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内江高级纹绣成都/韩秀培训学校联系方式qq微信成都伊凝国际纹绣培训学习纹眉绣眼线多少钱 乐山半永久化妆培训多少钱

绵阳半永久定妆学校Scottish engineering苏格兰的工程From ships to satellites从轮船到卫星的发展How high-end engineering escaped industrial meltdown高端工程如何在崩溃的产业中逃过一劫Box me up Scotty把我组装成箱,苏格兰人SCOTLAND may not have broken off from Britain last year, but at least it got into space. Overshadowed by the ballyhoo over the referendum, the first satellite built in Scotland, UKube-1 (pictured below), was launched. The same dimensions as a boxed bottle of whisky, it was assembled on the banks of the river Clyde in central Glasgow by the countrys first satellite manufacturer, Clyde Space. It is but one example of Scotlands surprisingly healthy engineering industry.苏格兰去年未脱离英国,但至少进了太空。它大肆宣扬全民公决独立与否一事,声势之大,盖过其制造的第一颗卫星UKuble一号发射太空。该卫星大小与威士忌装盒相同,由英国首位卫星制造商克莱德航天公司在格拉斯哥中部的克莱德河河岸上组装而成,是苏格兰唯一健康发展的工程。The clean room where Clyde Space makes its satellites affords an excellent view of Govan, once a centre of world shipbuilding and now a reminder of how quickly huge industries can collapse. Rather than trying to build everything, therefore, as the Clyde shipyards used to, Craig Clark, the founder of Clyde Space, is trying to master one small, but growing, niche of his industry. He builds only the smallest satellites, often costing as little as ,000 (33,000) each, and also makes parts for bigger ones. The company was the first such to sell its products online. Mr Clarks firm, which employs 45 people, turned over 3m this year, and expects to double that next year.克莱德航天公司制造卫星的地方宽敞明亮,可以欣赏到高湾的美景。高湾曾是世界轮船制造中心,而如今只是庞大工业迅速崩溃的受害者。因此,克莱德航天公司创始人克雷格·克拉克努力掌握航天业中不断发展的小众业务。他仅制造微小型卫星,每颗的花费通常只有5万美元(3.3万英镑),同时还制作稍大卫星的零部件。该公司是同行中首个在网上销售产品的公司。克拉克的公司共有45名职工人员,今年的营业额为300万英镑,预计明年营业额翻一番。A few big engineering firms remain in Scotland, such as Babcock Marine and Thales, both of which supply defence equipment. But most of the countrys 7,500 engineering companies belong to a long, thin tail. Often family-owned and generations old, the best of them combine technological savvy with a strong entrepreneurial spirit. Often, they are niche manufacturers to the world.苏格兰仍有柏布考克海事集团(Babcock Marine)、泰利斯(Thales)等一些大型工程企业,这两家企业皆销售国防设备。然而,在英的7500家工程企业中,大部分都不成气候。而其中的精英往往是世代相传的家族企业,它们将技术方面的悟性与强烈的企业精神进行结合,往往是世界上精准定位的制造商。One such is Castle Precision Engineering, in south-west Glasgow. It started out in 1951 making machines for the giant local Singer sewing-machine factory, then moved into car parts, medical equipment and aerospace—now its biggest market. On March 9th it created the fastest wheels ever made, for the “Bloodhound” car that will try to set a new land speed record next year. The wheels are strong enough to take a driver to 1,000mph in 55 seconds, rotating 177 times a second.格拉斯哥西南部的城堡精密工程公司即为其一。该公司始创于1951年,为当地胜家牌大型缝纫机厂生产设备,之后转向汽车零部件、医疗设备以及现在最大的市场——航空航天产品的生产。3月9日,该公司为“寻血猎犬”汽车制造出史上最快车轮,该车明年将倾力创造陆地行驶速度的新纪录。车轮功能强大,汽车完全可以在55秒内达到1000英里的时速,且车轮每秒旋转177次。In one respect, these firms are exceptions to the British rule. In a kingdom with a balance-of-trade deficit in goods amounting to fully 10 billion a month, they are fierce exporters. Castle sends about one-third of its wares abroad. Another niche firm, Clark Tracks, which makes caterpillar tracks for forestry vehicles, sells 90% of its products to Europe. Overall, engineering and technology companies account for over one-quarter of Scotlands exports.一方面,这些企业不符合英国的规则。英国的商品贸易逆差每月高达100亿英镑,而这些企业的出口量极大。城堡公司三分之一的商品出口国外,另一家小型公司Clark Tracks(克拉克履带公司)生产林用车履带,其中90%的产品销往欧洲。总体而言,工程技术公司占有苏格兰出口量的四分之一。But in another way they illustrate a familiar weakness in British industry. The countrys firms tend to remain small or medium-sized—smaller than the German Mittelstand of export-orientated businesses. Even before the financial crisis Scotlands small engineering companies found it hard to raise money locally to expand. Some looked overseas instead. Clark Tracks was bought in 2007 by a Swedish company. The defence giant Thales acquired the illustrious old Glaswegian firm of Barr and Stroud in 2000. Its factory, now employing about 700 people, still specialises in submarine periscopes and optronics for the military.但另一方面,这些企业自身具有英国工业的普遍缺陷。英国企业往往保持中小型规模,但小于德国中小型出口企业。金融危机爆发之前,苏格兰的小型工程企业发现难以在当地筹集用于扩大规模的资金。有些企业将目光转向海外。2000年,国防设备生产大户泰利斯买下格拉斯哥著名老牌公司斯特劳德,其工厂现有700名工人,继续从事军用潜艇潜望镜和光电产品的专项生产。2007年,瑞典一家企业收购Clark Tracks。Now change is coming to Scottish engineering, via the North Sea. The oil and gas industry is both a blessing and a curse for engineers. It is a big market for their products, but it also competes fiercely for labour. Glasgow-based companies complain about the shortage of skilled workers even more than do firms elsewhere in Britain. Yan Tiefenbrun, the boss of Castle, got involved in the Bloodhound project to create publicity, hoping talent would be drawn to his apprenticeship scheme. The current woes of Aberdeens offshore industry, facing tumbling oil prices and squeezed margins, could be a boon for the countrys other engineers.但是,苏格兰工程即将借助北海迎来转机。油气工业对工程商来说是福亦是祸。这一巨大市场可用来销售其产品,但对于劳动力的竞争也很激烈。在格拉斯哥,投诉技术工人无法胜任工作的企业数量居全国之首。城堡公司老板Yan Tiefenbrun为了提高企业知名度,参与了“寻血猎犬”工程,同时希望为其学徒计划招揽人才。亚伯丁海上石油开采业当前面临油价下跌、收益缩水,它们的祸可能是英国其他工程商的福。翻译:石海霞 校对:周雨晴 译文属译生译世 /201503/366029凉山彝族自治州眼妆培训学校哪家好 Austerity in Portugal葡萄牙的紧缩政策More pain, less gain痛苦更多,收益更少Yet another austerity budget raises concerns about future growth但是另一轮预算紧缩引发了对未来发展的担忧In happier days before the euro crisis, one government in Lisbon rebranded the Algarve as the Allgarve, hoping to appeal to English-speaking tourists. Now a Portuguese wit suggests rebranding the whole country as Poortugal.在欧元危机到来之前,日子还较为愉快,里斯本政府还将阿尔加维改名为Allgarve,希望吸引讲英语的游客。而如今,聪明的葡萄牙人建议,把整个葡萄牙改名为“穷葡萄牙”(poortugal).Amid furious protests and thundering editorials, such mordant humour was a restrained response to the draft 2013 budget that Vitor Gaspar, the finance minister, presented on October 15th. To meet the targets agreed to by the “troika” of the European Union, European Central Bank and IMF, he wants “enormous” tax increases, including the raising of average income-tax rates by as much as a third.财政部长维克多–加斯帕尔(Vitor Gaspar)于10月15日提交的2013年预算草案引发了强烈的抗议和雷鸣般的社论,在这种背景下,这一辛辣的幽默仅仅是对这一草案的委婉回应。为了达成得到三大巨头----欧盟,欧洲央行和国际货币基金组织同意的目标,加斯帕尔想要极大的提高税收,其中包括提高将收入税税率提高三分之一。Seldom have protesters, economists and politicians been so united in describing the plans: “brutal”, “a crime against the middle class”, a “fiscal atomic bomb”. Few agree with Mr Gaspar’s claim that “this is the only possible budget” and that to question it is to risk being subjected to a “dictatorship of debt” with Portugal condemned to depend on its official creditors indefinitely.抗议者,经济学家和政客很少如此团结。他们一致将这项计划描述为“残酷的”,“反中产阶级的犯罪”,一颗“财政原子弹”。加斯帕尔称,“这是唯一可能的预算”,质疑这项预算就是要冒险遭受“债务独裁”,葡萄牙会因无限依赖官方债权人受到谴责。但是很少有人会同意他的观点。Yet most voters would agree with Mr Gaspar that to default on the country’s debt, as the radical left advocates, would be “catastrophic”. Even so, recent protests have been swelled by tens of thousands of mainstream voters who believe that squeezing working families is not just unnecessarily painful but is also choking off growth.但是大多数选民会同意加斯帕尔的看法,认为如果像极右派提倡的那样进行债务违约的话将会带来“灾难性的”后果。但即使如此,近期成千上万的主流选民还是加强了抗议,他们认为压榨工薪阶层家庭不仅会带来没有必要的伤害,还会扼杀增长。The critics have latched on to the latest outlook from the IMF in which the fund argues that, in today’s economic climate, fiscal consolidation is having a bigger negative impact on growth than usual. The opposition Socialists believe this perfectly describes Portugal’s predicament. They want more time to meet budget targets, on top of an extra year granted last month. More worrying for Pedro Passos Coelho, the prime minister, is that the IMF line is echoed by President Anibal Cavaco Silva, also from the centre-right, who has written that it is wrong to pursue deficit goals “at any cost”.批评者抓住了国际货币基金组织最新的展望,该基金会称,在如今的经济形势下,财政巩固带来的消极影响要比平常的时候更大。社会主义反对者认为,这极为恰当的描述了葡萄牙的困境。除去上月同意增加的一年外,他们想要更多的时间来实现预算目标。而更令总理佩德罗·帕索斯·科埃略担心的是,国际货币基金组织的说法得到了极右派总统阿尼巴尔·卡瓦科·席尔瓦(Anibal Cavaco Silva)的赞成,他曾用写过,“不惜任何代价追求”追求赤字目标是错误的。Another concern is the rift in the coalition over the budget. The conservative People’s Party, junior partner to Mr Passos Coelho’s Social Democrats, wants more public-spending cuts (new revenues account for 80% of the 2013 fiscal adjustment). The two parties must vote together to get the budget through parliament. But Mr Gaspar insists there is “no room for manoeuvre”.另一个担忧是联合政府在预算问题上的分歧。芭苏丝·科埃略(Passos Coelho)领导的社会民主党的初级合作伙伴保守人民党想要进一步削减公共开(2013年预算调整中,新收入占据80%)。两党必须共同投票让议会通过预算。但是加斯帕尔坚持“不允许耍任何花招”。Some say that his intransigence is more for form than for fiscal doctrine. Unlike Greece, Portugal has gained much kudos in Brussels and Berlin for being a model pupil for the euro zone. That could help it if and when the Spanish government requests a bail-out—and starts to argue with the troika about whether ever more fiscal austerity is really sensible.有人说,他拒绝妥协更多的是做做样子,而不是出于财政理论。与希腊不同,葡萄牙一直是欧元区里的模范生,在布鲁塞尔和柏林都获得了很多赞赏。如果西班牙政府要求紧急援助,并且开始与三巨头争论进一步的财政紧缩政策是否真正明智,或在出现这种情况的时候,葡萄牙会因此受益。 翻译:孙齐圣译文属译生译世 /201608/459244什邡市纹身学校

自贡纹绣学校哪里好Argentina defaults阿根廷债务违约Eighth time unlucky不走运,第八次了Cristina Fernandez argues that her countrys latest default is different. She is missing the point克里斯蒂娜·费尔南德斯称,她国家最近的债务违约跟以前可不一样。她没说到点子上ARGENTINAS first bond, issued in 1824, was supposed to have a lifespan of 46 years. Less than four years later, the government defaulted. Resolving the ensuing stand-off with creditors took 29 years. Since then seven more defaults have followed, the most recent this week, when Argentina failed to make a payment on bonds issued as partial compensation to victims of the previous default, in 2001.1824年,阿根廷第一次发行债券,原本预期期限为46年。结果不到四年,阿根廷政府就出现了债务违约。处理跟随之而来与债权人的紧张关系花了29年。从那以后,又发生了七次债务违约。最近一次发生在本周,阿根廷无法偿付重组债券,导致了此次债务违约。这些债券原本是作为对前一次2001年债务违约中受损投资人的部分补偿。Most investors think they can see a pattern in all this, butArgentinas president, Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner, insists the latest default is not like the others. Her government, she points out, had transferred the full 539m it owed to the banks that administer the bonds. It isAmericas courts (the bonds were issued under American law) that blocked the payment, at the behest of the tiny minority of owners of bonds from 2001 who did not accept the restructuringArgentinaoffered them in 2005 and again in 2010. These “hold-outs”, balking at the 65% haircut the restructuring entailed, not only persuaded a judge that they should be paid in full but also got him to freeze payments on the restructured bonds untilArgentinacoughs up.许多投资人认为,他们能从中看出规律了。但是,阿根廷总统,克里斯蒂娜·费尔南德斯·德基什内尔坚称,最近一次债务违约跟以往的完全不同。她说,她的政府,已经向管理债券的全额汇去了所欠的5.39亿美元,阻挠偿付的,是美国法院(这些债券是依照美国法律发行的)。一小撮2001年债券的持有者,不愿意接受阿根廷在2005年和2010年提出的债务重组方案,是他们要求美国法院作出了这样的裁决。这些“钉子户”,不愿意接受重组方案65%的债务削减,他们不仅说了法官裁决阿根廷要全额偿还欠他们的历史债务,而且还让法官冻结了阿根廷对其它重组债务的偿付,直到阿根廷妥协为止。Argentinaclaims that paying the hold-outs was impossible. It is not just that they are “vultures” as Argentine officials often put it, who bought the bonds for cents on the dollar after the previous default and are now holding those who accepted the restructuring (accounting for 93% of the debt) to ransom. The main problem is that a clause in the restructured bonds prohibitsArgentinafrom offering the hold-outs better terms without paying everyone else the same. Since it cannot afford to do that, it says it had no choice but to default.阿根廷称,不可能付钱给那些“钉子户”。这不光是因为这些人都是“秃鹫”,阿根廷官员常这么叫他们,这些人在上一次发生债务违约后,以极大的折扣购入了债券;还因为他们现在把那些已经接受重组方案的债权人(占债务的95%)绑为人质。问题的关键,就在于重组债券中的一项条款,让阿根廷不能在其他债权人未得到同等待遇的前提下,给“钉子户”开出更好的条件。由于无法承受对所有债权人全额偿付债务,阿根廷说自己别无选择,只能违约。Yet it is not certain that the clause requiring equal treatment of all bondholders would have applied, given that Argentinawould not have been paying the hold-outs voluntarily, but on the courts orders. Moreover, some owners of the restructured bonds had agreed to waive their rights; had Argentinamade a concerted effort to persuade the remainder to do the same, it might have succeeded. Lawyers and bankers have suggested various ways around the clause in question, which expires at the end of the year. But Argentinas government was slow to consider these options or negotiate with the hold-outs, hiding instead behind indignant nationalism.然而,不能确定此要求对所有债权持有人同等待遇的条款适用,因为阿根廷不是自愿偿付那些“钉子户”,而是在法庭命令下不得不这么做。而且,一些重组债券持有人已经同意放弃追索权益;如果阿根廷努力劝其它人也放弃追索权益,可能会成功。许多律师和家提出了许多方式绕过争议条款,而且该条款到今年年底就失效了。但是,阿根廷政府没能认真考虑这些选择,也没努力跟“钉子户”谈判,而是躲在满腔义愤的民族主义身后。Dont try to flee, Argentina阿根廷别想着逃避Ms Fernandez is right that the consequences ofAmericas court rulings have been perverse, unleashing a big financial dispute in an attempt to solve a relatively small one. But hers is not the first government to be hit with an awkward verdict. Instead of railing against it, she should have tried to minimise the harm it did. Defaulting has helped no one: none of the bondholders will now be paid,Argentinalooks like a pariah again, and its economy will remain starved of loans and investment.费尔南德斯女士称,美国法院判决造成的后果是不公正的,是为了解决小的金融问题,而触发大的金融争端。她说的没错。但是,这已不是第一次有政府遭遇古怪判决了。与其跟判决对着干,她本该试着将损害最小化。债务违约帮不了任何人:现在所有债权人都不能得到偿付,阿根廷声誉再一次严重受损,其经济依旧得不到贷款和投资。Happily, much of the damage can still be undone. It is not too late to strike a deal with the hold-outs or back an ostensibly private effort to buy out their claims. A quick fix would make it easier forArgentinato borrow again internationally. That, in turn, would speed development of big oil and gas deposits, the income from which could help ease its money troubles.好消息是,多数损害还没有造成。现在跟“钉子户”达成协议,或是私下让他们表面上放弃全额清偿追索,还为时未晚。一次权宜之计能让阿根廷再次在国际市场上借钱更容易。而这,能加快对丰富石油和天然气资源的开发,由之而来的收入,能缓解阿根廷的资金困境。More important, it would help to change perceptions ofArgentinaas a financial rogue state. Over the past year or so Ms Fernandez seems to have been trying to rehabilitateArgentinas image and resuscitate its faltering economy. She settled financial disputes with government creditors and with Repsol, a Spanish oil firm whose Argentine assets she had expropriated in 2012. This weeks events have overshadowed all that. For its own sake, and everyone elses,Argentinashould hold its nose and do a deal with the hold-outs.更重要的是,这能改变阿根廷作为金融流氓国家的形象。过去一年左右,费尔南德斯女士似乎在努力重塑阿根廷形象,努力让摇摇摆摆的经济复苏。她解决了跟政府债权人的金融争端,以及跟西班牙石油公司Repsol的争端,费尔南德斯2012年曾没收该公司在阿根廷的资产。本周的事件让所有这些都蒙上了阴影。为了自己,也为了别人,阿根廷应该捏住鼻子,忍住厌恶,跟“钉子户”达成协议。译者:王力鹏 译文属译生译世 /201506/380401 成都/尚美优品纹绣学纹眼线美容纹绣多少钱著名纹绣师



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