others!;克林顿也承认;化妆税;确实是个问题。;你我同在,,;她回答到。;这是每天都要面对的挑战。我尽力做到最好——如你所见,有些时候做的好些,有些时候不尽人意。;Olga Khazan, writing in The Atlantic, thinks Clinton shouldn#39;t have treated the question so lightheartedly. The ;makeup tax; is very real, Khazan says. Women invest time and money into makeup because it impacts their relationships and their careers. Men also use grooming products, but they never have to worry about the price of makeup.奥尔加·卡赞在《大西洋月刊》上撰文提到她认为克林顿不应该用这么随意的态度对待这个问题。卡赞说;化妆税;是真实存在的。女人投入大把的时间和金钱化妆,因为这关系到她们的爱情和事业。男人也会用些化妆品,不过他们可不必担心化妆的成本。According to a Washington Post report, the cosmetics industry makes billion (384 billion yuan) each year in the US. The personal finance website Mint.com claims that the average US woman will spend ,000 on makeup in her lifetime. Applying makeup also costs time. If it takes you an average of 10 minutes to apply makeup every morning before going to work, that#39;s an hour per week, or two full days per year.根据《华盛顿邮报》的报道,美国的化妆品行业每年能挣600亿美元(3840亿人民币)。个人理财网Mint.com说平均每个美国女性一生中要花1万5千美元用于购买化妆品。同时,化妆也是个耗费时间的活儿。如果每天早上上班之前你平均要花10分钟来化妆,那么每周有一小时用于化妆,每年有整整两天用在了化妆上。Critics might say, ;Just don#39;t wear makeup!; But few people can afford to ignore society#39;s expectations. Years of research have shown that attractive people earn more, yet men aren#39;t expected to wear makeup in order to look good.批评者说:;那就别化妆嘛!;但基本上没有人敢无视这种社会期望。一项历经数年的实验显示外表迷人的人挣得更多,而社会并没有期待男人通过化妆变得好看。According to The New York Times, a 2014 study published in the Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology found that both male and female participants thought ;regular; women looked best when they applied a moderate amount of makeup. Another 2012 study found that subtle makeup made women seem not only attractive, but more likable and competent. A 2006 study published in the Journal of Applied Social Psychology found that participants were more likely to award ;prestigious jobs; to women who used makeup than to the same women when their faces were unadorned.据《纽约时报》消息,《实验心理学季刊》曾在2014年刊登过一项研究,研究发现男性和女性参与者都认为淡妆状态下的女性颜值最高。2012年的另一项研究则表明淡妆不仅让女性更好看,还让她们看起来更讨人喜欢和能干。2006年《应用社会心理学杂志》发布的一篇研究发现被试更愿意把优越的职位提供给化过妆的女性而非那些未施粉黛的。;I wish society didn#39;t reward this,; Daniel Hamermesh, an economics professor at the University of Texas at Austin and author of Beauty Pays, told The New York Times. ;I think we#39;d be a fairer world if beauty were not rewarded, but it is.;德克萨斯大学奥斯汀分校经济学教授、《美丽有价》一书的作者丹尼尔·汉默许说;我不希望社会鼓励这种行为。如果美貌不被嘉奖,那么世界将更公平,可惜这是不可能的。; /201510/402068

Ernest Hemingway was not only a commanding figure in 20th-century literature, but he was also a pack rat. He saved even his old passports and used bullfight tickets, leaving behind one of the longest paper trails of any author.欧内斯特·海明威(Ernest Hemingway)不仅是20世纪文坛中一位举足轻重的人物,同时也是个收集狂。他就连旧护照和斗牛比赛票根也要留着,因此在身后留下了庞大的书面资料,在作家当中堪称数一数二。So how is it possible that “Ernest Hemingway: Between Two Wars,” which opens on Friday at the Morgan Library amp; Museum, is the first major museum exhibition devoted to Hemingway and his work? It could be simply that no one thought of it before. Most of Hemingway’s papers are at the John. F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum in Boston. After Hemingway’s death in 1961, President Kennedy, a fan, helped his widow, Mary, get into Cuba and retrieve many of his belongings there. Partly in gratitude, she later donated Hemingway’s archive to the new presidential library. But the Kennedy Library, where this exhibition will travel in March, is not accustomed, as the Morgan is, to putting on big crowd-pleasing shows.“欧内斯特·海明威:两次世界大战之间”(Ernest Hemingway: Between Two Wars)将于周五在根图书馆与物馆(Morgan Library amp; Museum)开展,人们不禁奇怪,之前怎么根本就没有关于海明威及其作品的大型物馆展览呢?可能只是的确没有人想到吧。海明威的大多数文件都保存在波士顿的约翰·F·肯尼迪总统图书馆与物馆(John. F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum)。海明威于1961年去世后,崇拜他的肯尼迪总统帮助他的遗孀玛丽到古巴取回许多遗物。部分是为了表示感谢,玛丽后来把海明威的资料捐献给了新落成的肯尼迪总统图书馆。但是肯尼迪图书馆并不像根图书馆这样擅长举办人们喜闻乐见的大型展览(本展览亦将于明年3月来到肯尼迪图书馆)。Even at the Morgan, Hemingway was something of an afterthought. Declan Kiely, the museum’s head of literary and historical manuscripts and the show’s curator, said recently that he and Patrick Milliman, the director of communications, began idly talking about Hemingway in 2010, after concluding that an exhibition about J. D. Salinger, who had just died, was probably not feasible. The Hemingway exhibition, mounted on walls that have been painted tropical blue to suggest his years in Key West and in Cuba, takes him all the way from high school (where one of his classmates described him as “egotistical, dogmatic and somewhat obnoxious”) to roughly 1950, when he turns up as a self-caricature in Lillian Ross’s famous New Yorker profile. But the largest and most interesting section focuses on the ’20s, Hemingway’s Paris years, and reveals a writer we might have been in danger of forgetting: Hemingway before he became Hemingway.即便是在根,海明威展也并非优先考虑。物馆文学与历史手稿部门的负责人、本次展览的策展人迪克兰·基利(Declan Kiely)前不久说,2010年,他和物馆的公关主管帕特里克·米利曼(Patrick Milliman)聊起,为当时刚刚去世不久的J·D·塞林格(J. D. Salinger)做一次展览似乎不太现实,然后他们才随口聊起了海明威。在这次海明威展上,墙壁被漆成颇具热带风情的蓝色,象征着他在基韦斯特与古巴度过的岁月,展品从他的中学时光(有个同学形容当时的他“任性、固执,有点讨人厌”)一直来到20世纪50年代,那时他的形象已经成了莉莉安·罗斯(Lillian Ross)在《纽约客》发表的那篇著名报道中的自我讽刺形象。但展览中最重头也是最有趣的部分集中在20世纪20年代,海明威的巴黎岁月,它揭示出一位我们有可能会忘记的作家——成为著名作家之前的海明威。The exhibition does not fail to include pictures of the bearded, macho, Hem, the storied hunter and fisherman. He’s shown posing with some kudu he has just shot in Africa and on the bridge of his beloved fishing yacht, the Pilar, with Carlos Gutiérrez, the fisherman who became the model for “The Old Man and the Sea.”展览中也有不少照片,展示那个留大胡子,富于男性气概的“海姆”,那个传奇的猎手和渔夫。一张照片是他在非洲与自己猎杀的大羚羊的合影,还有一张是他在自己最心爱的钓鱼艇“皮拉尔”上,与渔夫卡洛斯·古铁雷兹(Carlos Gutiérrez)的合影,此人正是《老人与海》(The Old Man and the Sea)中老渔夫的原型。But the first photo the viewer sees is a big blowup of a handsome, clean-shaven, 19-year-old standing on crutches. This is from the summer of 1918, when Hemingway was recovering from shrapnel wounds at the Red Cross hospital in Milan and trying to turn his wartime experiences into fiction. For the first time, he tried out the Nick Adams persona. The manuscript is at the Morgan, scrawled in pencil on Red Cross stationery.但展览上的第一张照片是一张放大照,19岁的海明威相貌英俊,面庞光洁,拄着双拐。照片摄于1918年的夏天,海明威在“一战”中身受伤,正在米兰红十字医院中休养,试着把自己的战时经历写成小说。当时他第一次在小说中使用“尼克·亚当斯”(Nick Adams)这个角色。手稿也在这次根的展览中展出,用铅笔写在红十字医院的信纸上。Perhaps because of the famous “For Whom the Bell Tolls” jacket photo (also at the Morgan), which shows Hemingway bent over a Royal portable, or because of the cleanness and sparseness of his prose, we tend to think of him as someone who wrote on the typewriter. But the evidence at this exhibition suggests that, in the early days anyway, he often wrote in pencil, mostly in cheap notebooks but sometimes on whatever paper came to hand. The first draft of the short story “Soldier’s Home” is written on sheets he appears to have swiped from a telegraph office. The impression you get is of a young writer seized by inspiration and sometimes barreling ahead without an entirely clear sense of where he is going.或许是因为海明威在《丧钟为谁而鸣》(For Whom the Bell Tolls)一书封套上用皇家手提打字机打字的照片太有名了(这张照片也出现在根展上),又或者是因为他的文风简洁明快,我们都觉得他肯定是用打字机写作的人。但这次展览上的展品却表明,他早期经常用铅笔写作,经常是写在廉价的笔记本上,有时也写在手头的任何纸张上。他的短篇小说《士兵之家》(Soldier’s Home)的第一稿写在显然是从电报局偷回来的纸片上。你会觉得这是一个被灵感火花抓住的年轻作家,有时一气呵成地飞快写下去,几乎不清楚自己究竟在写什么。He began the original draft of his first novel, “The Sun Also Rises,” which he finished in just nine weeks during the summer of 1925, on loose sheets and then switched over to notebooks. It wasn’t until the end of the third notebook that he wrote a chapter outline on the back cover (which also records his travel expenses and his daily word counts, something Hemingway kept careful track of), and some of the pages on display show him slashing out not just words and sentences but whole passages as he writes. “Writing it first in pencil gives you one-third more chance to improve it,” Hemingway wrote later in an Esquire article. “That is .333, which is a damned good average for a hitter.”他的第一部小说《太阳照常升起》(The Sun Also Rises)是1925年夏天花九个星期写完的,初稿写在活页纸上,后来又在笔记本上写。直到写完第三个本子,他才开始在本子封底上写章节大纲(这页封底上还记录了他的旅费与每天说了几个单词,海明威有时候会细心地去数),本子里有几页显示他不仅大刀阔斧地删掉字句,有时整段都会删掉。“先用铅笔写,这样你就多了1/3的修改机会,”海明威后来在给《Esquire》杂志的文章中写道。“这就是.333,对于击球手来说是个极好的平均数。”F. Scott Fitzgerald (some of whose correspondence with Hemingway, beginning that year, is also on view) famously urged him to cut the first two chapters of “The Sun Also Rises,” complaining about the “elephantine facetiousness” of the beginning, and Hemingway obliged, getting rid of a clunky opening that now seems almost “meta”: “This is a story about a lady. Her name is Lady Ashley and when the story begins she is living in Paris and it is Spring. That should be a good setting for a romantic but highly moral story.” In 1929, in a nine-page penciled critique, Fitzgerald also suggested numerous revisions for “A Farewell to Arms.” Hemingway took some of these, but less graciously, and soon afterward his friendship with Fitzgerald came to an end. At the bottom of Fitzgerald’s letter he wrote: “Kiss my ass/E.H.”F·斯科特·菲茨杰拉德是经常与海明威书信来往的人之一,他们的通信正是从这一年开始,它们也在这次展览中展出。菲茨杰拉德曾经建议海明威把《太阳照常升起》的前两章删掉,说它们作为小说开头有种“笨拙的滑稽”,这件事非常著名。而海明威也照办了,删去了笨重的,现在看来近乎“庞大”的开头:“这是关于一个女人的故事,她的名字就叫做阿什莉,故事开头时,她住在巴黎,当时正是春天。这样的环境更适合浪漫故事而不是道德感极强的故事。”1929年,菲茨杰拉德用铅笔写来长达九页的,对《永别了,武器》(A Farewell to Arms)提出大量修改意见。海明威采纳了其中一些,但并不那么有风度,不久后他和菲茨杰拉德的友谊也走到了尽头。在菲茨杰拉德的来信末尾,海明威写道:“亲我的屁股/E.H.”。The papers at the Morgan show a Hemingway who is not always sure of himself. There are running lists of stories he kept fiddling with, including one with his own evaluations: “Tour de force,” “Pretty good,” “Maybe good.” And there are lists and lists of possible titles, including the 45 he considered for “Farewell” (among the discards, thank goodness, were “Sorrow for Pleasure,” “The Carnal Education” and “Every Night and All”).根展上的文件表明,海明威并不总是那么自信。他列了很多单子,上面是他一直在修改的短篇小说,旁边还有他自己的评语:“杰作”,“不错”,“也许还行”。还有无数给小说起的名字,比如他光是为《永别了,武器》就想了45个名字(被放弃的名字中包括“欢娱的悔恨”、“肉体教育”和“每个夜晚与一切”,真是谢天谢地)。Hemingway also tried 47 different endings for that novel. Those on view at the Morgan include the so-called “Nada” ending (“That is all there is to the story. Catherine died and you will die and that is all I can promise you”) and the only slightly more hopeful one suggested by Fitzgerald, in which the world “kills the very good and very gentle and the very brave impartially. If you are none of these you can be sure it will kill you too but there will be no special hurry.”海明威还为这部小说写了47个不同的结尾。根展中有一个被称为“虚无”的结局(“故事就是这样的,凯瑟琳死了,你也会死,我只能说这么多”),还有一个稍微带点希望色的结局,是菲茨杰拉德建议的,在这个结局里,“世界一视同仁地杀死那些好人、温柔的人与勇敢的人。如果这三种你都不是,它当然也会杀掉你,不过不会特别着急。”In display case after display case, you see Hemingway during his Paris years inventing and reinventing himself, discovering as he goes along just what kind of writer he wants to be. In a moving 1925 letter to his parents, who refused to “In Our Time,” his second story collection, he writes: “You see I’m trying in all my stories to get the feeling of the actual life across — not just to depict life — or criticize it — but to actually make it alive. So that when you have something by me you actually experience the thing. You cant do this without putting in the bad and the ugly as well as what is beautiful.” As the years go by, he also puts on weight, grows a mustache (seen in a Man Ray photograph) and for some unfathomable reason poses for an oil painting as “Kid Balzac,” a challenger y to knock out the great 19th-century realist.走过一个又一个展柜,你可以看到海明威在巴黎是如何一再重新塑造自己,渐渐发现自己希望成为什么样的作家。他的父母不愿读他的第二本短篇小说集《在我们的时代里》(In Our Time),1925年,他在一封感人的信中对他们说:“你们看,我试着为我全部的小说注入真实生活的感觉——不是去描写生活或是批判生活——而是让它真的活起来。这样当你们读到我写的东西时,你们就可以真的体验到那些事物。要做到这一点,就得把坏的、丑的东西也放进去,就像把美好的东西放进去一样。” 几年后,他发了福,留起了胡子(正如曼·雷[Man Ray]的照片所示),由于某些无法了解的原因,他还为一幅名叫《少年巴尔扎克》(Kid Balzac)的油画当模特,在这幅画中,巴尔扎克被塑造成一个冲击伟大的19世纪现实主义文学的挑战者形象。By the time the Second World War broke out, Hemingway had solidified — fossilized even — into the iconic figure we now remember: Papa. Even J. D. Salinger calls him this, in a 1946 letter written while Salinger is in an Army psychiatric hospital, in which he says of the war that a 1944 meeting with Hemingway in Paris was “the only helpful minutes of the whole business.” Hemingway, often drinking and despondent, didn’t know it, but his best work was behind him by then, though there is perhaps an inkling of diminished expectation in a July 1949 letter he wrote to the screenwriter and novelist Peter Viertel that ends: “I don’t know any place left in the states where it’s the kind of wild I like.”“二战”爆发期间,海明威的形象已经固定下来——而且像化石一般坚不可摧——就是那个我们如今熟悉的“爸爸”(Papa)的符号形象。就连J·D·塞林格都这么称呼他,1946年,塞林格在一家陆军精神病院给他写信,说在这场战争中,1944年在巴黎见到海明威是“整件事中唯一充满希望的时刻。”海明威经常喝酒,陷入沮丧,他不知道这封信,但当时他最好的作品正呼之欲出。1949年7月,他给编剧和小说家彼得·维尔特尔(Peter Viertel)的信以这样一句话结尾:“美国已经没有我喜欢的旷野。”这或许流露出了一丝小小的迹象。A blustery, cranky Hemingway appears in 1949 when aboard the Pilar he grabs an old fishing diary and begins scrawling an angry letter to Harold Ross, the editor of The New Yorker (whom he addresses as “Mister Harold”), complaining about Alfred Kazin’s review of “Across the River and Into the Trees,” not, in truth, a very good book. Kazim or Kasim, or whatever his name is, Hemingway tells Ross, can take his review and shove it you know where, and he will supply the grease. As Hemingway gets angrier and angrier his pencil almost goes through the paper, and then, as suddenly as it struck, the squall passes. The letter was never sent.1949年,一个爱吵闹,怪脾气的海明威登上“皮拉尔”的甲班,他拿过一本老旧的打渔日志,开始愤怒地给《纽约客》的编辑哈罗德·罗斯(Harold Ross)写信,称他为“哈罗德先生”,抱怨阿尔弗莱德·卡津(Alfred Kazin)评价《过河入林》(Across the River and Into the Trees)不算一本好书。海明威告诉罗斯:卡津还是卡辛,不管这人叫什么,可以拿上他的塞进自己的某个器官,他会帮他上油的。海明威愈写愈气,铅笔快要戳穿纸背,然而愤怒来得快去得也快,这封信从来没有被寄出去。A more endearing writer is the one who reveals himself in a series of uncharacteristically shy wartime letters to Mary Welsh, who would become his fourth wife. In one, he apologizes for not knowing enough adjectives. In another, in a sort of stream-of-consciousness vision of intimacy apparently written in darkness while he is traveling with the infantry as a war correspondent, he says: “It would be lovely to be in bed now, legs close and all held tight and lip like when you’ve pulled the pin from a grenade and let the handle ease up under your hand.”在致第四任妻子玛丽·威尔士(Mary Welsh)的战时信件中,这位作家显得可亲可爱得多,这些信少有的羞涩,展示出他的自我。在一封信中,他道歉说自己不怎么会用形容词。另一封信有点像亲昵的意识流,显然是他在做战地记者随步兵行军时,在黑暗中写的,他写道:“现在能上床就好了,腿紧紧合在一起,嘴唇也是,你把引信从手榴弹里拔出来,用你的手爱抚手柄。” /201510/402140

BEIJING — During the upheaval of China’s Cultural Revolution in the 1960s, when many of the country’s Western-trained scientists were shunned and persecuted, the government had an urgent scientific problem that needed attention.北京——在1960年代文化大革命动乱期间,中国很多受过西方教育的科学家都遭到了冷落和迫害,而政府面临着一个紧迫的科学问题需要解决。North Vietnam, an important ally that was in the middle of war with the ed States, had asked for a way to reduce the deaths of its soldiers from malaria, which had become resistant to the drug chloroquine. Malaria was also killing large numbers of people in southern China.中国的重要盟友北越当时正在与美国作战,因为疟疾逐渐对氯喹药物有了抗药性,他们希望中国帮助减少北越士兵的疟疾死亡率。而且当时疟疾也在中国南方肆虐,夺去了很多人的生命。Mao Zedong set up a secret military project, Project 523 — named after its starting date, May 23, 1967 — to find a solution. But China’s top expert in the field of malaria research, like legions of other Chinese in this time of high political turmoil, had been labeled a “rightist” and shunted aside.为了寻找解决方案,毛泽东成立了一个秘密军事项目,称为523项目,这个名字来自于它的启动日期1967年5月23日。但是,就像动乱期间的其他很多中国人一样,疟疾研究领域的顶级专家也已经作为“右派”靠边站了。After making little headway on the problem, the government turned to the Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Beijing, and to a little-known scientist, Tu Youyou, who had studied both Western and Chinese medicine — and who found the solution in traditional Chinese healing.项目没有取得什么进展,于是政府找到了北京的中国中医研究院以及一位名不见经传的科学家屠呦呦。结果,对西医和中医均有过研究的屠呦呦从中国传统医学中找到了解决方案。Dr. Tu, 84, on Monday became the first citizen of the People’s Republic of China to win a Nobel Prize in the sciences, for discovering artemisinin, a drug that is now part of standard antimalarial regimens. She shared the Nobel for medicine or physiology with two scientists who also developed antiparasitic drugs.本周一,现年84岁的屠呦呦成为第一位获得诺贝尔奖科学奖项的中国公民。她发现的青蒿素现在已经是标准的抗疟治疗方案的一部分。屠呦呦与其他两名研制抗寄生虫药的科学家一起,分享了今年的诺贝尔生理学或医学奖。Dr. Tu, through the Institute of Chinese Materia Medica at the Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences where she works, issued a statement about the value of artemisinin and traditional Chinese medicine.屠呦呦通过她所在的中国中医科学院中药研究所,发表了一份关于青蒿素与传统中医药价值的获奖感言。“Artemisinin is a gift for the world’s people from traditional Chinese medicine,” the statement said.“青蒿素是传统中医药送给世界人民的礼物,”声明说。Four Chinese scientists born in mainland China have been awarded the Nobel in physics, but only after making their careers in the West. The Chinese government has long wanted a Nobel in the sciences for the sake of prestige and as a confirmation of the quality of its education system.之前已经有四名出生在中国大陆的华裔科学家获得过诺贝尔物理学奖,但都是他们在西方开创事业之后。中国政府一直希望本土有人获得诺贝尔科学奖,认为这可以提升其声誉,是对其教育体系质量的认可。The Chinese government and state-run news media celebrated Dr. Tu’s prize as an acknowledgment of the rising strength of Chinese science as well as a vindication of the value of traditional Chinese medicine. But some scientists and commentators also said that until now, China’s scientific establishment had treated Dr. Tu somewhat dismissively.中国政府和官方新闻媒体庆祝屠呦呦获得了诺贝尔奖,认为这体现了中国科研实力的提升,也明了中国传统医学的价值。但是一些科学家和人士也表示,迄今为止,中国科研体制对屠呦呦的态度一直很冷淡。Prime Minister Li Keqiang said that Dr. Tu’s Nobel “was an expression of the prosperity and progress of Chinese science, and of the huge contribution that Chinese traditional medicine and pharmacy has made to the health of humankind.”李克强总理说,屠呦呦获得诺贝尔奖“是中国科技繁荣进步的体现,是中医药对人类健康事业作出巨大贡献的体现”。But Dr. Tu had been denied a place as an academician in China’s highest honorary body for scientists, apparently because of her lack of foreign training and a doctoral degree, other commentators noted.不过也有人士指出,屠呦呦之所以未能成为中国科学家最高荣誉机构的院士,显然是因为她缺乏外国教育背景,也没有士学位。“I think that Tu Youyou’s prize should lead to deeper reflection about China’s scientific efforts,” Wang Yuanfeng, a professor in Beijing said in an online commentary. “There are many problems in the institutions and mechanisms of scientific work in China.”“我觉得借由屠呦呦的获奖,还应该对中国的科技工作做更深的思考!”北京的教授王元丰在网上说。“中国科技工作的体制和机制还存在不少问题。”At the start of her research for Project 523, Dr. Tu, then 39, was sent to Hainan Island, in the southernmost region of China, to see how the disease was affecting the population. Her husband had been purged during the Cultural Revolution, and she put her 4-year-old daughter into a nursery. Her visit to Hainan was the start of a decade of work, she told New Scientist in an interview in 2011.在参与523项目之初,当时39岁的屠呦呦被派到中国最南端的海南岛,亲眼看到了这种疾病给当地居民带来的痛苦。她的丈夫在文革期间遭到迫害,她把4岁的女儿送到了托儿所。在2011年接受《新科学家》(New Scientist)采访时,她说那次海南之行是历时10年的工作的开始。She visited traditional medical practitioners across China, and from those conversations, compiled a notebook, “A Collection of Single Practical Prescriptions for Anti-Malaria.” Among 2,000 traditional Chinese recipes, she said, one compound was found to be effective: sweet wormwood, or Artemisia annua, which was used for “intermittent fevers,” a hallmark of malaria.她走访了中国各地的传统医药从业者,并整理了谈话记录,编写了《抗疟单验方集》。她说,在2000多个药方中,他们发现有一味药在抑制疟疾的标志症状“间歇热”时很有效,那就是青蒿。In the interview, Dr. Tu told New Scientist that she re a particular recipe, written more than 1,600 years ago in a text titled “Emergency Prescriptions Kept Up One’s Sleeve.” The directions were to soak one bunch of wormwood in water and then drink the juice.屠呦呦接受《新科学家》采访时说,她重读了1600多年前的医药典籍《肘后备急方》提到的特殊处方。书中提到将青蒿浸泡在水中,然后喝下青蒿汁。But Dr. Tu said she realized that her method of preparation — boiling the wormwood — probably damaged the active ingredient. So she made another preparation using an ether-based solvent, which boils at 35 degrees Celsius, or 95 degrees Fahrenheit. When tested on mice and monkeys, she said, it proved 100 percent effective.但屠呦呦说,她认识到自己的制取方法——煮青蒿——可能破坏了有效成分。因此,她利用以乙醚为基础的溶剂进行制取,这种溶剂的沸点为35摄氏度或95华氏度。她表示,对小鼠和猴子的试验显示100%有效。After the successful animal tests, Dr. Tu volunteered to be the first human subject, along with two colleagues. Satisfied that she had suffered no ill effects, she conducted clinical trials with patients.动物试验取得成功后,屠呦呦和两名同事自愿成为第一批接受人体试验的人员。药物没有出现副作用,屠呦呦对此感到很满意,开始对病人进行临床试验。“We had just cured drug-resistant malaria,” Dr. Tu told New Scientist. “We were very excited.”“我们治愈了抗药性疟疾,”屠呦呦告诉《新科学家》。“我们非常激动。”Ten years after Mao founded Project 523, her work was published, though anonymously.在毛泽东设立523项目10年之后,屠呦呦的成果得以发表,尽管是以匿名的形式。Western aid agencies did not take advantage of artemisinin for decades, even after its effectiveness was established. Older drugs were cheaper, but resistance to them was growing and some experts said the delay endangered lives.西方援助机构数十年来没有使用青蒿素,即便在其有效性得到确认后也没有使用。老药比较便宜,但对它们的抗药性越来越强,一些专家认为,这种拖延危及生命。The Nobel is not the first recognition for Dr. Tu’s work. In 2011, when she won the 0,000 Lasker Award for clinical medical research, which named her the discoverer of artemisinin, some Chinese and Western malaria experts protested.诺贝尔奖并非屠呦呦的工作得到的第一个认可。2011年,屠呦呦获得拉斯克奖临床医学研究奖(Lasker Award),被授予25万美元奖金以表彰她发现青蒿素,当时一些中国及西方的疟疾专家提出了抗议。Dr. Nicholas J. White, a prominent malaria researcher at Oxford, said that others involved in the research equally deserved the honor. He suggested that the clinical trial leader, Dr. Li Guoqiao, and a chemist, Li Ying, had contributed just as much. A malaria researcher from Hong Kong, Dr. Keith Arnold, agreed.牛津大学著名的疟疾研究员尼古拉斯·J·怀特(Nicholas J. White)士说,其他参与研究的人员同样应该获奖。他表示,临床试验负责人李国桥、化学家李英做出了同样多的贡献。香港的疟疾研究员基思·阿诺德(Keith Arnold)士同意这一观点。But Dr. Tu said in an interview that she had done the decisive work. As the leader of a small team within the large Project 523, she was the first to isolate the active ingredient, and the one who had thought of using ether to extract it rather than the boiling method, she said.但屠呦呦接受采访时说,她做了决定性的工作。她表示,作为规模庞大的523项目中一个小团队的负责人,她最先分离了有效成分,并想到通过乙醚提取青蒿素取代煎煮法。The Lasker citation had noted that the research under Project 523 was collaborative. In 1978, she was singled out to accept an award from the Chinese government to Project 523.拉斯克奖的颁奖辞指出,523项目的研究工作是通过合作完成的。1978年,屠呦呦被选中接受中国政府授予523项目的奖。 /201510/402411

A KFC restaurant in the UK has been forced to issue their first ever ban on youngsters eating without adults inside the restaurant after a spate of fights involving teen gangs.继一连串青少年聚众斗殴事件后,英国一家肯德基店被迫首次禁止青少年在无成人陪同下在店内用餐。The fast food chain announced the restriction just days after a McDonald#39;s restaurant on the same retail park adopted the same policy.在同一销售地区内的一家麦当劳餐厅采取了这一措施几天之后,这家快餐连锁企业很快也宣布了这一限制。Under-18s can only eat inside the restaurant if they are accompanied by an adult. If they are on their own they can only enter the premises to order food for takeaway.在一名成人陪同下,未满18岁者方可进店用餐。如无成人陪伴,未满18岁者只能进店点餐带走。Last week, McDonald#39;s confirmed an identical ban after police were called when 24 youngsters were caught fighting on the nearby A50.上周,因为24个未成年人在附近的A50地区发生了斗殴事件,警察也被叫了过来。这件事之后,麦当劳方面确认了一项相同的禁令。Now, KFC manager Liam Dalgarno said that the way some of these youngsters act can be scary for staff. The ban will help the staff feel safer at work.现在,这家肯德基餐厅的经理利亚姆·达尔加诺表示,一些青少年的行为举止让店内员工提心吊胆。禁令会让值班员工更有安全感。KFC has almost 900 restaurants in the UK, but this is believed to be its first ban on under-18s.肯德基在英国有大约900家分店,但是这家分店被认为是第一家禁止18岁以下青少年的餐厅。 /201603/429815

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