明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年09月24日 00:36:39

  Arab Bank阿拉伯The long arm of the plaintiff原告的长臂American victims of terrorism sue a bank, claiming it abetted attacks美国恐怖主义的受害者们控告一家,声称其持恐怖袭击HAMAS, the Islamic militant group that runs Gaza and conducts terrorist attacks in Israel, does not tend to answer court summons. But Arab Bank, one of the oldest financial institutions in the Middle East, does. This week, after a decade of legal toing and froing, it found itself on trial in Brooklyn, accused of complicity in various acts of terrorism by Hamas in which Americans were killed or injured. The victims and their families claim that Arab Bank “knowingly and purposefully” abetted the attacks by providing financial services to people and organisations linked to Hamas; Arab Bank denies the claim.哈马斯,作为一个经营加沙地带穆斯林组织和在以色列引导恐怖袭击的恐怖组织,并没有表现出对法院传票有所回应的意思。但是阿拉伯,作为一家中东最为古老的的金融机构却对此做出了回应。本周,在经过了十年法律上的游走之后,他们由于被指控参与了导致了美国人受伤和被杀害的哈马斯所组织各式各样的恐怖行动与之共谋而正在布鲁克林受审。受害者及其家人声称阿拉伯“故意的以及有目的性”的通过为与哈马斯相关的人或者组织提供金融务来持恐怖行动。而阿拉伯否认了这项指控。The bank is being sued under the Anti-Terrorism Act of 1990, whereby Americans can claim damages in federal court for injuries caused by terrorism anywhere in the world. The law was passed in response to the murder of Leon Klinghoffer, a wheelchair-bound American who was shot and then tossed off an Italian cruise ship by Palestinian hijackers. In theory it provides broad scope for redress, but in practice it has had little effect, as foreign terrorists are hard to bring to justice. Hence the plaintiffs search for less elusive accomplices.是在1990年反恐法案的的背景下被起诉的,美国人可以在联邦法院因世界任何地方的恐怖主义要求损害赔偿。这项法律的通过是为了响应林霍夫谋杀案—一个被击的坐轮椅的美国人被巴基斯坦的劫机者弃尸在了一艘意大利的游轮上。随着犯罪嫌疑人的绳之以法,理论上说这本因受到大量的赔偿,但在实际中却是大大相反。因此原告开始寻找神出鬼没的同谋者。The lawsuit, which was first filed in 2004, originally involved only six families affected by Hamas attacks, including the parents of a two-year-old child killed in a bus bombing. But more victims have signed up: there are now 297 plaintiffs; and hundreds of other claims are pending.自2004年之后那些陆续录入档案的诉讼案件,最初仅仅包括被哈马斯恐怖袭击的影响的六个家庭,包括一对因汽车爆炸而丧生的两岁儿童的父母。但是现如今更多的受害者已经签署:现在已经有279名原告;以及其他数百名悬而未决的事件的受害者。The plaintiffs accuse Arab Bank of having helped Hamas in three different ways. First, it transferred funds from the Saudi Committee, ostensibly a charity, to relatives of 55 suicide-bombers. One payment went to the family of a man who bombed a restaurant in Jerusalem in 2001, killing 15 people including seven children. Second, the bank maintained accounts for another dozen charities that the plaintiffs contend were merely fronts for Hamas. The final connection was by providing personal accounts for 30 senior members of Hamas, including Ahmad Yassin, the groups spiritual leader, who was designated a terrorist by the American government in 1995, and Salah Shehadeh, the founder of its military arm. Arab Bank did so, according to the courts summary of the plaintiffs argument, despite knowing that the people and organisations concerned were involved in terrorism.那些指控阿拉伯帮助哈马斯的原告主要是从三个方面的原因来谈的。首先,它以慈善的名义从沙特委员会划拨资金给55名自杀式炸弹袭击者的家属。其中一些款项就是流向一个在2001年炸了一家耶律撒冷餐馆导致包括七名孩子在内的十五人丧生的恐怖分子家属。其次,原告者认为所维系的另外十二个慈善机构的账户也仅仅是针对哈马斯方面的。他们终端的联系方式便是通过为三十名包括Ahmad Yassin在内的哈马斯的高级成员开设私人账户。而Ahmad Yassin作为哈马斯的精神领袖,于1995年被美国政府作为高危恐怖分子列入在册。这其中还包括Salah Shehadeh,哈马斯军事部门的创始人。根据法院对于原告的论点总结,阿拉伯尽管知道这些人或者组织与恐怖主义息息相关,却依旧如此作为。The bank has denied each of the claims, contending that no services were provided to any entity or person on Americas list of known terrorists at the time, with the exception of a single transaction on behalf of Mr Yassin, due to a clerical error. It also points out that the transfers it made on behalf of the Saudi Committee were among the thousands the group made to the families of people hurt or killed in fighting in the West Bank and Gaza, and so appeared as humanitarian in nature. The courts have barred Arab Bank from defending itself on the ground that it complied with all local laws in the countries where the transactions took place, or on the ground that the attacks are part of a long history of violence in the region for which it could not be held responsible.否认了以上每条索赔要求,声称并没有为任何美国已知的恐怖分子名单上的实体或者个人提供务,除了单个为了如Yassin先生所办理的交易,但这是由于笔误。它同样还指出其代表代表沙特委员会所作出的交易为了在约旦河西岸以及加沙地带战斗中受伤或者死者的家人所做的数以千计的交易之一,所以具有人道主义的性质。法院已经禁止了阿拉伯分别以其遵守了仲裁执行地国家的法律和袭击是发生在废弃责任区的历史暴力问题的一部分为由,进行自我辩护。The main drama in the trial thus far has been the selection of the jury. Finding enough New Yorkers who are unopinionated and uninformed enough to form an unbiased panel has not been easy. No fewer than 500 candidates were required to complete a 25-page questionnaire to probe their suitability. It asked where they got their news, whether they spoke Arabic or Hebrew, what ties they and their friends and family had to the Middle East, and whether they knew any victims of terrorism, including the various attacks on New York. There were also questions not only about their own impressions of Muslims, Jews and Arabs, but also about those of their family and friends. Amazingly, this interrogation yielded ten apparently neutral jurors who will now sit through a trial that could last weeks or months.这审判的主要的戏剧性是在于迄今为止这一直都是陪审团的选择。寻找足够的不是那么武断的足够无知纽约人来形成一个公正的团体也不是那么容易。不低于500名的候选者被要求完成一份25页的问卷调查他们的适应性。这份问卷调查他们获得新闻的来路,他们是否会说阿拉伯语或者是希伯来语,他们和他们的朋友家人是否和中东有所关系,以及他们是否认识任何恐怖主义的受害者,包括纽约的各种恐怖袭击。并且还有些问题不仅是关于他们自己对于穆斯林、犹太、以及阿拉伯的印象,并且还有他们的家人以及孩子对此的印象。令人惊奇的是,这种询问选出了十名看似中立陪审员,这些人现在将坐在那度过可能持续几周或几个月的审判。 /201408/323315


  Science and technology科学技术Low-cost radar低成本雷达A programme worth watching值得一看的节目How air-traffic control can use television signals to plot aircraft空中交通管制局如何利用电视信号找出飞行器位置?A NOVEL radar will soon be helping to keep an eye on aircraft flying over London.很快,一种新式雷达将帮忙监视伦敦上空的飞机。Conventional radar uses a rotating antenna to sweep the sky, sending out radio pulses and detecting those which are reflected back from aircraft.传统雷达使用旋转天线扫视上空,不断发出射电脉冲并探测被飞行器反射回来的部分。The experimental system that will begin operation in June does not send out any signals of its own,而将于6月份启动的实验系统并不会自己发出任何信号,but instead relies on a network of receivers to pick up television programmes.而是依靠一个接受电视信号的接收器网络。It is hard to imagine British TV staples like Cash in the Attic, Downton Abbey and endless repeats of Top Gear being used to detect aircraft.很难想象像《家中藏宝》、《唐顿庄园》、《疯狂汽车秀》等这类英国的主打电视节目被用来侦查飞行器。But that, in effect, is what will be happening.但事实就将会如此。By measuring the slight differences between the original broadcast signal and the signals reflected from aircraft flying in the vicinity, it is possible to plot the position of aircraft on a screen, just as is done with conventional radar.通过测量原广播信号和附近飞行器反射信号间的细微差别,有可能在屏幕上标绘出飞行器的位置,这和传统雷达的工作原理一样。The difference is that a system that relies on signals aly in the air can be simpler, cheaper and use a lot less power.两者的区别是,利用空中已有信号的操作系统可以更简便、更便宜,还能省不少电。The London trial is being run by Thales UK, an engineering group, Roke Manor Research, an RD consultancy, and NATS, which manages Britains air-traffic control.伦敦实验系统的运行由工程组泰利斯英国公司、研发咨询公司曼乐研究公司和英国国家空运局负责,It is backed by the British governments Technology Strategy Board.并得到了英国政府技术战略委员会的持。The group call their system multi-static primary surveillance radar.工程组把自己的系统称为多基站主监视雷达,It is a form of passive radar, which goes back a long time.属于存在已久的被动雷达中的一种。Although it had been known since the late 19th century that radio waves can be reflected by objects, it was not until the years leading up to the second world war that a number of countries began secretly developing ways to detect aircraft.虽然19末世纪时人们就已经知道物体能够反射无线电波,但直到二战前几年才有一些国家开始秘密研究侦查飞机的方法。Many of the early tests relied on ordinary broadcasts to provide the signals.这些早期的测试当中有很多都靠普通的无线电波来提供信号。In an experiment in 1935 a Handley Page Heyford bomber flew between a receiving station and a B transmission tower to see how well it could be detected.在1935年的一场实验当中,一个名为亨得利·佩奇·海福德飞行员驾驶轰炸机从B发射塔和一个接收站之间飞过,从而找出飞机能在多大程度上被侦查出来。Well enough, it seems, because the Air Ministry immediately ordered a full demonstration system.看来当时的效果还不错,因为航空部马上下达命令要求进行全套演示。Blip, blip雷达界的新老交替In 1940 the US Navy coined the term radar to describe radio detection and ranging.1940年,美国海军创造出雷达一词,用以描述无线电探测和测距。Modern radar is highly sophisticated but it largely relies on emitting a signal.现代雷达极其复杂,但主要还是靠自己发出信号。By measuring the time taken for the reflected signal to return it is possible to work out the position of an aircraft.通过测量被反射信号返回雷达所需的时间,就有可能计算出飞行器的位置。A slight shift in the frequency, because of the Doppler effect, means its speed and direction can be measured too.由于多普勒效应,返回信号的频率有微小变化,这就意味着飞行器的速度和飞行方向也可以被测量出来。Passive radar can take similar measurements and is aly used in limited ways, mostly by the armed forces.被动雷达可以进行类似的测量,并且已经得到一些受限应用。Relying on background signals to detect objects has an advantage in stealth operations:在秘密行动中依靠背景信号来侦查物体有这样一个优势:no pulse is sent out to alert anyone to what you are doing, or attract an anti-radar missile.由于没有发出脉冲信号,没人会警觉你在什么,也不会引来反雷达导弹。The growth in radio and television broadcasts—especially with digital and high-definition TV—now provides an enormous amount of high-frequency radio waves which are ideally suitable for passive radar systems.现在无线电和电视广播的增长提供了海量的高频电波,这些非常适合用于被动雷达系统。Moreover, the availability of cheap and powerful computing makes it feasible to analyse the data required to build a system like MSPSR.此外,成本低廉和功能强大的计算机可以分析需要用于建立类似MSPSR系统的数据。Thales and its partners expect to be able to produce results as good as conventional radar.泰利斯工程组和合伙人们期待MSPSR的表现能和传统雷达一样好。The trials are designed to see how passive radar could support Britains air-traffic management.实验项目的目的在于找出被动雷达能够如何帮助管理英国的空中交通。It could help small airports that lack radar or fill gaps in areas where coverage is currently patchy.它有助于那些缺乏雷达的小型机场,或者弥补那些雷达覆盖不完整地区的缺陷,MSPSR might also reduce the interference caused in some places by wind turbines.MSPSR还能减少一些地方由涡轮机造成的干扰,And because it is a networked system it could be more reliable than the present set-up, which typically depends on using just one radar at each airport.它是一个呈网络覆盖的系统,比目前的系统更可靠。The aviation industry is cautious about adopting new technologies wholesale, so there is a long way to go before conventional radar is turned off in favour of passive systems.航空业在大规模采用新技术方面很是谨慎,因此传统雷达完全让位于被动雷达还尚有时日。But governments may be tempted to think about doing so, for reasons that go beyond passive radars lower operating costs.但政府或许会对此动心,原因不只是被动雷达的成本更加低廉:With growing demand for wireless devices, passive radar would allow the radio spectrum currently used by conventional radar to be freed up and auctioned off to mobile operators.随着无线设备的需求不断增加,被动雷达能够将目前用于传统雷达的无线电频谱解放出来,然后再拍卖给移动运营商。One difficulty is that passive radar relies on a third party for its signals.被动雷达的一个难题在于它要依靠第三方提供的信号。The continued availability of transmissions is considered to be part of Britains critical national infrastructure, says John Smith, the project leader for Thales.泰利斯工程组的项目带头人约翰?史密斯说,广播电视业被认为是英国关键的国家基础设施。Nevertheless, he adds, the study will look at how agreements can be made with broadcasters to ensure reliability and performance, and how to deal with routine maintenance when TV transmission towers are turned off.不过他补充道,研究将着眼于如何跟广播公司达成协议,以及如何在电视信号发射中断时进行例行维护。Air-traffic controllers and pilots would not take kindly to being confronted with the equivalent of a TV test card.空中交通管制员和飞行员可不会乐意接受电视测试卡的等价物。 /201309/257858

  Science and technology科学技术Radiation and evolution核辐射与进化Surviving fallout辐射尘中 幸免于难Birds can evolve to cope with the lingering effects of nuclear incidents鸟类能够通过进化应对核事故的残余影响And the raven, never flitting, still is sitting那乌鸦并没飞去,它仍然栖息,仍然栖息THE disaster last year at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, caused by an earthquake and tsunami, scored seven on the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale.去年,地震和海啸引发了福岛第一原子能发电站核泄漏事故,在国际核与辐射事件等级标准中被评为第七级;No worse rating exists.没有比这情况还糟的分级了。Radiation is harmful to living things, yet the long-term effects of persistently high levels of background radiation on ecosystems are poorly understood.核辐射对生物有害,而长时间高水平的本底辐射对生态系统有何影响,人们还知之甚少。With this in mind, a team led by Timothy Mousseau of the University of South Carolina and Anders Moller of the University of Paris-Sud set out to compare bird species dwelling near the Fukushima plant with those living at the site of another nuclear incident that scored a seven on the INES:the Ukrainian town of Chernobyl, where disaster struck in 1986.为了研究这个问题,南卡罗莱纳大学的Timothy Mousseau和巴黎第十一大学的Anders Moller率团队着手比较在两个INES七级事故事发地附近栖息的鸟类种群。Remarkably, they found that some species seem to develop a tolerance for radioactivity over time.结果出人意料。他们发现随着时间迁移,似乎有些鸟类发展出了对核辐射的耐受力。Fukushima and Chernobyl are more than 7,000km apart, but Dr Mousseau and his colleagues soon realised that the two sites had much in common.福岛和切尔诺贝利相距7,000余公里,不过Mousseau和同事们很快发现,两地的鸟类种群有共同之处。Both are in areas that have a temperate climate with species that have similar habits and needs.两地均属温带气候,周围环绕着农田和森林,鸟类的习性和需求相似。And both are surrounded by a mixture of farmland and forest. Upon closer examination the researchers found that 14 species of bird lived in both regions, including the barn swallow, great tit, great reed warbler, buzzard and Eurasian jay.经过进一步调查,研究人员发现两地有14种相同的鸟类,包括家燕、大山雀、大苇莺、鵟、松鸦。With so many similarities between the two places, a comparison of the biological responses to radiation in each would surely be illuminating.既然情况如此相似,比较两地生物对核辐射的反应自然应当具有启发意义。To do this, during July 2011, the researchers counted and identified birds at 300 locations near Fukushima that had radiation levels as low as 0.5 microsieverts per hour and as high as 35.2011年7月,研究人员清点并鉴定了福岛核电站附近300个地点的鸟类。Then they compared these results to bird data collected in areas that had the same range of radiation levels near Chernobyl between 2006 and .这些地点的辐射水平低至0.5毫西弗/小时,高至35毫西弗/小时。作为对照,牙医给患者拍X光片的辐射量很少超过0.05毫西弗。Their results, published in Environmental Pollution, show that as radiation levels in an area rose to 35 microsieverts per hour, the average number of birds dropped by almost a third compared with the areas where radiation levels were only 0.5 microsieverts per hour.研究结果发表在《环境污染》杂志上:在辐射水平为35毫西弗/小时的地方,鸟类平均数量比0.5毫西弗/小时的地方少了将近1/3。This makes sense:这是合情合理的:in those areas with a high level of radiation, living things would tend to die or sicken and fail to reproduce.辐射水平高的地方,生物更容易生病死亡,更难繁衍后代。However, when researchers looked at the 14 bird species that lived in both regions, they found that the same level of radiation was associated with twice as large a drop in bird numbers in Fukushima as in Chernobyl.但是,当研究者比对两地共有的14种鸟类时,发现在同样的辐射水平下,福岛的鸟类下降数量几乎达到了切尔诺贝利的两倍。The reasons for this are not clear.人们还不清楚这个现象的原因。It is possible that the composition of the radionuclides are proving more dangerous to the Fukushima birds than they are to the birds near Chernobyl.也许是因为福岛的放射性核素成分对鸟类更危险。But Dr Mousseau suggests a more likely explanation is that evolution has aly been at work near Chernobyl, killing off individual birds that cannot cope with the background radiation and allowing the genes of those that have some tolerance to be passed on.不过Mousseau士称,这更可能是因为进化已经在切尔诺贝利周围的鸟群中起作用了。The birds at Fukushima are only beginning to face the evolutionary challenge of living in a radioactive world.不能适应本底辐射的鸟类死亡,对辐射有耐受力的基因则得以传承。而福岛的鸟类才刚刚开始面对辐射环境中的生存进化挑战。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201307/246227







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