明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年10月22日 23:14:11
The possibility that robots may one day take all the jobs and put the human race out of work is an idea that has taken a strong hold on the public imagination of late. Not since the 1960s has the prospect of machines replacing people inspired such awe and angst.也许有一天,机器人会抢走所有的工作,让所有人类失业,这是近来公众的想象中挥之不去的一个念头。自20世纪60年代以来,机器代替人类的前景还从未引发眼下这种程度的畏惧和焦虑。Left out of this picture, however, is a bigger narrative about how the onrush of robot technology could change humanity’s future. Automation — for which, sophisticated software routines informed by advanced algorithms — is aly creeping into many walks of life far beyond the workplace, steering our decisions and promising to take the effort out of everyday tasks.然而,被排除在这种想象之外的,是关于机器人科技的汹涌来袭可能如何改变人类未来的更大议题。自动化,也就是用先进的算法设计的复杂软件程序组,已经悄然进入各行各业,出没的地方远不止工作场所。自动化不仅引导着我们的决策,更许诺让日常工作变得简单轻松。What is to stop automation from ultimately assuming all of mankind’s mental and physical efforts? And when the machines do all the heavy lifting — whether in the form of robots commanding the physical world or artificial intelligence systems that relieve us of the need to think — who is the master and who the slave?有什么能阻止自动化最终承担人类所有的脑力和体力劳动?不管是在实体世界发号施令的机器人,还是让我们无需进行思考的人工智能系统,当机器挑起了一切重担,谁是主人,谁是奴仆?Despite the antagonism he sometimes stirs in the tech world (an influential article of his published by the Harvard Business Review in 2003 was called, provocatively, “IT Doesn’t Matter”) author Nicholas Carr is not a technophobe. But in The Glass Cage he brings a much-needed humanistic perspective to the wider issues of automation. In an age of technological marvels, it is easy to forget the human.尽管作者尼古拉斯#8226;卡尔(Nicholas Carr)有时会在科技界招来敌意(2003年他在《哈佛商业》(Harvard Business Review)上发表的一篇影响力巨大的文章标题富有煽动性,叫做《IT无关紧要》(“IT Doesn’t Matter”)),他本人并不是一个恐惧技术的人。但在《身处自动化的玻璃牢笼》(The Glass Cage)一书中,他为理解更广泛的自动化问题提供了一个我们迫切需要的人文主义视角。在技术大放异的年代,人类很容易遭到遗忘。Carr’s argument here is that, by automating tasks to save effort, we are making life easier for ourselves at the cost of replacing our experience of the world with something inferior. “Frictionless” is the new mantra of tech companies out to simplify life as much as possible. But the way Carr sees it, much of what makes us most fulfilled comes from taking on the friction of the world through focused concentration and effort. What would happen, in short, if we were “defined by what we want”?卡尔的论点是,通过将工作任务自动化以节省精力,我们让生活变得更轻松,代价则是用一种次级的体验取代了我们对世界的真实体验。“无擦”是试图最大程度简化生活的技术公司的新口号。但在卡尔看来,让我们感到充实的东西大多来自于全神贯注、努力应对世界中的“擦”的过程。简而言之,如果我们“用我们想要的东西定义自身”,那会怎样?Mankind’s mastery of the environment owes much to the use of tools that extend our limited physical and intellectual powers, as Carr ily admits. What’s different now, though, is both the pace of change — it’s hard to adjust when so much can alter in the course of a human lifetime — and the nature of the technology itself.卡尔坦然承认,人类对自然环境的掌控大多归功于对工具的使用,工具扩展了我们有限的体力和智力。然而,现在与以前的差异不仅在于变化的速度(在人一辈子的时间里就能发生如此巨大的改变,让人很难适应),还有技术本身的性质。At the risk of simplifying, Carr’s assertion is that there are two types of technology, which might loosely be described as the humanist and the anti-humanist. The former sets its makers free. Tools such as hammers or cars fall into this category: they extend the user’s capabilities.卡尔提出,存在两种技术,分别可大致称为人本型技术和反人本型技术(这样划分或许有过分简化之嫌)。前者旨在解放人类。锤子、汽车之类的工具就属于这个范畴:它们扩展了使用者的能力。Anti-humanist technology, on the other hand, sidelines its creator. Its sole purpose is to replace human effort, not enhance it. If humans are ever brought into the equation to interact with this technology — for instance, when pilots have to override automatic flight systems in an emergency — the results are often dismal: deskilled by the machines and forced into machine-like modes of behaviour to operate in the machine’s world, the people seldom excel. The inevitable result is a call for more automation to take fallible humans out of the picture entirely. Removing the need for sustained physical and intellectual effort causes a degeneration in people’s capabilities, argues Carr. His description of research into these areas is exhaustive, to the point where some chapters of this book like a glossary of academic work in the field. But it helps him build a persuasive argument.相反,反人本技术则会使人类边缘化。其唯一的目的是替代掉人的努力,而不是提高人努力的效率。如果让人类参与进来,与这种技术相互作用(比如,飞行员在紧急情况下被迫停止自动驾驶系统的时候),结果往往令人沮丧:机器使人变得低能,为了适应机器世界里的工作,人被迫在行为方式上向机器靠拢,因此在这种情况下很少得心应手。不可避免的结果是,进一步提高自动化程度、让容易犯错的人类彻底出局,成为人们的呼声。卡尔认为,消除对持续体力和脑力劳动的需要,导致人类能力退化。他对这些领域的研究描述得非常详尽,以至于书中的有些章节读起来就像是该领域学术成果的汇编。但详细的成果汇编也有助于提高作者论述的说力。In some instances, the effects of using technology to disintermediate the world sound minor. It’s hard to feel much sympathy for Carr’s complaint that automatic transmission systems in cars, for instance, have robbed him of the pleasure of driving. But others are more persuasive. As machines take on an increasing number of everyday tasks, they will inevitably have to make decisions with moral consequences, weighing courses of action that have different impacts on the people affected. And that is before even thinking about battlefield robots that are programmed to kill.在某些情况下,技术对于阻隔我们对世界的直接感知所起到的作用似乎微不足道。比如,对于卡尔抱怨汽车自动变速系统夺走了驾驶的乐趣,我们很难感到特别认同。但在其他一些情况下,他的说法更有说力。随着机器承担的日常工作越来越多,它们将不可避免地被迫做出有道德后果的抉择,权衡对相应人群影响不一的行动。我们甚至还没有开始考虑任务设定为杀戮的战场机器人。If there’s a criticism to be made of Carr’s attempt to save mankind from its own technology, it’s that he underplays the very substantial benefits. Driverless cars would go a long way towards eradicating the millions of deaths and injuries that are almost entirely caused by human error. Also, through advances in productivity, automation is a significant contributor to economic betterment.对于卡尔试图从人类自己开发的技术手中挽救人类的举动,如果要进行批评的话,那就是他淡化了技术带来的巨大好处。交通事故几乎完全是由人类的错误导致的,无人驾驶汽车在这方面大有助益,能使数百万人免于伤亡。自动化还能提高生产效率,从而极大地促进经济状况的改善。Nor does he make allowances for the new types of work thrown up by making older forms of human endeavour redundant, or the possibility that mankind might find more rewarding outlets for its energy and creativity if the need to work was largely removed.他也没有考虑到,自动化虽然使一些旧式的人类劳动变得多余,但也同时创新了新型的工作;此外,在基本不需要工作之后,人类或许有可能找到更有价值的发挥精力和创造力的方式。Surprisingly, however, Carr manages to find a positive note to end on. He considers, but largely rejects, the possibility that a more human-centric form of design will emerge to put people back at the centre of their own technological creations.然而,令人惊讶的是,卡尔设法以一种乐观的方式进行了收尾。他考虑了一种可能性,那就是会出现一种更以人为中心的设计形式,使人重新回到技术创新的中心,但他大体上驳倒了这个可能性。The economic forces leading towards replacing people completely with software are simply too strong.用软件彻底取代人工的经济推动力实在过于强大。Likewise, he holds out little hope that people will voluntarily turn their backs on the latest technology in favour of less sophisticated tools that demand more of them, but which are ultimately far more rewarding to use. The lure of labour-saving is too great.同样的,对于人类自愿抛弃最新的技术,转而使用更需要人力、复杂程度较低、而且最终将更有益于使用者的工具,他也不抱多少希望。省力的诱惑太大了。The hope arises, instead, from a belief that the social strains from the present wave of technological advance will force a reaction. Just four pages from the end, after contemplating the dire consequences of putting all the world’s workers out of work, he ventures: “To ensure society’s wellbeing in the future, we may need to place limits on automation.” Ideas of progress may have to change, he adds: today’s blinkered celebration of all forms of progress would need to be replaced by a more sophisticated approach that takes into account the social and personal consequences.相反,我们只能寄望于这样一种信念,即当前的技术进步浪潮引发的社会压力会迫使人们做出反应。在考虑了让全世界劳动者失业的种种可怕后果之后,作者在离全书结尾仅剩4页时大胆提出:“要确保未来社会的健康,我们或许需要对自动化加以限制。”进步的概念或许也需要改变,他补充道:我们应该用一种更成熟的态度看待技术进步,将社会和个人影响纳入考虑,而不是像现今这样对任何形式的技术进步都盲目加以赞扬。How to achieve a more balanced view of progress when all of today’s incentives are geared towards an ever-faster cycle of invention and deployment of new technologies? There is no room for an answer in this wide-ranging book. As ever, though, Carr’s skill is in setting the debate running, not finding answers.眼下,所有的激励措施都在推动新技术的发明和应用周期加快,如何在这种情况下实现更全面地看待技术进步?这本书谈到了太多问题,限于篇幅,无法为这一个问题找到。不过,卡尔的长项一直都是挑起辩论,而不是找到。The Glass Cage: Where Automation Is Taking Us, by Nicholas Carr, Bodley Head RRP#163;20/WWNorton RRP.95, 288 pages《身处自动化的玻璃牢笼》(The Glass Cage: Where Automation Is Taking Us),尼古拉斯#8226;卡尔(Nicholas Carr)著,288页,建议零售价20英镑(Bodley Head出版社)或26.95美元(WWNorton出版社) /201503/363301The number of jobs lost to more efficient machines is only part of the problem...In the past, new industries hired far more people than those they put out of business. But this is not true of many of today’s new industries.”“更高效机器造成的工作流失数量只是问题的一部分……过去,新行业聘用的员工数量远远超过这些行业砸掉的饭碗。但如今很多新行业却并非如此。”This sentiment, from Time magazine, dates from the early weeks of John Kennedy’s presidency. Yet it would slot nicely into many a contemporary political speech. Like any self-respecting remorseless killer robot from the future, our techno-anxiety just keeps coming back.来自《时代周刊》杂志(Time)的这种观点可回溯到约翰肯尼迪(John Kennedy)担任总统最初几周。然而,把它放进当今许多政治演讲中也丝毫不会显得突兀。与所有来自未来的那些有自尊心、冷酷无情的杀人机器人一样,我们对科技的担忧也隔一段时间就又回来。Arnold Schwarzenegger’s Terminator was science fiction — but so, too, is the idea that robots and software algorithms are guzzling jobs faster than they can be created. There is an astonishing mismatch between our fear of automation and the reality so far.阿诺德施瓦辛格(Arnold Schwarzenegger)主演的《终结者》(Terminator)是科幻电影,而这种看法也是科幻、而非现实:机器人和软件算法葬送就业的速度快于创造就业的速度。我们对于自动化的担忧与目前的现实出现了惊人的不符。How can this be? The highways of Silicon Valley are sprinkled with self-driving cars. Visit the cinema, the supermarket or the bank and the most prominent staff you will see are the security guards, who are presumably there to prevent you stealing valuable machines. Your computer once contented itself with correcting your spelling; now it will translate your prose into Mandarin. Given all this, surely the robots must have stolen a job or two by now?怎么会这样?硅谷的高速公路上行驶着不少无人驾驶汽车。去影院、超市或者的时候,你看到的最显眼的员工将是保安,他们存在的原因大概是为了防止你偷窃价值高昂的机器。你的电脑曾经满足于纠正你的拼写;如今电脑会把你写的文章翻译成普通话。鉴于这一切,这些机器人现在肯定已经窃取了一两份工作了吧?Of course, the answer is that automation has been destroying particular jobs in particular industries for a long time, which is why most westerners who weave clothes or cultivate and harvest crops by hand do so for fun. In the past that process made us richer.当然,是长期以来,自动化一直在摧毁某些特定行业的某些特定工作,这就是为什么如今多数西方人亲手织布或种植和收割农作物是为了好玩。过去,做这些能为我们带来收入。The worry now is that, with computers making jobs redundant faster than we can generate new ones, the result is widesp unemployment, leaving a privileged class of robot-owning rentiers and highly paid workers with robot-compatible skills.现在人们担心,考虑到电脑葬送就业的速度快于我们创造新就业的速度,会出现大规模失业,造就一个由拥有机器人的食利者以及拥有兼容机器人技能的高薪员工组成的特权阶级。This idea is superficially plausible: we are surrounded by cheap, powerful computers; many people have lost their jobs in the past decade; and inequality has risen in the past 30 years.表面上看来,这种观点是合理的:我们被廉价且强大的电脑包围;过去10年,很多人失业;过去30年,不平等程度一直上升。But the theory can be put to a very simple test: how fast is productivity growing? The usual measure of productivity is output per hour worked — by a human. Robots can produce economic output without any hours of human labour at all, so a sudden onslaught of robot workers should cause a sudden acceleration in productivity.但我们可以用一个非常简单的测试来检验这一理论:生产率增速有多快?衡量生产率的通常标准是一个人类的每小时产出。机器人可以在丝毫不增加人类劳动时间的情况下创造经济产出,因此机器人劳动者的大量侵袭应会带来生产率增长的突然提速。Instead, productivity has been disappointing. In the US, labour productivity growth averaged an impressive 2.8 per cent per year from 1948 to 1973. The result was mass affluence rather than mass joblessness. Productivity then slumped for a generation and perked up in the late 1990s but has now sagged again. The picture is little better in the UK, where labour productivity is notoriously low compared with the other G7 leading economies, and it has been falling further behind since 2007.然而,事实上生产率一直令人失望。在美国,1948年至1973年,劳动生产率增速平均为每年2.8%,这很了不起。结果是大规模富裕,而非大规模失业。接着,生产率下滑了一代人时间,在上世纪90年代末回升,如今又再次陷入低迷。英国的情况也没有好到哪里去,众所周知,英国的劳动生产率低于七国集团(G7)其他成员国,自2007年以来双方差距还一直在拉大。Taking a 40-year perspective, the impact of this long productivity malaise on typical workers in rich countries is greater than that of the rise in inequality, or of the financial crisis of 2008. In an age peppered with economic disappointments, the worst has been the stubborn failure of the robots to take our jobs. Then why is so much commentary dedicated to the opposite view? Some of this is a simple error: it has been a tough decade, economically speaking, and it is easy to blame robots for woes that should be laid at the door of others, such as bankers, austerity enthusiasts and eurozone politicians.以40年的时间段来看,富国普通劳动者生产率长期低迷的影响要超过不平等程度上升或者2008年的金融危机。在经济领域诸多事情令人失望之际,最令人失望的事情就是机器人一直未能夺走我们的工作。那么,为何有如此多言论致力于论述相反的观点?部分原因在于一个简单的错误:从经济的角度来看,过去这十年是艰难的十年,我们很容易将本应怪罪于其他人(比如业人士、极力主张紧缩的人士以及欧元区政治界人士)的困境归咎于机器人。It is also true that robotics is making impressive strides. Gill Pratt, a robotics expert, recently described a “Cambrian explosion” for robotics in the Journal of Economic Perspectives. While robots have done little to cause mass unemployment in the recent past, that may change in future.机器人产业正取得不俗进展,这也是事实。机器人专家吉尔渠拉特(Gill Pratt)最近在《经济展望期刊》(Journal of Economic Perspectives)中写道机器人科学出现“寒武纪大爆发”。尽管最近机器人几乎没有造成大规模失业,但未来这点可能会发生变化。Automation has also undoubtedly changed the shape of the job market — economist David Autor, writing in the same journal, documents a rise in demand for low-skilled jobs and highly skilled jobs, and a hollowing out of jobs in the middle. There are signs that the hollow is moving further and further up the spectrum of skills. The robots may not be taking our jobs, but they are certainly shuffling them around.此外,自动化无疑改变了就业市场的状况,经济学家戴维攠塙尔(David Autor)在同一份期刊中记录了低技能和高技能工作需求的上升以及中等技能岗位的流失。有迹象表明,岗位流失现象正愈发向更高技能的岗位蔓延。机器人或许没有夺走我们的工作,但它们肯定正对我们的工作重新洗牌。Yet Mr Autor also points to striking statistic: private investment in computers and software in the US has been falling almost continuously for 15 years. That is hard to square with the story of a robotic job-ocalypse. Surely we should expect to see a surge in IT investment as all those machines are installed?然而,奥托尔还指出惊人的数据:美国电脑和软件领域的私人投资已几乎持续地下滑了15年。如果说机器人会带来就业末日的话,这很难说得通。既然那么多机器已经就位,我们肯定会预计IT投资会飙升,不是吗?Instead, in the wake of the great recession, managers have noted an ample supply of cheap human labour and have done without the machines for now. Perhaps there is some vast underground dormitory somewhere, all steel and sparks and dormant androids. In a corner, a chromium-plated robo-hack is tapping away at a column lamenting the fact that the humans have taken all the robots’ jobs.然而,在大萧条之后,管理者注意到廉价人类劳动力供应充足,一直满足于暂时不使用机器人。或许,在地下某个地方有一个巨大的宿舍,里面都是闪着金属光泽、处于休眠状态的钢铁机器人。在一个角落里,一个镀铬的机器人雇工正在敲打键盘撰写一篇专栏,哀叹人类已夺走所有机器人的工作。 /201508/395824

The ;Made in Germany; brand is alive and well at BMW, which recorded another sales volume record in the third quarter. But concerns about China#39;s economy dominate and the uncertainty could prompt a weakening outlook.就宝马(BMW)的情况而言,“德国制造”这块招牌依然具有很强的号召力。今年第三季度,该公司销量再次创下纪录。但是,目前人们普遍对中国经济感到担心,这种不确定性可能会使该公司的前景受到影响。The Munich-based premium carmaker said operating profit rose 4.3 per cent from a year ago to ㈠.35bn in the third quarter, ahead of forecasts at ㈠.16bn这家总部位于慕尼黑的豪车制造商表示,今年第三季度的营业利润同比增长4.3%,至23.5亿欧元,高于21.6亿欧元的预测值。Revenues accelerated 14 per cent to ㈠2.35bn, matching estimates. Profit before tax rose ;significantly;, up 12.8 per cent to ㈠.26bn.营业收入增长14%,至223.5亿欧元,符合预期。税前利润“大幅”增长12.8%,至22.6亿欧元。The company cited particular growth in the US and Europe, saying that the latter is ;becoming increasingly capable of compensating for the slower growth rate in China.; It forecasts the world#39;s automobile market to grow by a total of 2.1 per cent in 2015.宝马提到,公司在美国和欧洲的增长尤为迅猛,称欧洲市场“正变得愈发能够抵消中国增速放缓的影响。”宝马预计,2015年全球汽车市场的总体增长率将为2.1%。BMW said ;turbulence on China#39;s stock markets was a source of much concern; as the country#39;s stock market lost trillions of dollars worth of equity value from mid-June, giving rise to worries about growth in the world#39;s second largest economy. ;There is growing uncertainty as to how China#39;s economy will perform in the future. If Chinese market conditions become more challenging, we cannot rule out a possible effect on our outlook,; the company said.宝马表示:“中国股市的动荡引发很大担忧。”自6月中旬以来,中国股市市值蒸发了数万亿美元,令人愈发担心世界第二大经济体的增长。“至于中国经济未来表现得怎样,这个问题的不确定性越来越大。如果中国市场环境变得更具挑战性,我们不能排除公司的前景可能会受到影响,”宝马称。In the first nine months of the year, sales grew by 7.5 per cent, led by a double-digit gain in Europe, which accounts for 45 per cent of sales, and an 8.6 per cent rise in Asia ex-China, which takes a 13 per cent share. Sales in China, which account for more than a fifth of global sales, rose only 2 per cent (see graphic below).今年前三个季度,宝马销量增加了7.5%,欧洲市场增幅最大,为两位数。欧洲市场占宝马总销量的45%。在除中国之外的亚洲市场,宝马销量增加了8.6%,这块市场的占比为13%。而在销量占比逾五分之一的中国市场,宝马销量增幅仅为2%(参见下图)。 /201511/407816

Motorola is planning a return to the Chinese smartphone market to take on local manufacturers such as Xiaomi and Huawei, as the venerable mobile maker’s recovery gains momentum.随着托罗拉(Motorola)复苏脚步加快,它计划重返中国智能手机市场,与小米(Xiaomi)和华为(Huawei)等本土制造商展开竞争。Putting its Moto X and G devices on sale in the country in the first quarter of this year, Motorola is aiming for younger and more affluent customers in the world’s largest and most competitive mobile market.托罗拉的Moto X和Moto G手机系列将在今年第一季度在中国市场发售,两款机型都面向这个全球最大、竞争最激烈的手机市场中,较年轻和较富有的消费者。While under Google’s ownership, Motorola withdrew from China in 2013. Rick Osterloh, Motorola’s president and chief operating officer, told the FT on Tuesday that the company sees a new opportunity there after its sale to Chinese electronics group Lenovo, which closed in October.2013年,在被谷歌(Google)收购后,托罗拉退出中国市场。托罗拉总裁兼首席运营官里克#8226;奥斯特罗(Rick Osterloh)周二告诉英国《金融时报》,在托罗拉移动业务被中国电子设备集团联想(Lenovo)收购(去年10月交易完成)后,该公司看到了新的机会。“If you want to be amongst the top [smartphone] providers, you have to be in China. It’s a maths problem,” he said. “We see this as a huge synergy as part of the Lenovo acquisition.”“如果你希望成为领先的(智能手机)供应商,那么你必须来到中国。”他表示,“我们把这视为联想收购所带来的巨大协同效应。”Describing the changes required to provide extensive customisation as a “restart” for the business and its supply chain, he said: “It would be exceptionally hard for someone at massive scale to do this. It was a unique capability that was made possible quite frankly because we were so small.”奥斯特罗表示,托罗拉在中国“重启”业务及供应链,将为中国市场提供广泛定制化的产品和务。他表示:“这样做对于一家大规模企业尤为困难。非常坦率的说,我们具有这项独特的能力,因为我们在中国的规模很小。”Customers’ ability to personalise their devices with different colours, finishes and specifications is central to Motorola’s renewed pitch in China, where Xiaomi’s low-cost, well-designed devices have seen the four-year-old company steal huge share from Samsung in the last year. Last month, Xiaomi closed a bn round of funding to further its expansion.允许手机用户用不同的颜色、修饰品和产品规格实现设备的个性化,是托罗拉重新进军中国的关键。在中国,小米的低成本且设计良好的手机产品,去年让这家仅有4年历史的公司从三星(Samsung)手中夺取了巨大市场份额。上月,小米完成一轮10亿美元的融资,以推动进一步扩张。Mr Osterloh said Motorola saw an opportunity in Samsung’s sudden weakness, suggesting that the world’s largest mobile maker might even go the way of Nokia and BlackBerry.奥斯特罗表示,托罗拉在三星突然疲弱之际发现了机会。他暗示,三星这家全球最大手机制造商甚至可能会走上诺基亚(Nokia)和黑莓(BlackBerry)的老路。The combined market share of Lenovo and Motorola today puts it in third place in the smartphone market, behind Apple and Samsung.联想与托罗拉的合计市场份额目前在智能手机市场排名第三,仅次于苹果(Apple)和三星。Retooling its Android-based phones for Chinese consumers will mean replacing Google internet services, such as search and email, with “locally appropriate” alternatives.托罗拉将向中国消费者推出定制化的基于安卓(Android)操作系统的智能手机,这意味着这些手机将无法提供谷歌的搜索和电邮等互联网务,转而采用更“适用于本土”的务。 /201501/352918

  Ma Jun, a former journalist who has become one of China’s most prominent environmentalists, was recently honored with a Skoll Award for Social Entrepreneurship for the work of his nongovernmental organization, the Institute of Public and Environmental Affairs, in increasing awareness about sources of pollution in China.In an interview, he described recent changes in the public’s concerns about the environment, his efforts to increase transparency about the sources of pollution and his organization’s launch of a new version of a mobile phone application that allows users to track the state of air and water degradation and learn how to make more environmentally sound decisions when they shop. Excerpts follow:作为中国最为杰出的环保主义人士之一,曾作过记者的马军所创办的非政府组织公众与环境研究中心(Institute of Public and Environmental Affairs)增强了中国公众对污染源的意识。近日,他因此获颁“斯科尔社会企业家奖”(Skoll Award for Social Entrepreneurship)。在接受采访时,马军谈到了公众近年在环境关注方面的转变,自己在提高污染源透明度方面的努力,以及公众与环境研究中心所推出的新版移动应用,它能够帮助用户追踪各省空气和水质恶化的情况,并且学习在购物时如何才能做到更加环保。 采访节选如下:Q. How did you come up with the idea for this app?问:制作这个应用的想法是怎么来的?A. It was 2013. At that time, after we released the pollution map on the PC platform, we were able to motivate more than 1,700 companies to change their behavior. But there were many more and obviously we needed to scale up our work.答:那是2013年的事。当时我们在PC平台上推出了污染地图后,成功地动员了超过1700家污染企业改变他们的排污行为。但是还有更多这样的企业,很明显,我们需要扩大工作规模。We needed more people to join this effort and we needed a higher level of transparency. So we decided to launch a transparency initiative with 25 organizations and N.G.O.s calling for a total release of monitoring data.我们需要更多人一起共同努力,需要更高的透明度。所以我们决定同25家组织和NGO一起发起一场透明度倡议,呼吁发布整体监测数据。Our first request was for online monitoring data. For more than 10 years this kind of data could only be accessed by environmental agencies, not by the public. To our surprise, the Ministry of Environmental Protection came up with a bylaw to require real-time disclosure.我们首先要求的是在线监测数据。在过去十多年里,只有环保部门才能获取这类数据,公众是无法获得的。不过让我们惊讶的是,国家环保部发布了一项规定,要求对数据进行实时披露。Starting in 2004, more than 20 provinces created platforms to carry real-time monitoring data on China’s largest industries.2004年开始,20多个省搭建了平台,公布对中国最大几个行业的实时监测数据。Toward the end of 2013 we started preparing this app. The real-time disclosure created a need and also made it possible to sustain such a product.到2013年底,我们开始筹备这款应用。数据的实时披露创造了一种需求,同时也使它能撑得起这样一个产品。The mobile Internet is so popular. We believe it can help people to access the data and, more than that, tap into social media. So people can not only access monitoring data but also share it.移动互联网非常受欢迎。我们相信它不仅能够帮助人们获取监测数据,还能让人们通过利用社交媒体分享数据。Q. How does the app work?问:它是怎么用的呢?A. The 1.0 version was launched on June 9, 2013. It provided people access to air quality data in 190 cities, plus monitoring data for major air pollution emitters. Air quality data is something that people really need in China. Many cities can’t meet healthy air quality standards, and people check air quality data like they check weather forecasts.答:我们在2013年6月9号推出了应用的1.0 版本。它向人们提供190座城市的空气质量数据,以及主要空气污染源的监测数据。空气质量数据是中国人特别需要的东西。很多城市无法达到健康的空气质量标准,人们像查看天气预报一样频繁地查看空气质量数据。Then we added monitoring data. There are many people who don’t just want to know which day the air is bad and when they need to keep their children indoors, they want to solve this problem. This app gives them chance to join the fight against pollution.之后我们增加了监测数据。很多人不只是想知道哪一天空气糟糕,什么时候孩子不宜出门,他们想要解决这个问题。这款应用提供机会让他们一起加入对抗污染行列。They can share monitoring data on Weibo and let more people understand the pollution problem and the violation record of those major emitters.人们可以通过微来分享监测数据,让更多的人了解污染问题和主要污染源的违法记录。Through this more than 400 emitters have openly addressed their emissions records. Sometimes they claim something is wrong with the data. Many more explain what went wrong and how they solved the problem. Some provide detailed correction plans. In Shandong Province, government agencies gave them deadlines to fix the problem. We created a countdown clock attached to each factory, so when users click it they can see the corrective action plan with the countdown clock.超过400家污染企业对他们的污染记录做出了公开回应。有些时候,污染企业声称数据有误。更多的时候则是对污染问题和他们的解决方案进行解释。有些企业则提供了详细的整改方案。在山东省,政府机构要求企业限期整顿污染问题。我们在应用上给每一家工厂设置了倒计时,这样用户点开应用就能看到整改行动计划和倒计时。If they comply with the standards, the company turns blue, otherwise it’s shown in red. It’s quite visual and the whole process is under public scrutiny.如果企业遵守标准,那么它们在应用上就会显示为蓝色,否则就为红色。这是相当形象的,整个过程都受到了公众的监督。The 1.0 version only addresses air quality, but the new version, which is being officially launched on the 28th [of April], will help people access water quality data for rivers and lakes in different parts of China and monitoring data for major sewage plants, paper mills, dye houses and chemical factories.新版本的应用将于4月28号正式推出。和只提供空气质量数据的1.0版本不同, 新版本的应用将会帮助人们获取中国各地的河流湖泊的水质数据,以及主要污水处理厂、造纸厂、印染厂和化工厂的监测数据。Q. How many downloads have you had?问:已经有多少下载量?A. Including tests of the 2.0 version, so far more than three million.答:包括2.0测试版本,目前已有超过300万次下载。There has been such interaction between ordinary people and environmental agencies. I haven’t seen anything quite like this before.普通民众和环境部门之间的互动非常活跃,这是我以前从未见过的。Q. What has the official response been? Sometimes from the government you see both sides. They want public involvement, but they’re also wary.问:官方的反应怎么样?有时政府表现出两面性,他们想要公众参与,但又很警惕。A. I would say that’s definitely true with our app. The most proactive players are Shandong and Zhejiang provinces and a few others. There are also many local environmental agencies that have concerns and complaints. It caught some unprepared, when you suddenly get so many reports against some of the largest companies in a region.对我们的应用而言,真的是这样。最积极的参与者在山东、浙江以及其他几个省份。也有许多地方的环境部门有担心和抱怨。有的地方觉得猝不及防,突然收到那么多针对当地大公司的举报。Sometimes they have gaps in their capacity, human resources and budget. And sometimes they have restrictions. The local officials, their superiors, interfere with enforcement. They get stuck in the middle.他们有时在能力、人力资源和财政方面有困难。有时还遇到限制。地方官员,他们的上级,还会强制干预,这让他们左右为难。We need to communicate with those local agencies to try to help them deal with this, to work out plans to handle this new situation.我们需要和那些地方上的政府部门沟通,帮助他们想出处理这种新情况的办法。There are proactive ones. In Shandong, the head of the provincial Environmental Protection bureau invited us there. That’s a province with 100 million people burning 400 million tons of coal a year, probably half the total U.S. consumption. It’s quite energy intensive.有的很积极。在山东,省环保局的领导向我们发出了邀请。这个有着一亿人口的能源消耗大省,每年燃烧四亿吨煤,几乎相当于全美国一半的消耗量。I thought we were going to be under pressure, but actually he said, “This is exactly what we want. I’ve been told to solve this smog problem. We try hard but we can’t do it single-handedly. We need the public. The app will help. We just want make sure people don’t misinterpret the fact we have more red dots.”我当时以为是要向我们施压,但是那位领导说,“这就是我们想要的。我受命要解决这个雾霾问题。我们很努力,但是仅靠我们是不行的。我们需要公众。这款应用会起作用。我们只是想确保不要被人误解,为什么我们的红点特别多。”We help them explain [to citizens] it’s better to have an environmental agency give more comprehensive data.我们帮他们(对公众)解释,环境部门提供更详实的数据是件好事。Last year there was a statement by the premier [Li Keqiang] about going to war against pollution. Actions followed to really make it happen. In my view this decision to make online monitoring data transparent, this is a sign of China’s political will to fight pollution. I said that in the Skoll Award ceremony, and it got a standing ovation. It’s clear that if you give data to people you empower them. It’s no longer possible to continue to cover up or give continued protection to major polluters.去年[李克强]总理做出了向污染宣战的声明。随后有切实的行动。在我看来,这项让在线监督数据更透明的决定,表明中国是愿意打击污染的。我在斯科尔颁奖典礼上这么说了,观众都起立鼓掌。很明显如果你把数据公布给民众,就不会有遮掩或者是继续保护主要污染者的事了。In China the biggest barrier is not technology or money. It’s lack of motivation. Enforcement remains weak. In the West, people go to court. In China that judicial protection is not yet y. We need to find alternative ways. In my view public participation is one of the few options.在中国最大的障碍不是技术或者钱,而是缺乏动力。环境执法部门依然弱势。在西方可以上法庭。而在中国,司法保护还没准备好。我们需要找到更多方式。在我看来公众参与就是其中之一。If people can check on their cellphone who is in violation, those who gave protection [to polluters] can be held accountable.如果人们能在手机上找到谁在违法,那些给予(污染者)保护的人就能受到问责。Q. Do you think public attitudes about pollution are changing?问:你认为公众对污染的态度在改变吗?A. Over all in China there is so much more recognition. I basically think this is a clear sign for the central government. There is political will to try to solve the problem. They understand this matter is a public health issue, a resource issue, a social stability issue and, last but not least, there’s the global issue to fight climate change. There’s a recognition. They are genuinely trying to bring this pollution issue under control. They created an air action plan and a water action plan.答:总的来说认识上已经有很大提高。基本上我认为这对中央政府是一个清晰信号。他们有政治意愿试图解决问题。他们明白这事关公众健康问题、资源问题、社会稳定问题,尤其还有应对气候变化的全球问题。有了这样的共识,他们真心想要控制污染问题,还就空气和水的问题分别制定了行动方案。Having said that, on the ground it’s still challenging to turn this into action. There are so much interests that could be offended, that could be impacted. And also there’s the gap we have in environmental governance. Because the cost of violations is still lower than the cost of compliance, market forces are not on our side.即便如此,要把这些变为行动在事实上仍有困难。有太多利益会被冒犯,会被影响。同时在环境治理方面也有缺口。因为违规的代价仍旧低于合规,市场的力量没有体现出来。Even from the government side there’s a recognition that fighting pollution needs public participation. That’s why last year we saw the Environmental Protection Law revised for the first time in 25 years. It created a special chapter with a title on transparency and public participation. It shows there’s more social consensus for the need of transparency.连政府方面都承认,治理污染需要公众参与。这也是为什么我们看到去年环境保护法得到了25年来的第一次修改修订。新的环保法专门加入了一个以信息公开和公众参与为题的章节。这展现了需要更多透明度的社会共识。Q. What was your reaction to receiving a Skoll Award for Social Entrepreneurship this month in Oxford?问:你对本月去牛津接受“斯科尔社会企业家奖”作何感想?A. Of course I’m honored, but also quite humbled. They’ve done it for quite a few years, with hundreds of social entrepreneurs recognized in different parts of the world. This is the first time there’s been someone from China. I think this will be a major support.答:当我很荣幸,也感到受宠若惊。他们颁发这个奖已经好几年了,全球各地数百位社会企业家获得了他们的嘉许。这是首次有中国人获奖。我认为这是对我们的巨大持。The meeting itself has aly benefited us because we can learn so much from other social entrepreneurs. This helps us to gain credibility with the business community, because some of the largest multinationals are there. And then the other people, the other awardees, I think some were quite surprised about our work because this is a different type of story than they usually hear from China.这个会议本身已经令我们受益,因为我们可以向其他社会企业家借鉴良多。它也有助于我们赢得商业界的信任,因为有一些大型跨国公司也在场。那里还有其他人,其他获奖者,我感觉其中有些人对我们的工作感到非常惊讶,因为这与他们通常听到的中国的事情不太一样。Q. The award comes with .25 million in prize money. What will you do with it?问:这个奖项有125万美元的奖金。你会怎么花这些钱呢?A. We will spend most of that to build on our pollution map. We now have a 2.0 version called the Blue Map. We hope the image of the blue sky that has been lost in most of our cities can inspire people to join the effort. We will use most of the prize money to try to further develop that.答:我们会把大部分钱花在绘制污染地图上。我们现在有一个2.0版本,称为“蔚蓝地图”。我们希望蓝天的图片可以激励人们加入这项活动,因为中国大部分城市的天空都不再蔚蓝了。我们会把大部分奖金用在进一步开发这个地图上。One of the functions we are going to add is taking a picture, so you can actually get data printed on that. So people can share their own pictures on social media and get data on that from our sources.我们要添加拍照功能,这样你就可以在自己的照片上显示从我们的数据源获得的数据,然后你可以在社交媒体上分享这些照片,更多的人就可以看到我们的数据。Another, much bigger function we need is to add a platform for green consumerism. It is quite important for us to engage with consumers. If we help people visualize the link between air and water pollution, factory behavior and then consumer choice. Then we develop a methodology to score those brands. If we help to visualize that, then we provide another way for people to fight pollution. I hope this gives those brands a better incentive for responsible corporate behavior.另外,我们还需要一个更大的功能,就是增加一个绿色消费平台。让消费者参与进来,这对我们很重要。如果我们把空气和水污染、工厂的行为以及消费者的选择之间的联系进行可视化,然后制定一种方法来给那些品牌打分。如果我们做出这种可视化的资料,那么我们就提供了另一种方式,让人们来与污染做斗争。我希望这是一种更好的激励方式,来促进那些品牌采取负责任的企业行为。With the launch of the 2.0 version, air quality data will be extended from 190 to 380 cities in China every hour. We will also have some forecasts, not just weather forecasts but also forecasts of air quality, so people better arrange their activities to avoid the worst exposure. For the first time it will have data on water quality in rivers and lakes in different parts of China. China has made remarkable progress. Three years ago no cities in China released PM 2.5 [fine particulate matter] data. Today there are 380 that do.随着2.0版本的推出,我们提供每小时空气质量数据的中国城市数目将从原来的190个增加到380个。我们也会提供一些预报,不仅仅是天气预报,也包括空气质量预报,让人们更好地安排自己的活动,避开最糟糕的环境。这也会是首次为中国不同地区的江河湖泊提供水质数据。中国已经取得了显著的进展。三年前,中国没有任何城市公布PM 2.5[细颗粒物]数据。如今已经有380个城市在这么做。We have to handle this quite carefully. Transparency is what we depend on. It’s very positive for the government. We give credit to the government. But it’s not easy. I hope that this can continue. If it does, it will drive more polluting factories to change. This boosts confidence for further transparency, which I think is so important.我们必须相当小心地开展这些工作。透明度是我们的立足之所。政府对此是非常明确的。这方面我们要肯定政府。但是这并不容易。我希望能持续下去。如果真能继续,它就会推动更多污染企业做出改变。而这将进一步提高人们对透明度的信心,我认为这一点极为重要。 /201505/373184

  It looks like 5G is here! At least that#39;s what it looked like if you wandered around Mobile World Congress 2016 this week. Booths filled with information about the next-generation wireless standard — some even offering ;demonstrations; of the technology — seemed to occupy more floor space even than new smartphones.5G似乎走进了我们的生活。至少,如果你本周漫步在2016年世界移动大会的会场上是这样的。会场内的各大展示柜都是关于下一代无线通信标准的信息。其中一些甚至提供了该技术的展示体验务。5G似乎占有比新智能手机更多的楼层空间。But the reality is that the successor to 4G cellular service is still, according to best estimations, around five years from connecting devices around the world.然而现实是,就算即使按照最乐观的估计,4G蜂窝务的接班人仍然需要五年时间才能为全世界的通讯设备使用。So why, then, was 5G the talk of Barcelona#39;s big international tech conference now?那么为何在巴塞罗那的大型国际化技术会议上会有关于5G的讨论呢?The idea of 5G needed no inventing, per se: We#39;ve all known for a while that ;5; would come after ;4.; But what the Next Generation Mobile Networks (NGMN) Alliance did shortly after last year#39;s MWC was release something called the ;5G White Paper; to lay out what 5G wireless will look like in terms of speed. (Assuming, of course, that consumer companies and hardware vendors can cooperate.)5G的概念并不需要特地去创造,本来我们就知道;5;会是接着;4;之后下一个到来的。在去年世界移动通信大会不久之后,下一代移动网络联盟发布了;5G白皮书;来设定将来5G无线网络将会达到什么速度。(当然,前提是消费者公司和硬件供应商都给予配合。)In that paper, the alliance announced the next mobile data standard should be capable of a healthy 1 gigabit per second (Gbps). Yep: With 4G speeds in the U.S. today averaging somewhere between 5 and 12 megabits per second (Mbps), 5G will look to improve upon its predecessor by up to 200 times.在白皮书中,该联盟宣布下一代移动数据标准应该能够达每秒1千兆比特。是的,如今美国平均的4G速度在5兆到12兆,5G的速度比它的前辈要快上200倍。You#39;re probably psyched to imagine how fast apps, , and other data will download or stream over 5G. But the idea of imminent gigabit mobile data is even more exciting for wireless infrastructure companies such as Qualcomm and Cisco. (After all, they#39;ll be ones who#39;ll have to upgrade that infrastructure to the new standard.) This year#39;s Mobile World Congress gave these brands the first big international stage where they could trot out their moonshot ideas for the potential new tech. And trot they did.你可能已经在激动地想象手机应用、视频以及其他数据在5G网络下运行或下载的速度该有多快了。但是关于即将来临的千兆级移动数据流量更让Qualcomm和Cisco这样的无线设备公司兴奋(毕竟它们才是需要为迎合新标准而将系统升级换代的公司)。今年的世界移动大会给这些品牌第一次走上国际舞台的机会,它们能够展示潜在新技术的疯狂想法。而它们也的确士气高昂地完成了这些展示。 /201603/429521。




  What is the cosmological effect of singer Zayn Malik leaving the best-selling boy band One Direction and consequently disappointing millions of teenage girls around the world?歌手泽恩·马利克退出热门的“单向”男孩乐队,进而导致数以百万计的世界各地少女心碎——这会有什么宇宙学效应吗?The advice of British cosmologist Stephen Hawking to heartbroken fans is to follow theoretical physics, because Malik may well still be a member of the pop group in another universe.英国宇宙学家史蒂芬·霍金给伤心欲绝的歌迷们的建议是遵循理论物理,因为马利克很可能在另外一个宇宙仍然是单向乐队的成员。The physicist took a break from speaking about his work as one of the world#39;s leading scientists to answer the question from one upset fan during a talk at Sydney Opera House at the weekend.这位物理学家是世界顶尖的科学家之一,他周末参加了悉尼歌剧院举办的一个谈话节目,工作之余,他回答了一位沮丧歌迷的提问。;Finally a question about something important,; Hawking, who appeared via hologram, said to loud laughs from the audience.霍金通过全息投影对爆发出笑声的观众说道:“总算有人问了一个重要的问题。”;My advice to any heartbroken young girl is to pay attention to the study of theoretical physics because, one day, there may well be proof of multiple universes.“我建议任何伤心的小女孩都应该关注理论物理的研究,因为终有一天,我们会有多重宇宙的据。”;It would not be beyond the realms of possibility that somewhere outside of our own universe lies another, different universe and, in that universe, Zayn is still in One Direction.;“不排除这种可能性:我们存在的这个宇宙之外还有另一个不同的宇宙,在那个宇宙中,泽恩仍然是单向的成员。”The wheelchair-bound scientist, who was diagnosed with motor neurone disease at the age of 21, appeared at the talk in the form of a hologram streamed from Cambridge, England.当天霍金是从英国剑桥通过全息投影参加该座谈的。这位轮椅上的科学家21岁时被诊断患有运动神经元疾病。Now 73, he is known for his work on black holes and his international bestseller ;A Brief History of Time;.现今73岁的霍金以其关于黑洞的著作和国际畅销书《时间简史》而闻名。Malik quit the band last month, saying he wanted to live a normal life after five years of touring and performing.马利克于3月退出单向乐队。他表示,经过五年的巡回表演,想回到正常人的生活。 /201505/373104

  It is becoming a car industry parlour game to predict when fully driverless cars will arrive on the roads.预言完全无人驾驶的汽车将何时上路,正成为汽车业的猜谜游戏。Audi chairman Rupert Stadler, whose company just topped a record 149mph with a fully self-driving RS7 sportback, says drivers will be able to take their hands off the wheel by 2016. A year later, Volvo will put 100 self-driving cars on the streets of Gothenburg, Sweden, with the aim of getting a fully autonomous vehicle on the market by 2020.奥迪(Audi)的全自动驾驶RS7掀背轿跑车刚以149英里的时速刷新了纪录。该公司董事长鲁珀特#8226;施塔德勒(Rupert Stadler)称,到2016年驾驶员将能够从手动操控汽车中解放出来。一年后,沃尔沃将向瑞典哥德堡(Gothenburg)的道路投放100辆自动驾驶汽车,目标是在2020年向市场推出完全自动驾驶的汽车。Research group Gartner says that, by 2030, autonomous-enabled vehicles will make up about 25 per cent of passenger cars in mature markets. Consultancy Roland Berger says “wide adoption” could follow soon after, creating a market worth bn for carmakers, parts suppliers and tech companies.研究公司高德纳(Gartner)称,到2030年,自动驾驶的汽车将在成熟市场的乘用车部分占据约25%的份额。咨询公司罗兰贝格(Roland Berger)称,“普及”可能在那之后很快到来,为汽车制造商、零部件供应商及科技公司创造600亿美元的市场。But Stefano Aversa, co-president at the AlixPartners consultancy, says completely autonomous vehicles will never happen. “You cannot think of something that is fully autonomous in any situation – you would never be able to cover the infinite possibilities,” he says. “You have a pedestrian coming from your left, a bicycle on your right, a kid, a cat#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;or simply a speed bump or a hole in the ground.”但是,咨询公司艾睿铂(AlixPartners)的联席总裁斯特凡诺#8226;阿维萨(Stefano Aversa)表示,完全自动驾驶的汽车永远不可能出现。“你想不出在任何情况下都能完全自主操作的系统——你永远不可能覆盖无限的可能性,”他称,“你左边过来一名行人,右边出现一辆自行车,一个小孩,一只猫……或者只是一个减速带或地上的一个坑。”Self-driving cars have been heralded as the answer to problems from tedious roads and congestion to traffic accidents – more than 90 per cent of which are caused by human error. Numerous companies and cities have conducted trials. Google has clocked up almost 1m miles of testing on public roads in the US and four cities in the UK will host pilot projects early in 2015.自动驾驶汽车被誉为解决乏味驾驶、拥堵及交通事故(超过90%的事故由人为错误导致)等问题的。很多公司和城市进行了试验。谷歌(Google)在美国公共道路上完成了接近100万英里的试车里程,英国4座城市也将在2015年初启动试点项目。But technical and legal experts are increasingly concerned that the frenzied excitement surrounding the technology is obscuring the significant obstacles that lie in the way of the introduction of autonomous vehicles.然而,技术和法律专家日益担心,围绕该项技术产生的狂热兴奋,掩盖了引入自动驾驶汽车过程中的重大障碍。For a start, driverless vehicles are only allowed on the road in four US states. They are also outlawed in Europe, though a recent amendment to the UN’s Vienna Convention on road traffic means 72 countries, including in Europe and the Americas, can implement rules to allow a car to drive alone for periods.首先,美国只有4个州允许无人驾驶汽车上路。它们在欧洲也不被法律认可,尽管联合国的《维也纳道路交通公约》(Vienna Convention on Road Traffic)近期的一项修订意味着,包括欧洲和美洲在内的72个国家可以实施法规,允许汽车在特定期间自主驾驶。But road traffic laws still require the driver to be able to take control of the vehicle and override autonomous functions.但是道路交通法律仍然要求司机有能力控制车辆,手动超越自动驾驶功能。“That contradicts the visions and fantasies of those who promote autonomous cars,” says Stephan Appt, legal director in Germany for Pinsent Masons, the law firm.“这与自动驾驶车辆倡导者的愿景与幻想是抵触的,”品诚梅森律师事务所(Pinsent Masons)德国法律总监斯蒂芬#8226;爱普特(Stephan Appt)称。“To sleep, to watch movies – that would not be possible at the moment, because you are required always to remain in control.”“开车时睡觉、看电影——现在不可能实现,因为你必须一直保持对车辆的控制。”According to Ruth Graham, a partner at UK law firm BLM, there are key areas of civil and product liability that would need to be addressed before driverless cars became possible.英国BLM律师事务所的合伙人露丝#8226;格雷厄姆(Ruth Graham)认为,在无人驾驶汽车成为可能前,需要解决民事及产品赔偿责任一些关键领域的问题。For instance, in an accident, insurers would need to assess whether the driver or the manufacturer was responsible for an accident. The incident would be complicated further if the crash involved the driver of a conventional, non-autonomous vehicle.比如,在一起事故中,保险公司需要评估:是驾驶人还是制造商要对事故负责?如果这起事故还涉及传统的非自动驾驶车辆,那将变得更复杂。Even criminal liability will need to be looked at, Ms Graham says. “Would it still be an offence to be in your driverless car drunk or drugged?”格雷厄姆称,甚至刑事责任也需要得到考虑。“如果你醉酒或吸毒后坐在无人驾驶车辆内,是否仍构成违法行为?”One way of keeping the driver alert even in autonomous mode is to use eye and head-tracking smart sensors in the cabin, something being worked on by General Motors.一种让驾驶员保持警觉(甚至在自动驾驶状态下)的办法,是在车内应用追踪眼睛和头部动作的智能传感器,通用汽车(General Motors)正在研究这项技术。But this and other elements of autonomous vehicles – the ultimate connected cars – raise questions about data protection. Dashboard cameras, for instance, are banned in Germany, where the sharing of footage is seen as a violation of other road users’ privacy.但是,这项技术以及自动驾驶车辆(超级互联互通的汽车)的其它元素,引发了种种数据保护问题。举个例子,仪表盘摄像头在德国是被禁止的,在德国,分享道路行驶的视频画面构成对其他道路使用者隐私的侵犯。Would drivers own the data produced by the vehicles, or would manufacturers? Could data collected by onboard “black boxes” be sold to insurers? “Who will be permitted to take the data out of the black box?” asks Mr Appt.驾车者和制造商两方面,谁拥有车辆生成的数据?由车载“黑匣子”收集的数据能否被出售给保险公司?爱普特问道,“谁将拥有从黑匣子读取数据的权利?”Technical experts also think mainstream manufacturers are further off developing the systems that would facilitate a fully autonomous car than the hype would suggest. Numerous so-called advanced driver assistance systems have aly been incorporated in cars, such as automatic braking and adaptive cruise control – which adjusts speed according to the car in front.技术专家也认为,主流汽车制造商研发全自动汽车配套系统的进展,与炒作所暗示的相距甚远。很多所谓的“高级驾驶员辅助系统”(ADAS)已被集成至新款汽车,例如自动刹车和自适应巡航控制(根据前方车辆的动态调整车速)。But the leap to complete autonomy is a step beyond. Some industry insiders say the carmakers, though investing large amounts of capital, will have to buy in the technology or form joint ventures if they wish to achieve their lofty hopes for driverless cars.但是,要实现自动驾驶这一飞跃,仍是当前难以企及的。一些业内人士认为,虽然投入大量资金,但如果想实现无人驾驶汽车的远大理想,汽车制造商将不得不购买技术或者组建合资企业。The quality of the technology is crucial, because cars, as sophisticated computers, could be vulnerable to hackers.技术质量至关重要,因为汽车就像精密的计算机一样,可能易于受到黑客攻击。Hugh Boyes, cyber security expert at the UK’s Institution of Engineering and Technology, says: “If we have a hacker community starting to target vehicles, you can imagine a fair amount of chaos. You just have to look at what happens in London when one vehicle breaks down on a main artery of the city.英国工程技术学会(Institution of Engineering and Technology)的网络安全专家休#8226;伊斯(Hugh Boyes)称:“如果我们遇到一个黑客群体开始攻击汽车,你可以想象会有多么混乱。你只要看看一辆汽车在伦敦的主要道路上抛锚时的情景。”“So, if just one in 100, one in 1,000 is interfered with and ceases to operate as planned, we can expect mayhem.”“因此,只要黑客能够干扰百分之一或千分之一的车辆,使其发生故障,我们就会看到一团糟的局面。” /201501/352646。



  China#39;s push to become a world leader in high-tech industries has one neighbor particularly worried about new competition on the block: South Korea.中国正在努力寻求成为高科技产业的世界领导者,这样的野心引起了邻国韩国的忧虑。韩国担心自己会迎来新的竞争对手。In China#39;s new economic blueprint unveiled during the Two Sessions, known as the 13th Five-Year Plan, Chinese officials identified semiconductors as a potential tech sector to dominate. That has raised an alarm in South Korea#39;s semiconductor industry, the world#39;s largest after the U.S. with an 18 percent global market share.在“两会”上公布的中国新经济蓝图(即十三五规划)中,中国官员表示,确定将半导体这个具有巨大潜力的技术作为新的发展方向。这一决定引起了韩国半导体业的恐慌。韩国是仅次于美国的世界第二大半导体生产商,占全球市场份额的18%。At present, China commands just 3 percent of the global semiconductor market share but Beijing is hoping to increase that figure as part of its plan for new services industries, dubbed ;New China,; to bolster gross domestic product (GDP). Aside from semiconductors, ;New China; sectors also include chip materials, robotics, aviation equipment and satellites.目前,虽然中国在全球半导体市场上只占有3%的份额,但中国希望增加这一比例,并将这作为其全新务产业(即“新常态”计划)的一部分,从而提高GDP水平。此外,除了半导体产业,该计划还涉及芯片材料、机器人、航空设备和卫星等多个领域。Officials intend to achieve that goal by increasing the share of spending on research and development (Ramp;D) to 2.5 percent of GDP for the 2016-2020 period, from 2.1 percent in 2011-2015, according to the new Five-Year Plan.中国官员表示,根据新的五年计划,在2016年-2020年期间,相关领域的研发资金将由2011年-2015年占GDP的2.1%增加至2.5%。;China#39;s announcement has of course not remained unnoticed, especially by large players in high-tech industries,; economists at investment bank Natixis remarked in a report.著名投行法国外贸的经济专家在一份报告中指出,“国际社会其实已经注意到了中国在这方面的发展,特别是几家高科技领域的巨头们。”;Its aggressive push is worrying for [South] Korea#39;s industrial giants. If we consider that Korea#39;s major global comparative advantage is high-tech electronics, such threat becomes a systemic threat for the country#39;s economic future.;“中国的积极行动让韩国的工业巨头们忧心不已。鉴于韩国在全球的主要竞争优势在于其高科技电子产品,中国的这一举动对韩国的未来经济造成了系统性威胁。”South Korea#39;s semiconductor industry is certainly paying attention. A day after the new Five-Year Plan was announced, Korea#39;s Semiconductor Industry Association (KSIA) urged President Park Geun-Hye#39;s government to counter the new market threat.韩国半导体产业对此密切关注。就在中国“十三五规划”公布的第二天,韩国半导体产业协会便要求总统朴槿惠制定措施应对新的市场威胁。;I thought that China had attempted to invest only in the semiconductor industry but it seems that China has gone a step further,; KSIA Chairman Park Sung-wook was ed as saying, referring to Beijing#39;s aspirations to become a major semiconductor maker.对于中国有志成为半导体制造大国的雄心,韩国半导体产业协会主席朴星昱近日表示:“我原以为中国只是试图投资半导体产业,但没想到中国比这还更近了一步。”Leading Korean producers such as Samsung and SK Hynix should be worried, Natixis argues, citing three key factors.法国外贸认为,这样的现状的确应该引起三星和海力士等韩国主要制造商的重视,并给出了三个重要原因。Heavy consumption强大的消费力China is aly the largest consumer of semiconductors globally, which should support its domestic producers, Natixis explained.法国外贸解释称,中国已成为世界最大的半导体消费国,这会为其国内的半导体生产商提供持。;This is particularly relevant for Korean firms since they serve the Chinese market in quite a massive way.;“这与韩国公司紧密相关,因为中国原本是他们的一个巨大市场。”After Intel, Samsung and SK Hynix are the biggest semiconductor suppliers in the Chinese market.在中国市场,三星与海力士是仅次于英特尔的第二大和第三大半导体供应商。China is South Korea#39;s largest trading partner and the exchange of goods between the two nations is set to ramp up in the wake of last year#39;s Korea-China Free Trade Agreement.中国是韩国最大的贸易伙伴。去年,两国签订了《中韩自由贸易协定》,这将会促进两国之间的贸易量进一步增长。A bottom-down model以市场为主导Beijing has also unveiled new steps that demonstrate its commitment to becoming a semiconductor superpower.中国还公布了一些新的措施,显示了它想成为半导体产业超级大国的决心。China has strived to become a global player for a decade now but it hasn#39;t achieved success thus far due to its insistence on a state-led centralized approach to industrial development, Natixis said. Now, officials are embracing a more market-oriented method that encourages competition and allows companies to tap public funds to buy expertise abroad.法国外贸称,中国为成为全球半导体产业领导者努力了十年,但并未取得成功。原因在于此前中国一直采取国家主导的方式控制产业发展,如今中国更多地采用市场主导的方式 ,鼓励竞争,允许企业利用公共资本购买国外技术。For example, China created the National Integrated Circuit Industry Equity Investment Fund in 2014, endowing it with .4 billion. Moreover, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology intends to spend 3 billion over the next decade to support the semiconductor sector - the bulk of which will be spent on buying expertise from foreign competitors, according to Natixis.法国外贸在报告中举例称,2014年,中国设立了国家集成电路产业股权投资基金,注资184亿美元。此外,工业和信息化部计划在未来十年内投入1530亿美元持半导体领域,其中大部分资金将用于从国外竞争对手手中购买专业技术。;This obviously increases China#39;s competitive threat [to Korea] in as far as they are able to execute appropriate merger amp; acquisition (Mamp;A) deals in this sector.;“中国在这个领域进行的合并与收购交易,很显然加大了对韩国的竞争威胁。”Chinese investors have aly started snapping up semiconductor assets. Last year, a consortium of China private equity firms snapped up U.S. firm Omnivisions Technologies for .9 billion in cash while a separate group of Chinese investors bought Nasdaq-listed Integrated Silicon Solution for 0 million.中国投资者们已经开始抢购半导体资产。去年,一家中国民营企业以19亿美元现金收购了美国豪威科技公司。另一拨中国投资者以6.4亿美元的价格收购了纳斯达克上市公司——芯成半导体有限公司。Shift to mobile转向移动领域Lastly, Korean semiconductor manufacturers tend to focus more on computers rather than mobile handsets, demand for which is growing at a faster clip. Because China dominates mobile demand, it is ideally placed to profit from semiconductor growth.此前,韩国半导体制造商更注重电脑领域而非移动设备,而移动设备领域正在以更快的速度发展。中国对移动设备的半导体需求是最大的,这也将为半导体产业的发展带来了可观的利润。Samsung Electronics and SK Hynix are the world leaders in DRAM chips, key for personal computers, so as demand for those chips decline, semiconductor profits at both firms have slowed in recent quarters, Natixis said.法国外贸还说,三星电子和海力士是世界存储芯片制造商的领导者。该芯片是个人电脑的核心组件。因此,随着对这些芯片需求的减少,这两家半导体公司近几个季度的利润增长也随之放缓。;Samsung and other Korean firms will need to push to achieve competitiveness in a higher tech level due to the changing nature of demand for chips as well as China#39;s push for technology gains.;“由于芯片需求的改变以及中国的科技野心,三星与其他韩国企业需要提高科技水平,以应对竞争。” /201603/431206

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