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重庆市星辰医学美容医院是正规吗?时空信息重庆星宸整形是正规医院吗

来源:京东优惠    发布时间:2019年10月23日 09:24:49    编辑:admin         

Researchers say there#39;s one simple way to fix your marriage; say #39;thank you#39; to your partner.研究人员指出,要想使婚姻关系变得稳固,最简单的一个方法就是对伴侣说“谢谢你”。A new study has found gratitude and believing that your partner values you, directly influences how you behave in your marriage, as well as your levels of commitment.最新研究表明,感恩的心情以及相信配偶对自己的珍视,会直接影响一个人在婚姻中的行为和对婚姻的忠诚度。Scientists at Georgia University asked 468 married people questions about their finances, communication style and how grateful they felt towards their partner.乔治亚州大学的科学家对468名已婚人士进行调查,了解他们的财务情况、与伴侣的沟通方式以及他们对伴侣是否怀有感恩之心。They found that gratitude consistently predicts how happy someone will be in their marriage.他们发现,感恩的心态会直接决定一个人在婚姻中的幸福程度。#39;It goes to show the power of ;thank you,;#39; said the study#39;s lead author Allen Barton, a postdoctoral research associate at UGA#39;s Center for Family Research.该研究的发起者、佐治亚大学家庭研究中的一名士后研究员艾伦·巴顿(Allen Barton)说,这点显示出了“谢谢你”的力量他是。#39;Even if a couple is experiencing distress and difficulty in other areas, gratitude in the relationship can help promote positive marital outcomes.#39;“即便一对夫妻正在经历着拮据和其他方面的困难,感激之情也有助于促进夫妻关系朝积极的方向发展”。The study also found that higher levels of saying #39;thank you#39; protected men and women from the damage caused when arguing.研究还发现,经常表达谢意能避免夫妻因争吵而损害彼此间的感情。#39;Importantly, we found that when couples are engaging in a negative conflict pattern like demand/withdrawal, expressions of gratitude and appreciation can counteract or buffer the negative effects of this type of interaction on marital stability,#39; said Ted Futris, an associate professor at Georgia University.乔治亚州大学副教授泰德·福翠丝(Ted Futris)表示:“重要的是我们发现当夫妻两个处于像强势和被动型搭配的消极冲突模式中时,感恩和欣赏的情感表达能够消减或缓冲这种互动模式给婚姻稳定带来的负面影响。”#39;This is the first study to document the protective effect that feeling appreciated by your spouse can have for marriages,#39; Barton said.巴顿说:“这还是首个明得到配偶的欣赏,对婚姻关系有保护作用的研究”。#39;We think it is quite important as it highlights a practical way couples can help strengthen their marriage, particularly if they are not the most adept communicators in conflict.#39;“我们认为,这十分重要,它为夫妻双方指明了一种有助于巩固其婚姻关系的实用方法,如果两人在发生争执时都不善于交流就更是如此。”Results from this study also back up earlier research on something known as demand/withdraw communication, as well as how money problems can damage marriage.这项研究的结果也明了此前有关强势/被动型交流模式,以及金钱问题会破坏婚姻关系方面的研究。#39;Demand/withdraw communication occurs when one partner tends to demand, nag or criticise, while the other responds by withdrawing or avoiding the confrontation,#39; Barton said.巴顿说:“当夫妻一方有需要、开始唠叨或吹毛求疵的时候,就会发生强势/被动型交流模式,而另一方以消极被动方式回应,或者回避争执”。#39;Although wife demand/husband withdraw interactions appear more commonly in couples, in the current study we found financial distress was associated with lower marital outcomes through its effects on increasing the total amount of both partners#39; demand/withdraw interactions.#39;“虽然妻子强势/被动搭配的互动模式在夫妻关系中更为常见,在目前的研究中 我们发现,财务上的拮据会导致欠佳的婚姻,因为财务问题会增加夫妻双方强势/被动模式的互动。”He explained that when couples are stressed about making ends meet, they are more likely to be critical of each other, as well as defensive. Gratitude, however, can interrupt this cycle, he claims.他解释说,当夫妻为收平衡所烦恼时,他们更可能会对彼此横加指责,也会为自己进行辩护,但感恩可以中断这种恶性循环。This was measured in terms of the degree to which individuals felt appreciated by their spouse, valued by their spouse and acknowledged when they did something nice for their spouse.这是根据某人做了些有助于配偶的事,而后感到自己受到配偶的欣赏、认可程度来衡量的。#39;All couples have disagreements and argue,#39; Futris said. #39;And, when couples are stressed, they are likely to have more arguments.“所有夫妻都会出现分歧和争吵,” 福翠丝说。当夫妻感到紧张时,很可能会发生更多争吵。#39;What distinguishes the marriages that last from those that don#39;t is not how often they argue, but how they argue and how they treat each other on a daily basis.#39;“持久和失败婚姻的区别并非在于夫妻多久吵一次架,而是他们在日常生活中吵架和对待彼此的方式。” /201510/406289。

ATLANTA — WHEN I learned last week about the discovery of an early human relative deep in a cave in South Africa, I had many questions. Obviously, they had dug up a fellow primate, but of what kind?亚特兰大——上周获悉在南非一个洞穴的深处发现了早期人类的亲属时,我有很多疑问。显然,他们又挖出了一种灵长目动物,但属于哪一类呢?The fabulous find, named Homo naledi, has rightly been celebrated for both the number of fossils and their completeness. It has australopithecine-like hips and an ape-size brain, yet its feet and teeth are typical of the genus Homo.凭借化石的数量和它们的完整性,被称作“纳勒迪人”(Homo naledi)的这个惊人发现的确应该庆祝。它的髋部像南方古猿,大脑体积和猿类的相当,但脚和牙齿却表现出了典型的人属特点。The mixed features of these prehistoric remains upset the received human origin story, according to which bipedalism ushered in technology, dietary change and high intelligence. Part of the new species’ physique lags behind this scenario, while another part is ahead. It is aptly called a mosaic species.这些史前骨骸表现出的复杂特征,搅乱了公认的人类起源理论。根据该理论,人类变成两条腿独立行走后迎来了技术、饮食变化和高智商。但这个新物种的身体部分停留在这一幕发生之前,另一部分却已经进化到了这一幕发生之后。叫它组合物种挺恰当的。We like the new better than the old, though, and treat every fossil as if it must fit somewhere on a timeline leading to the crown of creation. Chris Stringer, a prominent British paleoanthropologist who was not involved in the study, told B News: “What we are seeing is more and more species of creatures that suggests that nature was experimenting with how to evolve humans, thus giving rise to several different types of humanlike creatures originating in parallel in different parts of Africa.”但我们往往喜新厌旧,对待每一块化石都像是它必须要符合人类进化历程中的某个节点。未参与该研究的英国著名古人类学家克里斯·斯特林格(Chris Stringer)对B新闻(B News)表示:“我们看到,越来越多的动物物种表明,大自然是在尝试各种人类进化的方式,因而产生了几种不同类型的像人一样的动物,它们同时发源于非洲的不同地区。”This represents a shockingly teleological view, as if natural selection is seeking certain outcomes, which it is not. It doesn’t do so any more than a river seeks to reach the ocean.这就有了一种惊人的目的论色,仿佛自然选择是在追求某些结果。但其实不是这样。它和河流想要注入大海没什么不同。News reports spoke of a “new ancestor,” even a “new human species,” assuming a ladder heading our way, whereas what we are actually facing when we investigate our ancestry is a tangle of branches. There is no good reason to put Homo naledi on the branch that produced us. Nor does this make the discovery any less interesting.新闻报道谈到了“新祖先”,甚至“新人种”,假想出一条向着我们延伸的梯子,但在调查自己的起源时,我们实际面临的是一堆杂乱的分。我们没有充分的理由去把“纳勒迪人”放在那个产生了我们的分上。这丝毫不会减少这项发现的意义。Every species in our lineage tells us something about ourselves, because the hominoids (humans, apes and everything in between) are genetically extremely tight. We have had far less time to diverge than the members of many other animal families, like the equids (horses, zebras, donkeys) or canids (wolves, dogs, jackals). If it hadn’t been for the human ego, taxonomists would long ago have squeezed all hominoids into a single genus.人类谱系中的每一个物种,都会让我们更了解自己,因为人猿总科动物(人类、猿类和介于这两之间的一切物种)在基因方面是极为接近的。我们经历的分歧过程远短于很多其他动物科的成员,如马科动物(马、斑马、驴)和犬科动物(狼、、豺)。如果不是人类的自我意识,分类学家很久以前就把所有人猿总科动物归为一个属了。The standard story is that our ancestors first left the apes behind to become australopithecines, which grew more sophisticated and brainier to become us. But what if these stages were genetically mixed up? Some scientists have claimed early hybridization between human and ape DNA. Did our ancestors, after having split off, keep returning to the apes in the same way that today’s grizzlies and polar bears still interbreed occasionally?标准的说法是,我们的祖先先是从猿进化成了南方古猿,后来又变得更加复杂和聪明,最终变成了我们现在的样子。但如果这些阶段在基因上是混在一起的怎么办?一些科学家已经声称发现了早期的人猿DNA混合。脱离了猿后,我们的祖先是不断回到猿那里去,就像灰熊和北极熊至今还偶尔会杂交繁殖那样?Instead of looking forward to a glorious future, our lineage may have remained addicted to the hairy embrace of its progenitors. Other scientists, however, keep sex out of it and speak of incomplete lineage separation. Either way, our heritages are closely intertwined.我们的谱系没有憧憬美好未来,反而对祖先那毛茸茸的怀抱恋恋不舍。然而,其他一些科学家将性排除在外,转而说起了谱系划分的不完整。不管怎样,我们遗传下来的东西都是密切交织在一起的。The problem is that we keep assuming that there is a point at which we became human. This is about as unlikely as there being a precise wavelength at which the color spectrum turns from orange into red. The typical proposition of how this happened is that of a mental breakthrough — a miraculous spark — that made us radically different. But if we have learned anything from more than 50 years of research on chimpanzees and other intelligent animals, it is that the wall between human and animal cognition is like a Swiss cheese.问题是,我们一直假定自己是从某一时刻起开始成为人类的。但要找到这个点,就如同在光谱中找到从桔色变成红色的那个精确的波长,是不太可能的事。关于这种转变,有一种典型的理论,即是一种智力上的突破——灵光一闪的奇迹——使我们骤然改变。但以我们对黑猩猩和其他高智商动物进行的50多年的研究,至少有一个收获是,人的认知和动物的认知之间那堵墙,就像是一块瑞士奶酪。Apart from our language capacity, no uniqueness claim has survived unmodified for more than a decade since it was made. You name it — tool use, tool making, culture, food sharing, theory of mind, planning, empathy, inferential reasoning — it has all been observed in wild primates or, better yet, many of these capacities have been demonstrated in carefully controlled experiments.除了语言能力,没有哪个声称人类独具某项技能的论断会在提出十年后依然坚挺。你能想到的所有技能——使用工具、制造工具、形成文化、分享食物、心智理论、计划、共情、推理——都已经在野生灵长目动物身上观察到。更进一步,许多还可以在严格控制的动物实验中演示出来。We know, for example, that apes plan ahead. They carry tools over long distances to places where they use them, sometimes up to five different sticks and twigs to raid a bee nest or probe for underground ants. In the lab, they fabricate tools in anticipation of future use. Animals think without words, as do we most of the time.比如,我们知道猿类可以提前做计划。它们会携带工具长途跋涉到需要使用这些工具的地方,有时它们会用多达五种棍子和枝条来对付一个蜂巢,或翻找地下的蚂蚁。在实验室里,它们会制造工具以备将来使用。动物会不经由语言思考,就像我们大多数时候那样。Undeterred by Homo naledi’s relatively small brain, however, the research team sought to stress its humanity by pointing at the bodies in the cave. But if taking this tack implies that only humans mourn their dead, the distinction with apes is being drawn far too sharply.不过,“纳勒迪人”的大脑体积较小并未让研究团队退缩,他们转而通过指出尸体放在洞穴内来突出它们人性的一面。但如果用这一点来表示只有人类才会哀悼死者,那我们就把自己和猿类的差别划分得太清晰了。Apes appear to be deeply affected by the loss of others to the point of going totally silent, seeking comfort from bystanders and going into a funk during which they don’t eat for days. They may not inter their dead, but they do seem to understand death’s irreversibility. After having stared for a long time at a lifeless companion — sometimes grooming or trying to revive him or her — apes move on.猿类表现出会因为同伴死亡而深受影响,以至于完全陷入沉默,从旁观者那里寻求安慰,或陷入数天不吃东西的逃避状态。它们可能不会埋葬死去的同类,但它们似乎的确知道死了就不能再复生。长久地盯着死去的同伴——有时会给它们整理皮毛或试图让它们复活——之后,猿类会离开。Since they never stay in one place for long, they have no reason to cover or bury a corpse. Were they to live in a cave or settlement, however, they might notice that carrion attracts scavengers, some of which are formidable predators, like hyenas. It would absolutely not exceed the ape’s mental capacity to solve this problem by either covering odorous corpses or moving them out of the way.因为不会长久待在同一个地方,所以它们没有理由掩盖或埋葬尸体。但如果是生活在一个洞穴里或在一个定居点,它们可能会注意到,尸体的腐肉会吸引食腐动物,有些还是难以对付的捕食者,比如鬣。猿类绝对有足够的智能来解决这个问题,要么把腐臭的尸体掩盖起来,要么把它们移到偏僻的地方。The suggestion by some scholars that this requires belief in an afterlife is pure speculation. We simply don’t know if Homo naledi buried corpses with care and concern or unceremoniously dumped them into a faraway cave to get rid of them.有些学者认为做出这样的行为需要它们具备来生的观念,这纯粹是猜测。我们根本不知道,“纳勒迪人”是以关切的心态埋葬尸体,还是粗暴地将它们抛入偏远洞穴处理掉。It is an odd coincidence that “naledi” is an anagram of “denial.” We are trying way too hard to deny that we are modified apes. The discovery of these fossils is a major paleontological breakthrough. Why not seize this moment to overcome our anthropocentrism and recognize the fuzziness of the distinctions within our extended family? We are one rich collection of mosaics, not only genetically and anatomically, but also mentally.纳勒迪(naledi)和否定(denial)这两个词,字母相同,排序有异,这是一个诡异的巧合。我们花了太大的力气来否认自己是经过改变的猿类。发现这些化石的确是古生物学上的重大突破。为何不利用这次机会来超越人类中心说,承认我们所属的大家庭里各个成员的界限并没有那么分明?我们是一个组成非常丰富的群体,不仅从基因和解剖学上讲如此,在心智上也是如此。 /201509/400011。

阅读提示:中文在上,对照英文在下.《牛津英语词典》年度词汇新鲜出炉,万万没想到,“笑cry”这个表情居然击败众多单词,跃居榜首。For the first time ever, the Oxford Dictionaries Word of the Year is a pictograph whichofficially called the ‘Face with Tears of Joy’ emoji.Emojis符号早在上世纪90年代就出现了,只是到2015年才火起来而已。Emojis have been around since the late 1990s, but 2015 saw their use, and use of the wordemoji, increase hugely.今年牛津大学出版社与移动技术领导者SwiftKey公司联合对最受欢迎emoji表情发起调查,结果显示“笑cry”引领全球风尚,成为使用率最高的表情,在英国和美国的使用率分别达到15%和17%。而在去年,这个表情在英国和美国的使用率只占4%。emoji一词也是如此,尽管1997年就有这个词了,但是直到今年才真正火了一把!This year Oxford University Press have partnered with leading mobile technology businessSwiftKeyto explore frequency and usage statistics for some of the most popular emoji across the world, and ;Face with Tears of Joy; emoji was chosen because it was the most used emoji globally in 2015. The emoji accounts for 20% of all the emojis used in the UK in 2015, and 17% of those in the US: a sharp rise from 4% and 9% respectively in 2014. The word emoji has seen a similar surge: although it has been found in English since 1997, usage more than tripled in 2015 over the previous year according to data from the Oxford Dictionaries Corpus.ad blocker, 名词,指能屏蔽网页广告的软件。A piece of software designed to prevent advertisements from appearing on a web page.Brexit, 名词,意为英国退出欧盟,合成词,将British与exit结合浓缩而成。A term for the potential or hypothetical departure of the ed Kingdom from the European Union, from British + exit.Dark Web, 名词,“暗网”的意思,区别于互联网表层网络。The part of the World Wide Web that is only accessible by means of special software, allowing users and website operators to remain anonymous or untraceable.on fleek, 形容词性短语,意为“完美”!以后再做“完美”手势配上这一句就更完美了呢!Extremely good, attractive, or stylish.lumbersexual, 名词,“森男”的意思,继“森女”之后,又出现了森男,通常指的是衣着考究的、追求简单、自然生活的年轻城市男子。A young urban man who cultivates an appearance and style of dress (typified by a beard and check shirt) suggestive of a rugged outdoor lifestyle.refugee,名词,难民。A person who has been forced to leave their country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster.sharing economy, 名词,分享型经济。An economic system in which assets or services are shared between private individuals, either for free or for a fee, typically by means of the Internet.they,代词,用于指代不确定性别的一类人。Used to refer to a person of unspecified sex. /201511/410695。

High blood pressure is one of the main causes of heart disease, stroke and premature death in Europe and North America, with about one in three adults afflicted by the condition.在欧洲和北美,高血压是导致心脏病、中风和过早死亡的主要原因之一,约三分之一的成年人患有高血压。There are 152,000 strokes in the UK alone each year, resulting in 41,000 deaths, according to the National Health Service, yet an estimated 30 per cent of people who have high blood pressure don’t even know they have a problem.英国国民健康务(NHS)的数据显示,英国每年发生中风15.2万例,导致4.1万人死亡。不过,约30%的高血压患者甚至不知自己身体有恙。Under current guidelines in Europe, people are considered to have high blood pressure, known medically as hypertension, if their systolic blood pressure, the first of two numbers usually recorded, is above 140mm Hg, or millimetres of mercury.根据欧洲现行的参考指标,如果一个人的收缩压高于140毫米汞柱(mm Hg)——通常记录的两项血压值中的前一项——就可认为患有高血压(医学名为hypertension)。But a study released in the US last month may force doctors to rethink their approach to the problem.但上月美国发表的一项研究成果,或许会迫使医生们反思治疗高血压的方法。The National Institutes of Health study, known as the systolic blood pressure intervention trial (Sprint), followed 9,300 people who were over the age of 50. The trial found that people given medication to lower their blood pressure to 120mm Hg, or 20mm Hg below the previous target, suffered a third fewer heart attacks, heart failure and strokes than control groups. The risk of death declined by a quarter.美国国立卫生研究院(National Institutes of Health,简称NIH)的这项名为“收缩压干预试验”(Sprint)的研究,追踪了9300名50岁以上的研究对象。试验发现,通过药把血压降到120mm Hg、或者比之前目标低20mm Hg的人,心脏病发作、心力衰竭和中风的概率比对照组少三分之一。死亡风险下降了四分之一。The study was so successful that it was ended a year earlier than planned.研究非常成功,比预期提前一年便结束了。The problem is that in order to reach these reduced levels, patients were given a cocktail of three medications. When I asked Paul Thompson, a cardiologist in Hartford, Connecticut, if he has changed his treatment for hypertension as a result, he says “not really”. The main reason, he notes, is the difficulty in getting patients to adhere to such a complicated drug regimen.问题在于,为了把血压降到上述水平,患者需要用三种药物。当我询问康涅狄格州哈特福特的心血管专家保罗搠湬森(Paul Thompson),他是否因此改变了高血压治疗方法时,他说,“没有”。他指出,主要原因在于,让患者遵循如此复杂的药方案是有难度的。“We always have to remember that folks in studies are different from folks in the office,” Dr Thompson says.“我们始终必须记住,研究对象跟办公室里的人是不同的,”汤普森说。When I ask the same question of Rhian Touyz, the director of the Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Science at the University of Glasgow, she says she is awaiting the full results of the Sprint study, which will be formally presented at a conference in Florida next month, before making any change in recommendations in medications.当我向格拉斯哥大学(University of Glasgow)心血管和医学科学研究所(Cardiovascular and Medical Science)所长里安堠志(Rhian Touyz)提出相同问题时,她说,她在等待Sprint研究项目的完整结果——将于下个月在佛罗里达州的一次大会上正式公布——然后才会决定是否对用药建议进行更改。However, Professor Touyz does note that lifestyle changes are the first line of defence against hypertension.不过托志教授指出,改变生活方式是对抗高血压的第一道防线。One of the biggest contributors to high blood pressure is the large amount of salt in western diets, not only what we add from the shaker but what is hidden in prepackaged foods and beverages such as breakfast cereals and sports drinks.造成高血压的最重要因素之一,是西方饮食中盐的含量偏高,不但有我们用调味瓶添加的盐,还有隐藏在预包装食品和饮料(比如早餐谷物和运动饮料)中的盐。It has been known for 50 years that people who eat a low salt diet (under 2g a day) are free from the blood pressure problems common in western industrial countries.在西方工业国家,血压问题很常见。而人们50年前就知道,低盐饮食(每日低于2克)的人不会出血压问题。The NHS recommends eating no more than 6g of salt, or 2.4g of sodium a day.NHS建议,每日盐摄入量不要超过6克,也就是说,钠摄入量不超过2.4克。Prof Touyz says that cutting salt intake is only one of several lifestyle changes she recommends. The others include exercising four times a week for 30-40 minutes, cutting alcohol consumption and eating a diet high in fruit and vegetables.托志教授表示,减少盐摄入量只是通过改变生活方式降低血压的几种建议之一。其他还包括每周锻炼四次、每次30至40分钟,少喝酒,多吃水果和蔬菜。So get your blood pressure checked. For those who have high blood pressure, it would help to increase consumption of kale, spinach, beets and beetroot juice, which are rich in nitrates. The nitrates become nitric oxide in the body, which is a natural dilator of blood vessels, significantly lowering blood pressure.所以,把你的血压控制住。对于高血压患者,多摄入羽衣甘蓝、菠菜、甜菜和甜菜根汁等富含硝酸盐的食物是有好处的。硝酸盐在人体内会变成一氧化氮,一氧化氮是天然的血管扩张器,能够明显降低血压。 /201510/405252。

It has long been known that regular, moderate exercise is one of the best things you can do for your health, with studies showing that trained athletes have increased levels of natural killer cells that fight infection. But as anyone who practises endurance sports probably knows, hard training for an event like a cycle race or a marathon run can leave you with a dandy head cold or other upper respiratory tract infection (URTI).人们很早以前就知道,定期而适度的锻炼是对健康最有益的事情之一。研究表明,受过训练的运动员体内抗感染的“自然杀伤细胞”水平升高。不过,练习耐力运动的人也许都知道,为参加自行车比赛或马拉松长跑这样的赛事而开展的艰苦训练,可能会让你患上头伤风或其他上呼吸道感染(URTI)。At the moment I’m trying to fight off a suspicious soreness in my throat, a warning sign that a URTI may be on the way. I wondered: what is it about working out and sweating heavily that makes you more vulnerable to illnesses?眼下,我正在对付自己喉咙中的可疑疼痛感,这是个警告信号,显示我可能已得了上呼吸道感染。我奇怪的是:锻炼和大量出汗怎么会令人更容易得病呢?David Nieman, a researcher, tracked 2,311 participants in the 1987 Los Angeles marathon and came up with some startling results: during the week following the race, 12.9 per cent of runners reported being sick, compared with 2.2 per cent of control runners who did not take part in the race that year.研究人员戴维尼曼(David Nieman)通过追踪1987年洛杉矶马拉松的2311名参赛者,得出了一些令人吃惊的结果:在比赛结束后的那周里,12.9%参赛者曾报告身体不适;相比之下,没有参加比赛的对照组跑步者感到不适的比例只有2.2%。One of Dr Nieman’s findings was that prolonged intense exercise caused the athletes’ immune systems to respond as if they were fighting infections, with a sharp increase in stress hormones and inflammation-fighting cells called neutrophils and monocytes after the run.尼曼的一个发现是,长时间的高强度锻炼,会使运动员的免疫系统做出仿佛在对抗炎症的反应。在跑完马拉松之后,选手们的应激激素、以及被称为中性粒细胞及单核白血球的抗炎细胞因子急剧升高。In addition, other research has found that mucosal systems — the moist bits in the mouth, nose and eyes — produce a substance called secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), which is the body’s first line of defence against pathogens such as colds and the flu.此外,其他一些研究发现,人的粘膜系统(口腔、鼻腔和眼睛中的湿润部位)会产生一种叫做“分泌型免疫球蛋白A”(SIgA)的物质,这是躯体抵御感冒和流感等病原体的第一道防线。But SIgA has been shown to decline after a heavy stretch of training. “Consensus exists that reduced levels of saliva SIgA are associated with increased risk of URTI during heavy training,” said one study.然而,在经过持续大量锻练之后,研究显示SIgA的水平会下降。研究报告表示:“存在这样一个共识,高强度锻练期间,唾液中SIgA水平的下降与患上呼吸道感染的风险增大存在联系。”Everyone’s mother has a favourite treatment for a cold, but here are a few with scientific support.每一位妈妈都有各自偏爱的治疗感冒的方法,这里却要列举几个有科学依据的疗法。One of the most widely studied is the mineral zinc, which has been shown to inhibit replication of the rhinovirus, which is the cause of about 40 per cent of colds. The Journal of the American Medical Association reported in 2014 that “oral zinc is associated with a shorter duration of the common cold in healthy people”, but other studies have found mixed results.被研究得最多的治感冒药物之一是矿物锌,它被明能抑制鼻病毒的复制,后者是约40%感冒的罪魁祸首。《美国医学会杂志》(Journal of the American Medical Association)曾在2014年称,“口锌与健康人群普通感冒持续时间缩短有关”。不过,其他研究则显示了相互矛盾的结果。The primary reason, according to George Eby, the US researcher who discovered zinc’s effect on colds, is that only positively charged ionic zinc is effective against infections, so athletes should look for lozenges containing zinc acetate or zinc gluconate, not commonly available zinc citrate.发现锌对感冒有用的美国研究人员乔治伊比(George Eby)认为,主要的原因在于,只有带正电荷的锌离子具有抗感染功效。因此,运动员应该用含有乙酸锌或葡萄糖酸锌的药片,而不是常见的柠檬酸锌。One Cochrane Review of data in 2013 found that the much touted Vitamin C generally failed to protect against colds, although it may offer some benefit to heavy exercisers.2013年《考科蓝回顾》(Cochrane Review)的一项数据显示,倍受吹捧的维生素C通常不能预防感冒——尽管它可能对高强度锻炼者有某些益处。Another nutritional supplement recently studied is a green alga known as chlorella. One relatively small study found that athletes who took chlorella during heavy training did not suffer the same reduction in SIgA that other athletes did.另一种最近被研究的营养补充剂是一种被称为小球藻的绿藻。一项规模相对较小的研究发现,在高强度训练期间用小球藻的运动员并未出现与其他运动员一样的SIgA减少现象。Finally, a simple but effective protection and cure that is common in Japan, but less so in North America or Europe: gargling. A randomised controlled trial in Japan showed that the occurrence of respiratory tract infections was significantly reduced in people who gargled several times a day. The most effective gargle was tap water, not the various medicinal gargles available, most probably because chlorine added to drinking water inhibits viruses.最后,一个很简单而又有效的防治方法是漱口,这种方法在日本十分常见,在北美或欧洲却不那么普遍。在日本开展的一项随机对照试验显示,在一天多次漱口的人群中,呼吸道感染的发生率显著降低。最有效的漱口水是自来水,而不是市面上可以见到的各种药用漱口水,最有可能的原因是饮用水中添加的氯能够抑制病毒。 /201601/419735。

Although most young Argentinians aren’t even thinking about marriage these days, they seem quite fond of wedding ceremonies. So they’ve come up with a bizarre party trend of fake weddings, where groups of 20- and 30-somethings get together to attend wedding-themed parties complete with fake bride and groom.虽然大多数阿根廷年轻人根本没考虑过谈婚论嫁,可他们似乎都还很喜欢参加婚礼。所以他们开启了“假结婚”的奇异潮流,一堆20或者30多岁的年轻人齐聚一堂,参加婚礼主题的聚会,不过新郎和新娘都不是真的。The idea was the brainchild of 26-year-old publicist Martin Acerbi, who, a couple of years ago, organised a fake wedding with four of his friends in La Plata, about 32 miles away from Buenos Aires. “It all started two years ago with a group of friends: we realised we hadn’t been to a wedding in a long time because hardly anybody is getting married anymore,” Acerbi says.26岁的公关马丁·阿克比想出了这一主意,几年前,他与他的四位朋友在距离阿根廷布宜诺斯艾利斯51.5公里远的拉普拉塔组织了一场假婚礼。他回忆道:“一切始于两年前我和一群朋友的经历:由于现在很少有人结婚,我们意识到我们很久没有参加过婚礼了。”To his surprise, the event was a huge success which got him thinking about a new business. The friends went on to found ‘Falsa Boda’, a fake wedding organising company, in November 2013. They rent out real wedding locations, hire caterers, florists, and DJs, and make everything look like a real wedding. Except, there is no ‘happily ever after’.令他惊讶的是,他们组织的假婚礼获得了空前的成功,这使得阿克比想到了新商机。这几位志同道合的好友于2013年11月成立了一家组织假婚礼的公司Falsa Boda。他们租赁了真正的婚礼举办地点,雇佣了宴席承办者、花匠和DJ,让一切看上去与真正的婚礼一模一样。唯一的差别在于,婚礼过后没有“从此之后的幸福生活”。The bride and groom are hired too, as is a secret boyfriend or spurned lover who arrives unexpectedly to disrupt the ceremony. There’s a fair bit of drama when the bride or groom abandons the wedding and elopes with the third actor. There’s a different storyline for each event, and sometimes the ‘bride’ even throws her bouquet to the female guests.新娘和新郎也是雇佣来的,假婚礼上还会有秘密男友或者感觉备受冷落的情人前来闹场。有时新娘或者新郎会抛弃婚礼与第三名演员私奔。每场假婚礼最后都会有不同的故事结局,有时新娘会将捧花扔给女性客人。“These wedding professionals have become our strategic allies, we organise it like it’s the real thing, except the marriage itself is fake,” Acerbi said. “Our guests get all the fun of a wedding party with none of the commitment, or the problem of finding someone who is actually getting married.”阿克比说:“这些婚礼专家已经成为了我们的战略同盟,我们将它当做一场真正的婚礼来举办,只有婚姻本身是假的。我们的客人可以充分享受这场没有承诺的婚礼的乐趣,就算看中新郎新娘也没有关系,因为他们不是真的结婚。”Each fake wedding event can accommodate 600 to 700 guests, who all pay about to attend. According to Acerbi, the events are mostly targeted at women, who end up buying the majority of the tickets. “The romanticism around weddings is clearly still alive, at least in that respect,” he explained.每场假婚礼能容纳600-700名客人,每位客人需付50美元入场费。据阿克比透露,假婚礼的主要目标是女性,她们购买了大部分入场券。他解释说:“虽然婚姻本身是假的,但婚礼的浪漫氛围并未减少。”32-year-old marketing manager Pablo Boniface, who recently attended a fake wedding, said: “The girls were euphoric, as if a cousin of theirs was really getting married, but it was just an actress. When the bride arrived, everyone went crazy, pulling out their phones and snapping pictures like she was a Hollywood star.” He agreed that the fake weddings were a big hit because hardly anyone his age ever talks about getting married. “I’m single and so are all of my friends of both sexes. Marriage is something we don’t even think about. It’s a formality that has nothing to do with love.”32岁的市场经理帕布洛·伯尼菲斯最近参加了一场假婚礼,他说:“姑娘们的情绪都很高涨,感觉就像她们的亲戚真的在结婚一样,但其实婚礼上只有演员。新娘入场之后,每个人都很疯狂,拿出他们的手机拍摄照片,感觉她就像一名好莱坞明星。”他承认假婚礼特别受欢迎,因为他的同龄人很少会考虑结婚。“我还是单身,我身边的男女朋友们也一样。婚姻是我们不会考虑的东西。这是一场与爱无关的仪式。”There’s plenty of data to prove Boniface right. 22,000 couples tied the knot in Buenos Aires in 1990, but that number nosedived to almost half that – 11,642 – by 2013. According to government statistics, the people who do get married are much older. So people these days don’t have many opportunities to attend wedding parties, which is why Acerbi’s fake weddings are so popular.不少数据显示1990年布宜诺斯艾利斯有2.2万人结婚,而这一数字到了2013年暴跌至11642人。据政府统计,真正结婚的人年纪都比较大。如今阿根廷的年轻人没什么机会参加婚礼,阿克比的假婚礼才会如此受欢迎。“They are going to see something they don’t do in real life any more,” explained sociologist Victoria Mazzeo. “The fact is that very few young people get married anymore.”社会学家维多利亚·马泽尔表示:“他们会见识到现实生活中看不到的东西。事实上,现在很少有年轻人结婚了。”And as Boniface pointed out, it’s apparently easier to meet someone at fake weddings than at real ones!正如伯尼菲斯指出,很明显去假婚礼结交朋友远比去真婚礼方便。 /201510/404684。

HONG KONG — Wallace Chan, the Hong Kong jeweler behind the creation of what has been called the world’s most expensive diamond necklace, began working with his hands when he was 8 years old.香港——“世界上最昂贵的钻石项链”背后的创作者是香港珠宝设计师陈世英(Wallace Chan),他从八岁就开始做手艺活了。In the 1960s his family migrated from the impoverished Fujian Province to Hong Kong, where they made money from odd jobs. The boy was put to work on repetitive tasks best done by small hands, like spooling yarn or assembling cheap decorative goods.20世纪60年代,陈世英一家从贫困的福建省移居香港,靠打零工为生。年幼的陈世英做的是那些只有小手才能做的重复性劳动,比如绕纱线,或组装廉价的装饰品之类。“We made plastic flowers until our fingers bled,” he said, speaking in Cantonese during an interview at his studio. “We got 10 cents for every bag of plastic flowers. I still remember — and for 15 cents we could get two pineapple buns.”“我们做塑料花,直到手指流血,”他在自己的工作室接受采访时用粤语说道,“我们每做一袋塑料花能赚一毛钱。我还记得,有一毛五分钱就可以买两个菠萝包。”Mr. Chan, 59, now works in an upstairs studio in Central Hong Kong, something of a fortress, with double electronically locked doors. A slight man with a long gray beard, wearing a plain black suit, he sat in a back room — a black cloth thrown over his desk, the shades drawn against the sunlight — and assessed bag after bag of uncut, unpolished stones, each one the size of a golf ball. “The stone tricks the eye, so I have to outsmart it,” he said, peering at a lump of topaz with a flashlight. “I can see its flaws and angles. There are elements I want to hide and elements I want to bring out. I am chasing its light.”陈先生今年59岁,他在香港中环上层的办公室有点像一座城堡,有两道带电子锁的门。他身材瘦小,留着长长的花白胡子,穿着一身朴素的黑色西装,坐在办公室里屋,桌上铺着黑布,色调反衬着阳光。屋子里有一袋袋未经切割打磨的原石,每一块都是高尔夫球大小。“石头会欺骗眼睛,所以我得比它聪明才行,”他用手电照着一大块托帕石,打量着它。“我可以看到它的瑕疵和角度。有些东西是我想隐藏起来的,有些东西是我想打磨出来的。我在追逐它的光。”In September, Mr. Chan unveiled A Heritage in Bloom, called the world’s most expensive diamond necklace, at an estimated cost of 0 million. Its 11,551 diamonds, with jade pieces to create the butterflies and bats that Mr. Chan loves, total 383 carats; the centerpiece diamond alone weighs 104 carats.九月,陈世英发布了“裕世钻芳华”(A Heritage in Bloom),它被称为世界上最昂贵的钻石项链,估价2亿美元。它使用玉块及11551颗钻石,拼出陈先生喜欢的蝴蝶与蝙蝠图样,重达383克拉。主钻重达104克拉。The project started in 2010 when Chow Tai Fook, a Hong Kong jewelry company, acquired an extremely rare, unpolished 507-carat diamond found in the Cullinan mine in South Africa. It commissioned Mr. Chan to craft the stone into a masterpiece that would become part of China’s long history of jewelry design.这个项目始于2010年,当时香港珠宝公司周大福获得了南非库利南矿山出品的一块极为罕有、未经琢磨的钻石原石,重达507克拉。陈先生接受委托,把这块石头打磨成一件中国漫长的首饰设计史上的杰作。“When I saw it, I felt my spirit leaving my body and returning,” Mr. Chan said. “I looked at that rock for three years before I touched it.” The final product took 47,000 hours of work from 22 craftsmen.“我一看到它,就觉得魂魄离开身体,然后又回来了,”陈先生说,“我对着这块石头看了三年,之后才着手。”最终成品是22位手工艺人花费47000小时的成果。In late November, as part of the viewing period for its Dec. 1 gem auction, Christie’s Hong Kong opened an exhibition featuring 30 exceptionally technically difficult works by Mr. Chan, some of which had not been seen publicly before. The show, which didn’t include sales, coincided with the introduction of “Wallace Chan: Dream Light Water,” a 380-page book written by the jewelry expert Juliet W. de La Rochefoucauld and published by Rizzoli.12月1日,佳士得香港将举办珠宝拍卖。作为拍卖观赏期的一部分,11月底,佳士得举办了一次展会,内容是陈先生的30件工艺极为复杂的作品,其中有些从未公开展出。这次展览不包括销售,正好与《陈世英:梦光水》(Wallace Chan: Dream Light Water)一书同时推出,这本380页的书由珠宝专家朱丽特·W·德·拉·罗切夫考尔德(Juliet W. de La Rochefoucauld)创作,由里佐利出版社(Rizzoli)出版社出版。The 0 book will be available in the ed States on Jan. 28, when Mr. Chan is scheduled to hold a talk and book signing at the Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum in New York.这本书售价280美元,将于1月28日在美国上市,届时陈先生将在纽约的库珀·休伊特,史密森尼亚设计物馆(Cooper Hewitt,Smithsonian Design Museum)做讲座和签名售书活动。In his studio’s conference room, Mr. Chan carefully flipped through the exhibition version of the book, which is more than two feet long, and features close-ups of his detailed works.陈先生在工作室的会议室里小心地翻着这本书的展览版本,它大约有两英尺多长,其中有他精美作品的照片特写。His favorite pieces are playful, whimsical, even humorous. There are dangling blue earrings called Dancing Elf; a rainbow-colored lark with a diamond in its beak; and a fish with translucent fins blowing bubbles. Mr. Chan particularly loves butterflies, a motif that appears in works such as Fluttery-Painted Lady, patterned with grass and flowers, and Ragtime, with flamelike wings crafted from paper-thin sheets of mother of pearl.他最喜欢的作品有趣、古怪,甚至很有幽默感。其中有名叫“舞蹈精灵”的蓝色耳坠;虹色调的云雀嘴上嵌着一颗钻石;鱼儿长着半透明的鳍,还吐着着泡泡。陈世英尤其喜欢蝴蝶,这是他作品中常常出现的主题,比如:在“鼓翼的蛱蝶”(Fluttery-Painted Lady)中,蝴蝶与花草一起出现,在“拉格泰姆”(Ragtime)中,蝴蝶火焰般的翅膀用薄如纸张的珠母片做成。When an idea comes to him, he grabs a pencil and sketches, quickly and fluidly. During the interview, he dreamed up a horse’s head with a flowing mane, which turns into another horse’s head, that then drops down into a jeweled pendant.他一有想法,就会抓起铅笔迅速流畅地画下来。在采访中,他想象出一个鬃毛飘扬的马头,鬃毛又幻化作另一匹马的头,最后成为一个珠宝吊坠。Mr. Chan’s hands are small enough for him to try on his own ladies’ jewelry. He slid on a ring he called My Dreams, which is extraordinarily light and slimming to the fingers, considering that it is made of two large jeweled cubes.陈世英的手很小,能够试戴自己做的女式首饰。他戴上一只叫做“我的梦”(My Dreams)的戒指,它由两大块珠宝立方体组成,却极为轻盈,在手指上显得很纤细。Using both hands, he picked up a large flower brooch, called Vividity, that is an explosion of hot pink and bright green. It, too, is surprisingly light for its size, the result of Mr. Chan’s technique of using titanium, which has a fraction of the density of gold.他双手拿起一个大大的花卉胸针,它的名字叫做“鲜明”(Vividity),艳粉与亮绿色碰撞在一起。这款珠宝虽然大,但也出人意料地轻盈,这是因为陈先生采用了钛金属工艺,所以它的密度只是金子的零头。His two workshops — one in Hong Kong and one in Macau, employing artisans who have worked with Mr. Chan for 15 to 30 years — produce only about a dozen pieces of year. “I spend so much time with one piece that it becomes me,” he said. “The stone is me, and I am the stone.”陈世英的两个工作室分别在香港和,聘用了与他合作过15到30年的工匠们,一年只生产十几件珠宝。“我在一件作品上花费很多时间,于是它就成了我的一部分,”他说,“那块石头就是我,我就是那块石头。”Mr. Chan became interested in precious stones when, at 16, he got a job at a workshop that carved Chinese religious icons. At 17, he begged his father for 1,000 Hong Kong dollars, now about 0, and used the money to buy a carving machine and a hunk of malachite and started selling small carvings door-to-door.陈世英从16岁起开始对宝石感兴趣,当时他在一家雕刻中国宗教塑像的工作室找了份工作。17岁那年,他向父亲要来1000港币,用这些钱买了一个雕刻机和一大块孔雀石,开始挨家挨户地卖小雕像。His family was pleased that he had found a steady job; but in his late 20s, he became restless.家里对他有份稳定工作感到很满意;但他快到30岁的时候,开始感到焦虑。“I wanted to be more than a workman,” he said. “I wanted to study art and watch films. I wanted to make things I loved. I wanted to make jewelry that dances with you, creations that have a story and a soul.”“我不想只做个工人,”他说,“我想研究艺术、想看电影。我想做我喜欢的东西。我想做出能与人共舞的珠宝,想创造出拥有故事和灵魂的作品。”So at the age of 28, against his family’s wishes, he moved to Macau, then still a Portuguese colony but aly a free-wheeling gambling haven.于是28岁的时候,他不顾家人的反对移居。当时的还是葡萄牙的殖民地,不过已经是个自由自在的避风港了。He became obsessed with the fact that a flaw could be reflected many times in a cut stone — creating an optical illusion similar to a double-exposure photograph. From 1985 to 1987, he developed the Wallace Cut, the technique that would bring him international fame. The Wallace Cut involves drilling a hole into the back of a multifaceted stone and then carving and etching an image, in reverse. When viewed from the front, the image will be reflected multiple times.他开始对一件事着迷:切割之后的宝石里,一个瑕疵可能会被反射很多次,创造出一种光学幻象,类似二次曝光摄影。从1985年到1987年,他开发出了“世英切割”(Wallace Cut),这项技术为他带来了国际声誉。这种技术包括在多面的宝石背面钻孔,然后雕刻和蚀刻出一个反向的图像。从正面看的时候,这个图像就会被多次反射。He also developed a very small, very fast drill because the technique requires that the stone be drilled, cooled in water because of the friction caused by the head of the drill, dried and drilled again multiple times — using elements of centuries-old European techniques such as intaglio printmaking and cameo carving.“世英切割”需要钻孔,由于钻头擦生热,还需要在水中冷却,干燥后继续钻,如此反复多次,他因此开发出一种又小又快的钻头,借鉴了几个世纪前欧洲的技术,比如凹版印刷和宝石浮雕。His most famous Wallace Cut was an homage to the Horae, the Greek goddesses of the seasons, in blue topaz. A German dealer took one look at Horae and told Mr. Chan that he had to take it to Europe. He showed it at the 1991 Intergem Fair and the Deutsches Edelstein Museum, both in Germany, and began to be known as a carving prodigy.“世英切割”最著名的作品以希腊的时序女神(Horae) 命名,用蓝色托帕石制成。一个德国商人只看了一眼这件“时序女神”,就告诉陈先生,他一定要把它带到欧洲去。后来,陈先生在德国的1991年Intergem览会与德意志伊德尔斯泰因物馆(Deutsches Edelstein Museum)展出了这件作品。One of Mr. Chan’s largest and most unusual commissions came in the late ’90s, when a Taiwanese temple asked him to make a three-foot-high great stupa of gold, crystal and ruby to house a relic believed to be Buddha’s tooth. Mr. Chan worked for months to figure out how to encase the tooth in concentric crystal globes; the project, completed in 2001, took two years in all.陈先生最大的、也是最特别的委约作品之一是在90年代末期,一个台湾寺院请他制作一尊三英尺高,镶嵌水晶和红宝石的金舍利塔,用来盛放佛牙圣物。陈世英研究了好几个月,才想出如何在构成同心圆的水晶球中放入佛牙;这个项目在2001年完工,历时两年。Fran漀椀猀 Curiel, chairman of Christie’s Asia-Pacific, in an email called Mr. Chan a “Renaissance man in the best sense of the world — a scientist, designer, sculpture; but my best description of him is as a visionary.佳士得亚太地区主席高逸龙(Fran漀椀猀 Curiel)在电子邮件中称陈先生是“一位典型的文艺复兴式人物——科学家、设计师、雕塑家;但对他最好的描述一个有远见的人”。“He has the curiosity, courage and, above all, the talents to push boundaries, artistically and geographically,” Mr. Curiel continued. “He is one of the first Chinese jewelry artists to make his name in the international arena.”“他有好奇心,有勇气,最重要的是,还有突破边界的才华,无论是艺术的边界还是地理上的边界,”高逸龙说,“他是首批享誉国际的中国珠宝艺术家之一。”Mr. Chan finally broke through a glass ceiling in the jewelry world when, in 2012, he became the first Asian designer to be invited to exhibit at the Biennale des Antiquaires in Paris, the world’s premiere haute jewelry exhibition.陈世英最终打破了珠宝世界中的玻璃天花板,2012年,他成了第一个受邀参展巴黎古董双年展(Biennale des Antiquaires)的亚洲设计师,这是世界顶尖的高端珠宝展览。“The Path to Enlightenment — Art and Zen” had pieces that were entirely different from those by European designers: a swirling Chinese dragon, a jade-green cricket, a translucent swan and fighting scorpions. The Great Wall, Mr. Chan’s necklace of antique Chinese imperial jadeite and diamond-encrusted maple leaves, sold for 56 million euros, or .6 million.“启蒙之路:艺术与禅”(The Path to Enlightenment — Art and Zen)的展品与欧洲设计师们的珠宝内容截然不同:盘旋的中国龙、绿的蟋蟀、半透明的天鹅和打斗的蝎子。陈先生的“长城”(The Great Wall)是一款项链,带有钻石镶嵌的枫叶,售价5600万欧元,或约合5960万美元。Mr. Chan is said to sell works only to clients he likes — a practice he neither confirmed or denied.据说陈先生只把作品卖给自己喜欢的客户——这件事他既不承认也不否认。“Let’s just say I don’t choose business just because of money,” he said. “Each work is from my heart, my hands. I suffer through each one. The buyer needs to understand that it is from my heart — that they are taking my child.”“这么说吧,我不会只为了钱而交易,”他说,“每件作品都是我用心、用双手做成的。每一件都让我付出心血。买家要理解它们发自我的心灵——他们带走的是我的孩子。”“If someone just says, ‘I have money, I want it,’ and they don’t understand, then I don’t want to give it to them.”“如果有人说,‘我有钱,我想要’,那么他们就没有理解,我也不想把作品卖给这样的人。”Both Mr. Chan and his staff are extremely protective of customers, saying all sales are confidential. And auction reports on his pieces just note “private buyer.”陈先生和员工都极为保护客户,说所有交易均要保密,作品的拍卖报告上只写着“私人买家”。Mr. Chan lives simply. He wears no jewelry, drinks endless cups of plain Chinese tea and still resides in a quiet corner of Macau.陈先生的生活很简谱。他不戴珠宝,一杯又一杯地喝着普通的中国茶,他依然住在一个安静的角落。He doesn’t particularly want to discuss his eye-popping price tags or prominent clients.他不太想谈那些让人瞠目结舌的价格,或是那些显赫的客户。“I want to leave a legacy,” he said. “Chinese jewelry has a history of 6,000 years, and I want to be part of it.”“我想留下一份遗产,”他说,“中国的珠宝有6000年历史,我希望成为其中的一部分。” /201601/419351。