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2019年08月20日 18:51:34 | 作者:搜索助手 | 来源:新华社
But Einstein wants to understand the real world and the real world doesnt work that way.但是爱因斯坦想了解现实世界与非现实世界。Einstein realizes his theory fail for accelerations, but in our universe, everything accelerates,爱因斯坦认识到他的理论在加速度方面的失败,但在我们的世界,万物都在加速,on a bumpy road, jet planes, on a subway car, everything is accelerating.在一个平坦的道路,喷气式飞机,在一个地铁车厢内,万物都是处于加速状态。So there was a defect in Special Relativity.因此狭义相对论出现了缺陷。On Einsteins imaginary journey, if his speed varies at all, his theory, his notion of how objects behave in time and space falls apart.在爱因斯坦虚构的旅行中,如果他的速度不同,在他的理论中,他的概念中的物体在时间中如何表现,空间将会瓦解。His scientific bind wants to apply to all cases.他的科学理念想适用于所有情况。Einstein knows that for his theory to work, it has to account for everything in the universe, and that includes the pervasive and invisible force that holds everything together.爱因斯坦知道其理论如何运作,这已经包含宇宙中所有万物,包括普遍的及无形的力量,认为任何事都在一起。Gravity. Gravity is everywhere.重力。重力无处不在。Gravity holds us to the floor. Gravity holds the sun together, the solar system together.重力让我们站在地板上。重力让太阳在一起,太阳系在一起。Where was gravity in special relativity?狭义相对论的重力又在哪里呢?注:听力文本来源于普特 201203/175709Science and technology.科技。Nanotechnology.纳米技术。A fab result.生物工厂。A novel way of making computer memories, using bacteria.制造计算机存储器的新奇方法:使用细菌。FOR half a century, the essence of progress in the computer industry has been to do more with less. Moores law famously observes that the number of transistors which can be crammed into a given space doubles every 18 months. The amount of data that can be stored has grown at a similar rate. Yet as components get smaller, making them gets harder and more expensive. On May 10th Paul Otellini, the boss of Intel, a big American chipmaker, put the price of a new chip factory (known as a fab) at around billion.半个世纪以来,计算机产业发展的本质就是花钱更少,成事更多。尔定律的著名论断是:能够放入某空间内的晶体管数量每18个月翻一番。。储存的数据也有着类似的增长速率,但是随着部件越来越小,它们的制造难度和成本也逐渐增加。5月10日,美国芯片巨头因特尔总裁兼CEOPaul Otellini宣布将花费上百亿美元建设新工厂。Happily for those that lack Intels resources, there may be a cheaper option-namely to mimic Mother Nature, who has been building tiny devices, in the form of living cells and their components, for billions of years, and has thus got rather good at it. A paper published in Small, a nanotechnology journal, sets out the latest example of the technique. In it, a group of researchers led by Sarah Staniland at the University of Leeds, in Britain, describe using naturally occurring proteins to make arrays of tiny magnets, similar to those employed to store information in disk drives.对于不像因特尔那么有钱的厂家的好消息是,他们或许可以选择更便宜的方式——模拟大自然。对于大自然来说,她建造微小;设备;已经有数十亿年了,所以自然是信手拈来,当然,这些;设备;都是以活细胞和其组份的形式呈现。发表在纳米技术期刊《微小》的一篇论文描述了这一新技术的示例,该技术团队由英国利兹大学的Sarah Staniland领导,他们用自然生成的蛋白质让微型磁性材料进行排列,这与磁盘驱动器上储存信息的磁性材料排序是类似的。The researchers took their inspiration from Magnetospirillum magneticum, a bacterium that is sensitive to the Earths magnetic field thanks to the presence within its cells of flecks of magnetite, a form of iron oxide. Previous work has isolated the protein that makes these miniature compasses. Using genetic engineering, the team managed to persuade a different bacterium-Escherichia coli, a ubiquitous critter that is a workhorse of biotechnology-to manufacture this protein in bulk.研究人员从趋磁细菌上获得了灵感,由于该细菌内部存在磁性颗粒(氧化铁的一种),所以对地球磁场非常敏感。他们先要把制造这种微型;罗盘;的蛋白质分离出来,并采用基因工程技术设法让另一种细菌——大肠杆菌来批量生产这种蛋白质,而大肠杆菌在生物体内普遍存在,是生物工程中的常用;苦力;。Next, they imprinted a block of gold with a microscopic chessboard pattern of chemicals. Half the squares contained anchoring points for the protein. The other half were left untreated as controls. They then dipped the gold into a solution containing the protein, allowing it to bind to the treated squares, and dunked the whole lot into a heated solution of iron salts. After that, they examined the results with an electron microscope. Sure enough, groups of magnetite grains had materialised on the treated squares, shepherded into place by the bacterial protein. In principle, each of these magnetic domains could store the ;one; or the ;zero; of a bit of information, according to how it was polarised.然后他们用化学方法绘制微小的棋盘图案,并把图案的每一块染成金黄色,每块区域的一半用该蛋白质做固定点,另一半不做任何处理作为对照,再把这些金黄色的;棋盘;浸入含蛋白质的溶液中,并允许溶液中的蛋白质与棋盘上的固定蛋白质结合,最后把该;棋盘;全部浸入加热的铁盐溶液中。他们再用电子显微镜观察实验结果,果然,;棋盘;上的固定蛋白质区域产生了成群的磁铁颗粒,并由细菌蛋白质控制在相应位置。基本上每个磁域都能按极化的方式存储一个字节信息的;1;或;0;。Getting from there to a real computer memory would be a long road. For a start, the grains of magnetite are not strong enough magnets to make a useful memory, and the size of each domain (20 microns across) is huge by modern computing standards. But Dr Staniland reckons that, with enough tweaking, both of these objections could be dealt with.但是要制成真正的计算机存储器还有很长的路要走,首先对于可用的存储器来说,那些磁铁颗粒的磁性还不够强大,并且每个区域的尺寸(20微米的跨度)对现在计算机标准来说太大了。但Staniland认为,只要做些足够的调整,那些困难都将不是问题。The advantage of this approach is that it might not be so capital-intensive as building a fab. Growing things does not need as much kit as making them. If the tweaking could be done, therefore, the result might give the word ;biotechnology; a whole new meaning.这种方法的好处就是不用像因特尔那样如此资源密集地去建造新工厂,在制造不断发展的产品时也不需要同样多的设备,所以,如果这种调整可以成功的话,;生物技术;将会有一个全新的定义。201208/194924IT WAS tempting fate to call an ambitious new aircraft the ;Dreamliner;. A combination of radical technology and a novel outsourced system of manufacture has turned the Boeing 787 into a nightmare.把一架充满雄心的新型飞机称为;梦幻客机;,这一举动是种不必要的冒险。高端前沿技术和新型外包制造流程结合在一起,把波音787客机拖入进了梦魇。Since its launch in December 2003, delay has piled on delay. The 787s seal of approval from the American and European aviation authorities on August 26th and its first delivery—to All Nippon Airways in late September—come more than three years behind schedule.从2003年十二月研发开始以来,延期就一再发生。波音787客机在8月26日才通过美国和欧洲航空当局的审批。第一批787客机将在9月下旬才能交付给全日空航空公司,这比预计日期晚了三年多。Nor do the companys woes end there: it now faces the difficult task of ramping up production and delivering 787s to impatient customers. Three dozen part-finished 787s are lying around airfields by Boeings Everett factory north of Seattle, with ten more inside. The original plan was to have delivered over 100 787s by the end of . Instead the company will be lucky to dispatch seven by the end of this year, and it will be late 2013 before production reaches the ten planes a month needed to break into profit.波音公司的灾难还远未结束。当前的难题是如何提高产量并及时把成品787客机交付给早等得不耐烦的客户手上。在位于西雅图的埃弗雷特波音组装厂内,停机坪上爬着三十六架部分完成的787客机,厂房内还停着十多架。原计划在年底交付一百多架787客机,现在看,能在今年年底交付七架,波音就算是走运了。波音想要盈利必须月产十架飞机,而要达到这一产量至少要等到2013年底才行。The delays were caused by suppliers. Vought in America and Alenia in Italy delivered defective chunks of the new composite plastic fuselage. Vought struggled so much that Boeing had to buy it. There were also hitches in the supply of smaller parts such as fasteners. Delays, reworking and compensation to customers all burned cash. Inventory costs at Boeing Commercial Airplanes swelled from about billion in December to more than billion by December 2010.供应商导致了客机交付的延迟。美国的沃特公司和意大利的阿列尼亚公司所提供的新型合成塑料机身部件存有缺陷。沃特公司对此反应激烈,据理力争,最后波音不得不买下了这些部件。就连安全带这样的小配件,在供应上也出过小差池。供件延期,重新制造,客户赔款,件件都要花钱。波音商业飞机的库存费用从年12月约170亿美元增长到了2010年12月的240多亿美元。Bernstein, a research firm, estimates that Boeing will not start making money until it delivers its 45th aircraft, and the overall programme will not earn a profit until 1,000 aircraft have been delivered. Boeing officials suggest that this is too pessimistic. More details should emerge in October, with Boeings third-quarter results.研究机构伯恩斯坦估计:在第45架787客机交付使用后,波音公司才能开始盈利。交付使用一千架787客机后,整个项目计划才有利润可言。波音官员给出的回应是此种预测太过悲观,更多的细节应该会随着10月份波音第三季度财务报告的公布而浮出水面。The Dreamliners delays are especially painful because its launch was Boeings most successful ever. Attracted by the new planes promise of fuel economy—20% better than competitors—customers flocked to order more than 950. The strong plastic fuselage also allows for a nicer cabin with bigger windows and fresher, less pressurised air. The current order book is still 821 after cancellations. But early orders were all booked either at discounted launch prices or at levels set before the planes production costs soared, and Boeing has little hope of putting up the price.;梦幻客机;曾被看成是波音公司有史以来最成功的客机,因此这架客机的种种延迟显得尤为让人痛心。比其它同类客机多省20%的燃油,这一经济耗能的承诺,吸引来众多客户,他们一窝蜂地订购了950多架787客机。得益于坚固的塑料机身,波音787客机拥有更为舒适的客舱,更大的舷窗,过滤出更新鲜的空气,同时机舱内空气压缩的比重会更低。现在787客机的订单刨去已取消的,还有821架。但是,早期订单所定价格无一例外地要么就是研发时期的折扣价,要么就是在客机制造成本飚升前制定的各种价格。而且,波音想要提价的希望,能实现的可能性微乎其微。Hopes were high in 2003 that the Dreamliners revolutionary plastic airframe would make for easier assembly than conventional aluminium ones. This may yet prove to be true, as even Airbus has opted to follow Boeing, switching to plastic in its new aircraft. Privately, Boeing officials admit that an all-new plane, a new technology and a new way of working with manufacturers (which involved risk-sharing), was too much novelty all at once.2003年,人们对;梦幻客机;的期望值很高。这在于其革命性的塑料骨干比传统铝质骨干更容易装配。就连老对手空客也效仿波音,在其新型飞机上采用塑料机身,这也许能明这种在技术上的转变是正确的。私下里,波音官员们承认,一架全新的飞机,一项新型的技术,再加上一种同厂商合作的新型制作模式(合作厂商也要承担风险),一次性叠加上的新型元素实在太多了。The nightmare is having knock-on effects. On August 29th Boeings board approved the launch of an upgraded version of its best-selling 737 single-aisle model, to be called the 737 MAX. This is a sign that Boeing is playing catch-up with Airbus, which has won over 1,200 orders for its re-engined single-aisle A320. Boeing had been hoping to hold off until it could offer an all-new single-aisle aircraft, based on the 787s plastic technology. But in July American Airlines—one of Boeings core customers—decided to give Airbus the lions share of its order (the worlds biggest) to renew its single-aisle fleet. Boeing had to scale back its ambitions. ;We have the technology,; says an insider. ;But the lesson of the 787 is that we could not get the production up to scratch in time.;这场噩梦的连锁效应正在逐渐显现。8月29日,波音董事会批准以旗下最畅销的737单行通道飞机为蓝本,推出其升级版,并命名为737 MAX。这是波音就要追赶空客的信号。空客公司旗下重新改装引擎的A320单行通道飞机赢得了超过1200张订单。波音之前曾希望在787客机所采用的塑料技术应用成熟后,推出一款以此技术为基础的新型单行通道客机。但在今年七月,波音核心客户之一的美国航空公司为了更新其单行通道飞机,决定给空客提供最大份额的订单(也是全世界最大的)。波音不得不面对现实,把自己的雄心壮志压了下来。一位波音公司的内部人士表示:;我们有技术,但787客机的教训在于我们不能及时生产出令人满意的产品。 /201301/222614

Abroad the country image was defined by Bosonova and as international hit, girl from Panama with its promise of an exotic and romantic land populated by beautiful women. 国外的国家形象是由巴萨诺瓦作为国际冲击定义,从巴拿马来的女孩带着异域风情和居住着漂亮女人的浪漫土地的承诺。In Brazil itself, the mood was very very different. 而巴西本身心情则截然不同。On March 31,1964,the military seized power. 1964年3月31日,军队掌权。The man who overthrew president had polarized country by legalizing the communist party and visited Cubas new revolutionary figure, Fidel Castro. 推翻总统的人经由合法化已经将国家极端化并且访问了古巴的新革命人物菲德尔·卡斯特罗。Goodluck delighted the Brazilian left but horrified many middle class Brazilians and the Americans who feared the Brazil might follow the same path as Cuba. 好运离开巴西但是吓坏了许多中产阶级巴西人及美国人,他们担心巴西可能走古巴同样老路。So there was relief in Washington when the soldiers took over arguing they were saving Brazil from Communism. 所以在华盛顿士兵们的救济接管了争论,他们认为正从从这一主义中拯救巴西。Brazil would remain under military rule for the next 21 years. 在接下来的21年巴西仍然将在军事统治之下。注:听力文本来源于普特201301/222969

Science and Technolgy科技Diagnosing dementia痴呆症的诊断Advance warning病情恶化预警How to detect Alzheimers before symptoms appear-if you are a woman作为一名女性,如何在症状出现前诊断阿尔茨海默氏症ALZHEIMERS disease has no cure.阿尔茨海默氏症目前尚无法治愈。There are, however, five drugs-known and approved-that can slow down the development of its symptoms.然而,有五种已知并获批准的药物能减缓其症状的恶化。The earlier such drugs are administered, the better.这些药物越早使用,效果越佳。Unfortunately, the disease is usually first noticed when people complain to their doctors of memory problems.遗憾的是,该疾病一般在病人向医生抱怨自己出了问题时才第一次被察觉。That is normally too late for the drugs to do much good.通常在这种情况下,药物的最佳治疗时机已过。A simple and reliable test for Alzheimers that can be administered to everybody over the age of about 65, before memory-loss sets in, would therefore be useful.因此,只有找到一种能在65岁以上人群衰退前检测该病的简单、可靠的方法,才能真正收到疗效。Theo Luider, of the Erasmus University Medical Centre in Rotterdam, and his colleagues think they have found one-but it works only in women.荷兰鹿特丹伊拉斯姆斯大学医学中心的西奥?路德和同事找到了一种有效的检测方法,但只对女性有效。They made their discovery, just reported in the Journal of Proteome Research, by tapping into a long-term, continuing study that started in 1995 with 1,077 non-demented and otherwise healthy people aged between 60 and 90.该发现刊登在了最新的《蛋白质组学研究杂志》。这是一项始于1995年的长期且仍在持续的研究,共有1077名年龄在60至90岁的精神正常且身体健康的人参与。At the beginning of the project, and subsequently during the periods 1997-99 and 2002-04, participants were brought in for a battery of neurological and cognitive investigations, physical examinations, brain imaging and blood tests.研究初期,以及此后的1997-1999和2002-2004两个时间段内,参与者分别接受了一轮神经和认知系统测试、身体检查、大脑成像和血液检查。During the first ten years of the study, 43 of the volunteers developed Alzheimers disease.研究的第一个10年间,43名志愿者患上了阿尔茨海默氏症。When Dr Luider compared blood samples from these people with samples from 43 of their fellow volunteers, matched for sex and age, who had remained Alzheimers-free, he found something startling.路德医生将这些人的血液样本和另外43名性别、年龄匹配但没有患病的志愿者对比后,有了惊人的发现。Levels of a substance called pregnancy zone protein had been unusually high, even before their symptoms appeared, in some of those who went on to develop Alzheimers disease.某些患上阿尔茨海默氏症的志愿者,其血液中一种名为妊娠带蛋白的物质含量非常高,甚至在症状出现前也是如此。Those ;some;, it turned out, were all women.这些志愿者,最终都被确认为女性。On average, levels of pregnancy zone protein in those women who went on to develop Alzheimers were almost 60% higher than those of women who did not. In men, levels of the protein were the same for both.通常,女性患者体内的妊娠带蛋白含量比健康女性高出60%,男性的这一蛋白水平则没有变化。The reason for this curious result seems to be that the brain plaques associated with Alzheimers disease are themselves turning out pregnancy zone protein.出现这一结果的原因可能是,与阿尔茨海默氏症相关的大脑斑块自身分泌这一蛋白。Certainly, when Dr Luider applied a chemical stain specific to that protein to the plaques of dead Alzheimers patients he found the protein present in them.路德医生将针对该蛋白的特定化学染色剂注入死亡病人的大脑斑块中,从而明了这一蛋白的存在。Confusingly, though, it was there in the plaques of both sexes.然而,令人不解的是,男女病患的大脑斑块中都有这一蛋白。Presumably, female cells (and therefore the plaques of female brains) make more of it than male cells do.据此推测,女性细胞(包括女性大脑中的斑块)比男性细胞分泌更多的妊娠带蛋白。But that remains to be proved.不过,这一理论还有待实。Whatever the reason, however, this result means that women, at least, may soon be able to tell whether and when they are at risk of Alzheimers-and thus do something about it before they start losing their minds.不论是什么原因,这项结果至少意味着女性能更早知晓自己是否有罹患阿尔茨海默氏症的危险,从而在丧失记忆之前尽快加以治疗。 /201210/206692

Staring Eyes and Swiveling Necks瞪大眼睛和旋转脖子Ask any gradeschooler to imitate an owl and youll probably get one of two responses: the giant, staring eyes or that amazingly swivel-prone neck. As it turns out, these two characteristic features are related; they are part of an overall system owls have for catching prey.让任何小学生模仿猫头鹰,他们大概都会有这两种反应:瞪大眼镜,拼命地旋转脖子。事实明,这两种动作是有联系的;都是猫头鹰完整捕猎系统中一部分。To understand the connection, remember that owls are nocturnal birds: they hunt for food at twilight and even in the dark. Food for an owl may be something as large as a rabbit or as small and hard to see as a field mouse. Not only is this kind of meal difficult to spot, it also has a tendency to bolt away quickly at the slightest sound.要弄懂这种联系,须知道猫头鹰是夜行动物。他们在黄昏甚至是黑夜里寻找食物。猫头鹰有时捕食像兔子一样大的猎物,有时捕食如地鼠一般又小又难看见的猎物。这些猎物不仅很难被发现,而且听到一点风吹草动就会迅速消失得无影无踪。The owl overcomes these difficulties by having evolved a visual system that works even at great distances and in low light. This is partly the result of having large eyes that are set on a relatively flat face, thus increasing binocular vision. However, those big eyes dont move much in their sockets, and the owls total visual field is therefore reduced. At any given time, it only sees about one third as much as birds with eyes on either side of their heads.猫头鹰视觉系统不断进化,使它在很远或者很黑的情况下看清物体,这样就克了那些困难。由于猫头鹰面部相对扁平,再嵌上一双大眼睛,这样就增强了双眼视力。然而大眼睛不易在眼窝里转动,因此猫头鹰的整个视野范围受到限制。它的视野只有其它眼睛长在头两边的鸟类的三分之一。That means the only thing to do is to be able to turn those staring eyes in any direction, without the noise that would be caused by actually getting up and moving. And now you can see how the staring eyes and swiveling neck work together: the owls super-flexible spine allows it to remain silent while it scans 180 degrees on either side. Yes indeed -- from a forward-facing position, an owl can look entirely backwards. 这意味着猫头鹰唯一能做的就是,将瞪大的眼睛转向各个方向,并避免因跳上跳下,来回走动而发出声响。现在你明白瞪大的眼镜和旋转的脖子是怎样合作的:猫头鹰的脊梁超级灵活,可以两边180度角地快速侦查环境而不发出任何声响。虽然眼睛长在前方,但猫头鹰确实可以看清后面。201205/182542

Dear Annie:亲爱的安妮:I live with my boyfriend, Mike, in a very small apartment. Last month, his mother and 14-year-old sister moved in. They had nowhere else to go.我和我的男友迈克住在一个非常小的公寓里。上个月,他的母亲和他14岁的搬了进去。她们无处可去。His mom has no money and nothing to contribute except for some food stamps, which keep the pantries slightly stocked. When we buy food, we have to buy enough for four.迈克的妈妈除了一些食品券之外一无所有。这些食品券把食品室都塞满了。如今,我们买饭要买四个人的。We have no idea when she will be able to move out. Our electric bill has doubled and we are paying a lot more for water. Mike and I are having trouble making ends meet, and I dont sense much effort on his mothers part to find work. She is only looking for a specific type of job.我们不知道她什么时候搬走。我们的电费增加了一倍,水费也涨了很多。我和迈克入不敷出了。我感到他的母亲并没有努力寻找工作。她只是在寻找她想要的工作。This is taking a toll on our relationship. How do we tell her to just take any job she can get and move out? - Squished这令我们的关系紧张起来。你能告诉我们,怎样让她对工作不再挑拣然后搬出我们的公寓吗?;;;一个为生活所迫的人;Dear Squished:You cant tell her anything. Mike has to do it. Mike needs to give Mom a deadline for getting a job (perhaps three months), making it clear that if she cannot find one in her particular field by then, she must take whatever allows her to pay rent. She should not be freeloading. However, Mike may be unwilling to stick with such an ultimatum, so consider moving out until this resolves itself.亲爱的;为生活所迫的人;:你不能对她说些什么,但迈克可以跟她说。迈克需要给他妈妈制定一个期限(比如3个月),在这期间她必须找到工作。和她说清楚,如果她最后无法找到她想要的工作,她就必须接受任何可撑她房租的的工作。她不应依赖别人。但是,迈克可能不愿意对他的妈妈发出最后通牒,所以让她搬出去这事还是顺其自然吧。201203/173236

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