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成都那些医院是私人医院邛崃市人民医院体检四川省成都中心医院治疗效果 Green groups are threatening to sue the US environmental regulator, alleging it is failing in its duty to tackle a surge in earthquakes that they blame on the American shale revolution.环保组织正威胁要起诉美国环境监管部门,指控该机构未能尽到责任对付他们所称的美国页岩革命造成地震数量大幅增多的问题。The groups said yesterday that they were preparing a lawsuit against the Environmental Protection Agency for not curbing the disposal of waste water by oil companies, a practice that scientists say has triggered a rise in seismic activity.这些环保组织昨日表示,它们正准备起诉美国环境保护局(Environmental Protection Agency)未能限制石油公司的废水处理方式,科学家表示,这种做法导致地震活动增加。Earthquakes linked to oil and gas production have unnerved residents in Oklahoma and Texas and become an unexpectedly pressing problem for the US fracking boom. Two oil producers are aly being sued by a woman injured in a 2011 Oklahoma quake.与油气生产相关的地震令俄克拉荷马州和德克萨斯州的居民感到恐慌,已意外地成为美国水力压裂热潮面临的一个紧迫问题。一名在2011年俄克拉荷马州地震中受伤的女性已在起诉两家石油生产商。The groups threatening to sue the EPA, their usual ally, say the agency has a legal obligation to update rules on the disposal of waste water from oil production, which are unchanged since 1988.这些环保组织威胁将起诉它们通常的盟友美国环保局,他们表示,美国环保局有法律义务修改有关石油生产废水处理的规则,自1988年以来,这些规则就没有变过。“We think EPA’s failure to act is particularly egregious in light of the shale boom and the vast amount of waste it has generated,” said Adam Kron, a lawyer at the Environmental Integrity Project, which is part of the coalition. “We’re flying blind here. We need to have some rules in place.”“我们认为,鉴于页岩热潮及其产生的大量废水,美国环保局未能采取措施尤为令人震惊,”环保组织——环境保全项目(Environmental Integrity Project)的律师亚当克龙(Adam Kron)表示,“我们正处于无法可依的状态。我们需要有一些规则。”The oil and gas industry is trying to fend off regulations that would require it to overhaul its practices or spend more money, as it buckles under the strain of sub- a barrel US crude.油气行业正试图抵制要求该行业大幅改变做法或增加出的监管规定,该行业正艰难应对美国油价低于每桶40美元的压力。“Anything that raises costs right now is a problem,” said Kim Hatfield, president of Crawley Petroleum and an officer of the Oklahoma Independent Petroleum Association.Crawley石油公司总裁、俄克拉荷马州独立石油协会(Oklahoma Independent Petroleum Association)官员基姆哈特菲尔德(Kim Hatfield)表示:“眼下,任何加大成本的事情都是问题。”The quakes are not caused by fracking, the widesp process that involves blasting water and chemicals underground at high pressure to shatter the shale rock. The US Geological Survey has instead pointed the finger at the way companies handle unwanted water released as a byproduct of fracking. This water is pumped into separate subterranean wells where, scientists say, it can reactivate formerly stable faults.地震并非是由水力压裂操作引起的,这一普遍工艺涉及以高压向地下大量注入水和化学物质,以裂解页岩。相反,美国地质调查局(US Geological Survey)指责企业对水力压裂的副产品——废水的处理方式。科学家表示,这些废水被注入另外的地下井,可能令之前稳定的断层重新活跃起来。The industry says the cause of tremors has not been settled. David Lawler, chief executive of BP’s business in the continental US, said: “At the moment it’s inconclusive.”油气行业表示,有关轻度地震的原因并不确定。英国石油(BP)美国大陆业务首席执行官大卫劳勒(David Lawler)表示:“目前尚无定论。”The EPA would not comment on the lawsuit threat but said existing rules covered seismic matters and that it would continue to work with states to address potential concerns.美国环保局不愿对诉讼威胁置评,但表示,现有规定涵盖地震问题,将继续与各州合作,应对潜在担忧。 /201508/395833Rising incomes, rapid urbanisation and concerns over the toxic smog that enshrouds many of its cities are driving China away from coal and oil and towards natural gas.不断增长的收入、快速推进的城镇化以及人们对笼罩多个中国城市的有毒雾霾的担忧,正促使中国改变对煤炭和石油的依赖,更多地使用天然气。Gas usage has risen almost sevenfold in 13 years to 168bn cubic metres, and China has become the largest consumer after the US and Russia.过去的13年中,中国天然气用量几乎增长了6倍,达到1680亿立方米,中国也成为位居美国和俄罗斯之后的第三大天然气消费国。Further increases are expected. The power, industrial and transport sectors are forecast to drive demand to 315bcm by 2019, according to the International Energy Agency, the wealthy nations’ energy watchdog, and Beijing has set its sights even higher.中国天然气用量有望进一步增长。作为富裕国家能源监督机构的国际能源署(IEA)预测,到2019年时,中国电力、工业和交通部门将推动中国天然气需求量增至3150亿立方米,而中国政府设立的目标则更为高远。But uncertainty remains about the pace of growth into the next decade.但是在下一个十年,中国天然气的发展步伐还存在一些不确定的地方。“Natural gas demand in China has potential to grow much more rapidly than it is now,” says Anne-Sophie Corbeau, senior IEA gas analyst. “However, there is still a lot standing in its way. In some ways we are less optimistic about the Chinese.”“中国天然气需求有潜力实现比现在快得多的增长,”国际能源署高级天然气分析师安妮-索菲#8226;科尔(Anne-Sophie Corbeau)说,“然而,在其前进的路上还有很多障碍。在某些方面,我们对中国的天然气前景不那么看好。”The expansion of the country’s gas sector is a massive logistical and capital investment challenge. Supply availability, delivery infrastructure, pricing levels and policy, and funding to promote gas over other fuels are all factors that dictate the speed at which the switch occurs.中国天然气行业的扩张将给物流和资本投资带来巨大挑战。供应能力、输送基础设施、定价标准和政策、以及推广天然气以取代其他燃料所需的资金,这些都是决定能源结构转换速度的因素。The government wants to boost gas’s share of total energy consumption from 4 per cent to about 8 per cent by the end of 2015 and 10 per cent by 2020, to reduce the plumes of black clouds resulting from heavy coal use.中国政府希望提高天然气在能耗总量中所占的比重,目标是到2015年底将这一比重从现在的4%提高到8%左右,到2020年提高到10%,以减少大量燃烧煤炭造成的黑云。But China’s ability to construct the vast infrastructure network needed to produce, import and transport enough gas to meet demand is under scrutiny.然而,生产、进口和输送足够多的天然气以满足中国的需求,需要庞大的基础设施网络,中国是否有能力建好这个网络,正受到密切的关注。“There is a lot of pent-up demand, particularly over the last decade, but infrastructure and the availability of supply have been a constraint,” says Michael Stoppard, gas strategist at IHS. “They really haven’t been able to develop the gas quickly enough.”“有很多被压抑的需求,特别是在过去10年里,但基础设施和供应能力一直是瓶颈,”咨询机构IHS的天然气策略师迈克尔#8226;斯托帕德(Michael Stoppard)说,“他们确实未能以足够快的速度发展天然气。”Pipelines have been at the top of the agenda. After a decade of negotiations, China struck a 0bn supply deal with Russia in May as part of a long-term strategy to raise gas imports via pipeline and liquefied natural gas. China is also connected to pipeline corridors in central Asia and Myanmar. But these will take years to ramp up to full potential, says Ella Chou at the Brookings Institution’s China Center.管道建设是当务之急。在经过10年的谈判后,中国在5月份与俄罗斯签订了一项价值4000亿美元的天然气供应合同,这是中国通过输气管道和液化气方式提高天然气进口量的长期战略的一部分。另外,中国还连入了中亚和缅甸的管道走廊。但布鲁金斯学会中国中心(Brookings Institution#39;s China Center)的Ella Chou表示,这些举措需要数年时间才能发挥最大潜能。The country, which is believed to hold the world’s largest reserves of shale gas, hopes to replicate the US production boom in the form of tight gas, coal-bed methane and coal-to-gas conversion. But unlike the US shale industry, China does not have thousands of independent oil and gas entrepreneurs competing to expand production.中国被认为是世界上页岩气储量最大的国家。它希望通过发展致密气、煤层气和煤转气来复制美国的天然气繁荣。但中国的页岩油气行业与美国不同,中国没有成千上万独立的油气企业家相互竞争来提高产量。Everything depends on state-owned companies that lack development experience. Exploration rights, geological surveys and the adaptation of drilling and exploration technologies to suit the country have proved problematic, as has pulling together the relevant statistics.在中国,一切都依赖国有企业,这些企业缺乏发展经验。勘探权、地质勘测、改进钻探和勘探技术以适应中国情况,都被明是困难重重,将相关统计数据汇集在一起也是如此。Beijing has halved its target for shale gas production by 2020 to 30bcm, according to Reuters, after efforts to unlock the unconventional fuel ran into difficulties.路透社(Reuters)消息称,尝试开采非常规能源遇到困难后,北京方面将2020年的页岩气开采目标减半到300亿立方米。China became a net gas importer in 2007 and import dependency reached 32 per cent last year. Aside from questions over how quickly indigenous production can increase and whether China can contract enough imports by pipeline, there is a shortage of LNG storage facilities.2007年中国成为了天然气净进口国,去年中国对进口天然气的依存度达到32%。国内产量能以多快的速度增长,中国是否能签订合同进口足够多的管道天然气——除了这两个问题以外,中国还面临着液化天然气贮藏设施短缺的困境。“On top of its long-term contracted gas [deals with] Turkmenistan, Myanmar, Russia, and LNG deals with the Qataris, Australians and Canadians, the ability of the Chinese to continue to grow domestic production – conventional and unconventional – quickly will dictate the needs of extra uncontracted gas that could be at a lower cost,” says Thierry Bros, senior analyst at Société Générale in Paris.“除了与土库曼斯坦、缅甸、俄罗斯达成的长期合约天然气(交易)以及与卡塔尔、澳大利亚和加拿大达成的液化天然气交易以外,中国继续快速提高国内常规和非常规天然气产量的能力,将决定对额外的非合约天然气的需求,这些天然气的价格可能更低,”法国兴业(Société Générale)驻巴黎的高级分析师蒂埃里#8226;布罗斯(Thierry Bros)说。Ultimately demand will be determined by price, analysts say, because of the many alternatives to imported gas that are cost-competitive. The single biggest competitor is power from coal transported via transmission lines to the coastal regions.分析师表示,最终,需求将由价格决定,因为进口天然气的许多替代品的价格也颇具竞争力。其中煤电是最有力的竞争者,煤电通过输电线路传输至沿海地区。Until 2006 growth in consumption was met entirely by relatively low-cost domestic gas supply. However, higher-priced imports have been added to the mix, and their cost has risen considerably with the oil price.2006年之前,价格相对低廉的国内供应的天然气完全可以满足消费量的增长。但是,由于价格较高的进口天然气也进入市场,导致天然气价格随油价猛涨。“Policy makers often have to strike a balance between providing affordable gas supplies to encourage gas penetration, and setting a price that will serve as an incentive for more domestic production and higher imports,” writes Michael Chen of the Oxford Institute for Energy Studies in a report.“是提供较为廉价的天然气供应来推广天然气的使用,还是将定价作为激励措施来促使国内提高天然气产量并增大进口量,政策制定者不得不经常在二者中求得平衡,”牛津能源研究所(Oxford Institute for Energy Studies)的Michael Chen在一份报告中写道。Manufacturers, which are aly paying relatively high prices, want to stay competitive in the global market, while Chinese households want to keep their costs low.那些已在付相对较高价格的制造业企业,希望在国际市场上保持竞争力,中国的家庭则希望生活成本不要升高。But without even higher prices, the national oil companies will continue to face significant financial losses, diminishing any incentive around exploration, production and developing unconventional reserves.但是,如果天然气价格无法进一步提高,中国国有石油公司将继续面临巨额经济损失,从而削弱勘探、生产以及发展非常规储备的动力。 /201408/320475四川省第四人民医院在哪里

金堂县妇幼保健院不孕不育科成都生殖健康附属专科医院哪个好 Chinese police have detained eight people, including journalists from one of China’s top business dailies, for allegedly blackmailing and extorting large sums of money from businesses.中国警方拘留了包括国内顶尖财经日报之一的记者在内的8人,他们涉嫌敲诈企业,向企业勒索巨款。The chief editor and deputy editor of the 21st Century Business Herald website have been detained along with several other staff members, according to state media reports based on statements from Shanghai police.官方媒体根据上海警方的声明报道称,与《21世纪经济报道》同属21世纪报系的21世纪网的主编、副主编以及其他几个员工已被拘留。Some of the people, who were not all identified, were from two public relations companies that allegedly worked with the paper’s website to extort large payments from companies to publish positive news or suppress negative news.被拘留的人大多未被点名,其中一些人来自两家公关公司,他们涉嫌与21世纪网勾结,向企业敲诈巨款,作为发表正面报道或压下负面报道的交换条件。The case is one of the biggest to target the media sector since the ruling Communist party launched a sweeping anti-corruption campaign in late 2012.此案是自执政的共产党在2012年末发起全面的反腐败斗争以来,瞄准媒体行业的最大案子之一。Several senior executives and high-profile anchors from China Central Television, the state broadcaster, have also been detained for alleged corruption in recent months.最近几个月,官方的中央电视台的几名高管和知名主播也因涉嫌腐败被拘留。Media organisations are rife with corruption in China, where journalists are paid a pittance and the practice of taking bribes, known as hong bao (literally “red envelopes” full of cash), is often built into their compensation structure.中国的媒体机构充斥腐败行为,新闻从业人员薪酬微薄,收受被称为红包(装满现金的红纸信封)的贿赂往往是他们的薪酬结构的一部分。Extremely tight control over traditional media and the internet by the Chinese government and the powerful propaganda department often leaves idealistic journalists disillusioned.中国政府和权势极大的宣传部门对传统媒体和互联网极其严格的控制,往往让理想主义的记者幻想破灭。In this year’s World Press Freedom Index, compiled by Reporters Without Borders, China ranked 175th out of 180 countries.根据记者无疆界组织(Reporters Without Borders)编制的今年世界新闻自由指数(World Press Freedom Index),中国在180个国家中排在第175位。“Media power is monopolised [by the state] in China,” said Mo Zhixu, a prominent political commentator.“在中国,媒体力量是(被国家)垄断的,”知名政治员莫之许表示。“If we had free media, then companies would not be so vulnerable to this sort of extortion.”“如果我们有自由的媒体,企业就不会那么容易受到这种敲诈。”According to one person who worked several years ago as an intern at the 21st Century Business Herald’s website, certain editors there openly discussed plans to extort money from companies in exchange for suppressing negative reports.几年前曾作为实习生在21世纪网工作的一名人士透露,那里的某些编辑人员公开讨论向企业勒索、作为交换为其压制负面报道的计划。“At one of the meetings I attended they were trying to get some funding for the website and some editors came up with an idea to do some negative stories about foreign investment banks,” said the person, who asked not to be identified.“在我参加的某一次会议上,他们试图为网站搞到一些资金,一些编辑想出的主意是,做一些有关外国投行的负面报道,”这位不愿具名的人士表示。“There was general agreement that this was a good idea because the website could then offer to kill the stories if the banks bought lots of advertisements.”“当时大家都认为这是一个好主意,因为网站随后可以提出,如果相关购买大量广告,就会封杀这些报道。”The person did not identify the journalists involved or the targeted banks and did not know whether they paid to have the stories stopped.这名人士并未点名指认参与的新闻从业人员,或者指认哪些被当作靶子,也不知道这些后来是否付款压下报道。In a previous internship at another paper, the person said they would often be sent to public relations events for the sole purpose of picking up the hong bao cash payments on behalf of full-time reporters.该名人士称,此前在另一家报纸实习期间,实习生经常被派去参加公关活动,唯一任务是代表正式记者领取红包。In the case of the 21st Century Business Herald’s website, police began investigating late last year after receiving several complaints.就21世纪网而言,警方是在去年末接到多起投诉后开始调查的。Yesterday, the newspaper declined to respond to inquiries from the Financial Times but issued a statement confirming that several staff from its website had been taken away by police on Wednesday evening and that it would “actively co-operate” with the investigation.昨日,该媒体机构拒绝回应英国《金融时报》的询问,但发表一份声明,实网站的几名工作人员周三晚上被警方带走,并称其会积极配合调查。 /201409/326858成都治疗前列腺炎的医院哪家最好

四川三院怎么样好吗Unlike other East Asian nations where preference for sons over daughters still prevails, gender preference for children in Japan has progressively shifted from son preference to visible daughter preference over the past few decades.在其他东亚国家重男轻女趋向仍然盛行的今天,日本过去几十年的儿童性别偏好已逐步从重男轻女转向明显的女儿偏好。The extent to which individuals’ child gender preference is shaped by their gender role attitudes and evaluate whether daughter preference. It is a reflection of convergence or persistent divergence in gender roles in Japan.个人的子女性别偏好程度是由性别角色态度造成的,它决定女儿偏好存在与否。反映了日本性别角色分歧的收敛或持续。Data from the Single Persons subset of the 11th Japanese National Fertility Survey conducted by the National Institute of Population and Social Security Research in 1997 suggests that the effect of gender role attitudes on one’s child gender preference differs for men and women. Overall, while daughter preference is associated with nontraditional gender role attitudes for men, daughter preference is associated with traditional attitudes for women.1997年,日本国家人口和社会保障研究所进行的第11次国家生育率调查的数据表明,性别角色态度对男性和女性的子女性别偏好影响不同。总的来说,男性的女儿偏好受非传统性别角色态度影响,女性的女儿偏好则与传统观念有关。The tendency for preference for daughters among the Japanese has been revealed by a number of large-scale national surveys. Empirical papers on the topic have also been published in Japanese journals. Research on gender preference for children in Japan is in fact not a new area within the Japanese sociological and demographic literature.许多大规模的全国性调查已经揭示了日本人倾向于喜欢女儿,日本杂志上也发表过这一主题的实论文。实际上,日本儿童性别偏好研究已不是日本社会学和人口文学中的新领域。Gender preference for children in Japan has progressively shifted from son preference to visible daughter preference over the past few decades. This may appear shocking to sociologists and demographers since it has been long believed that preference for sons over daughters prevails in populations of East Asia. There is a large volume of published research that uncovers parental son preference in countries such as China and the Republic of Korea. However, not much research has been published on the state of this issue in Japan. Such chronic lack of interest is perhaps attributable to: (1) the assumption that Japan is similar in its gender preferences for children to its neighbors because of its geographic proximity and shared Confucius background; and/or (2) the presumption that the Japanese exhibit less or no son preference given its higher level of economic development, thereby making it less appealing to examine. However, because daughter preference has become evident in Japan, it is time to give more attention to the issue.过去几十年内,日本的儿童性别偏好已逐步从重男轻女转向明显的女儿偏好。这个结论可能会令社会学家和人口学家震惊,因为人们一直认为东亚人群中重男轻女倾向普遍。大量已发表研究揭示了中国和韩国等国的父母重男轻女倾向。然而,关于日本重男轻女问题状况的研究发表很少。也许这种兴趣的长期缺乏是由于:(1)日本儿童性别偏好与其邻国相似的假设,因为日本与其邻国之间的地理距离短且共有儒学背景;(2)日本很少或不表现出重男轻女倾向是由于经济发展水平较高的假设,因此日本的研究吸引力较小。然而,由于日本的女儿偏好愈加明显,现在已是更多地关注这个问题的时候。The issue of parental gender preferences for children has implication not only for human rights but also for its demographic impact. In developing countries, salient son preference causes sex-selective abortion, female infanticide, or female neglect. Also, we know from research on China that son preference coupled with strict fertility regulations has raised the issue of imbalanced sex ratios at birth. Thus, an emergence of skewed sex ratios at birth is a likely scenario if daughter preference continues to be common in a society with declining fertility.家长的儿童性别偏好问题不仅影响人权,同时也对人口有影响。在发展中国家,突出的重男轻女倾向造成了性别选择性堕胎、杀害女婴或忽视女性等行为。同时,我们从中国研究中知道,重男轻女现象加上严格的生育规定造成了中国性别出生率不平衡的问题。因此,如果一个生育率下降的社会存在普遍而持续的偏女儿倾向,则这个社会很可能出现性别出生比例失衡的现象。In the context of Japan’s very low fertility1 where most women have only one child, it may become crucial for their first or only child to be of the gender they desire. Because today’s reproductive technologies can hypothetically give parents the ability to control the gender of their offspring, with the presence of daughter preference it is likely that individuals will turn to such technologies to ensure daughters. Therefore, gender preference for children in a low fertility nation needs to be addressed for its potential demographic consequences as well as its implications for ethical issues and human rights concerns.在日本生育率非常低的背景下,大多数女性都只有一个孩子,所以第一个或唯一的孩子的性别是他们所期望的性别可能变得至关重要。如今的生殖技术能使父母有能力控制他们后代的性别,所以女儿偏好的存在导致人们很可能用这类技术来确保得到女儿。因此,低生育率国家需要解决儿童性别偏好问题,以避免其潜在的人口以及其伦理和人权方面的不良影响。 /201408/321040 HONG KONG — American allies in Asia on Wednesday welcomed a ed States Senate vote that appeared to clear the way for a final round of negotiations over a sweeping trans-Pacific trade pact and may have made it easier for governments to make politically risky concessions.香港——周三,美国的亚洲盟友对联邦参议院的表决结果表示欢迎。这一结果看来为一项广泛的跨太平洋贸易协定开展最后一轮谈判扫清了障碍,而且可能会令各国政府更易于做出带有政治风险的让步。Japan’s minister responsible for trade negotiations, Akira Amari, said a congressional victory for President Obama could open the way for a deal as soon as next month.日本负责贸易谈判的大臣甘利明(Akira Amari)表示,奥巴马总统在国会获取的胜利或许会为最快于下月达成协议铺平道路。“It’s possible we could have a ministerial-level meeting in July and conclude a broad agreement,” he told reporters. Any agreement would then require putting legislation in each country into effect, followed by approval there, which could take months.“我们有可能在7月举行部长级会议,达成一项广泛的协议,”他告诉记者。无论内容如何,协议均需各个国家的立法机构批准并实施,而这个过程可能需要好几个月的时间。China, which is not among the 12 nations negotiating the deal and had proposed a competing agreement, refrained from criticizing the vote.中国并未包含在参与这项协定谈判的12个国家中,并已提出了一个与之竞争的协议。它没有对参议院的此次表决提出批评。For Mr. Obama, the deal, which appeared headed toward passage on Wednesday, represents an important element of the so-called pivot to Asia to help maintain ed States influence as countries grow increasingly dependent on trade with China. For American allies, it offers the political cover to commit to trade concessions, removing the risk that Congress might reject the negotiated deal.看起来,该协定在本周三离获得通过更进一步。对于奥巴马来说,它是“重返亚洲”战略的重要一环。就在各国日益依靠对华贸易的时候,美国实施了“重返亚洲”战略,以维持自身在该地区的影响力。对于美国的盟友来说,它为承诺做出贸易让步提供了政治掩护,消除了美国国会拒绝接受谈判协议的风险。China was initially wary of the trade measure, the Trans-Pacific Partnership, seeing it several years ago as potentially giving an advantage to American allies’ business over Chinese companies in ed States markets. But those objections have faded as China has begun energetically pursuing its own regional trade agreements with East Asian neighbors.中国起初对这项名为“跨太平洋伙伴关系”(Trans-Pacific Partnership,简称TPP)的贸易协定持警惕态度,头几年的时候认为它可能会使来自美国盟友的公司在美国市场上比中国公司更占优势。然而,随着中国开始积极与东亚邻国达成区域性的贸易协议,这种反对的声音逐渐消退。“Even if T.P.P. is done, I don’t think it will pose any threat to China — we follow our own efforts,” said He Weiwen, a former Chinese commerce ministry official who is now a director of the influential China-ed States-European Union Study Center at the China Association of International Trade in Beijing.曾担任商务部官员的中国国际贸易学会中美欧研究中心主任何伟文表示,“即便达成了TPP协定,我觉得也不会对中国构成威胁——我们要走自己的道路。”The Senate voted on Tuesday to end debate on legislation that would give Mr. Obama and his successor the authority for the next six years to negotiate trade agreements and submit them to Congress with no amendments or filibusters allowed.参议院周二的表决是为了结束围绕授予奥巴马总统及其继任者贸易谈判权的立法所展开的辩论。这项授权将允许总统在接下来的六年时间里就贸易协定开展谈判,并将协议提交给国会,而国会无权修订最后的协定,也无法再实施冗长演说拖延战术。Ending debate required 60 votes, which the Senate’s Republican leadership barely mustered with limited support from Democrats. Passage of the actual legislation requires only 51 votes and would send the bill to the president, as the House of Representatives has aly approved it.参议院的共和党领导层获得了民主党人的有限持,勉强凑够了结束辩论所需的60票。实际的授权只要51票便能获得通过,然后就可以提交给总统签署,因为众议院已经批准同样的提案。Like previous presidents, who have had similar trade negotiating authority, Mr. Obama contended that the authorization was necessary so other countries would make all available concessions in talks with American trade negotiators, instead of reserving some in case Congress rewrote a deal.前几任总统也拥有类似的贸易谈判权。与他们一样,奥巴马提出,这种授权是必要的,如此一来,其他国家才会在与美国贸易谈判代表进行协商的时候做出所有可能的让步,而不是有所保留,以防美国国会改写协议。But American labor unions, environmental activists and other critics bitterly opposed passage of the negotiating authority, contending that it undermined the ability of Congress to stop administration negotiators from working with large corporations to craft deals that might not be advantageous to workers or the environment.不过,美国国内的工会组织、环保人士及其他一些持批评态度的人士强烈反对通过授予总统谈判权的法案,认为这会削弱国会阻止政府谈判代表与大企业携手达成可能会对劳动者或环境不利的协议的能力。Final congressional approval of the legislation would clear the way for a difficult final round of talks on the details of the trade agreement, which would remove trade barriers from Canada and Chile to Australia, Singapore and Japan.国会最终通过这项授权会为开启最后一轮有关TPP细节的艰难谈判扫清障碍。该协议将会移除从加拿大、智利到澳大利亚、新加坡和日本的贸易壁垒。Japan has been an especially difficult negotiating partner for the ed States because it wants to preserve trade barriers on rice, pork and other agricultural products. Tokyo has indicated that it is prepared to compromise but, fearful of Japan’s restive farm lobby, it has refused to discuss details in public as long as it was unclear whether Mr. Obama had the power to conclude a deal.对于美国来说,日本是一个特别难对付的洽谈伙伴,因为日本希望保留大米、猪肉及其他一些农产品的贸易壁垒。东京方面已经表明,日本准备做出让步,但由于担心强硬的本国农业游说团体,只要尚不确定奥巴马是否有权达成协议,日本就拒绝公开探讨细节。Another difficult question, which comes up for practically every free trade agreement, lies in so-called rules of origin: how to determine which goods are really made predominantly within the free-trade region and therefore qualify for tariff removal and other preferential trade access.另一个难题几乎每项自由贸易协议都会遇到,那就是所谓的“原产地规则”:如何确定哪些商品真的是在自由贸易区制造的,因此有资格免除关税,并获得其他优惠贸易待遇。Under the North American Free Trade Agreement, for example, garments do not just need to be sewn in North America to cross borders without being subject to tariffs; the garments generally need to be made from fabric that was woven in North America, and the fabric itself must be woven from yarn that was made in North America. That rule was written to prevent Mexican manufacturers from buying lots of precut, cheaper fabric from China and elsewhere and assembling it into inexpensive shirts for duty-free shipment to the ed States.例如,根据北美自由贸易协定(North American Free Trade Agreement)的规定,要想免除关税,装类产品不仅需要在北美缝制,通常还需要由北美的布料制成,而这些布料本身必须由北美生产的纱线制成。制定这项规定是为了防止墨西哥生产商从中国等地方购买大量预先裁剪的便宜布料,再利用这些织物缝制成便宜的成衣,运往美国,而不用交税。The Trans-Pacific Partnership includes Vietnam, a large garment-manufacturing nation that relies heavily on fabric imported from China. The negotiations pose the next battleground in a decades-long fight. The American textile industry consistently lobbies for the trade status of garments to be determined by where the material was made, not just where garments were sewn.TPP谈判国中包括越南。这个装生产大国严重依赖从中国进口的布料。相关谈判为这场长达几十年的争斗开辟了另一个战场。美国纺织业一直在开展游说活动,希望装的贸易地位由原材料的产地决定,而不仅仅是缝制成衣的地点。But large retailers and fashion brands want to link the trade status only to where garments are sewn, making it easier to use low-cost Chinese fabrics.不过,大型零售商和时尚品牌希望这种贸易地位只由成衣产地决定,更易于它们使用成本较低的中国布料。China’s trade policy analysts are eager to scrutinize the language of the 12-nation Trans-Pacific Partnership pact as soon as it is completed and released, to determine how it might actually affect Chinese exporters, Mr. He said.何伟文表示,这12个国家一达成并公布TPP协定,中国的贸易政策分析人士就会马上细读协定条文,从而判断实际上它会如何影响中国出口商。 /201506/383097成都省八院是几甲青白江区人民医院周末有上班吗




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