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来源:同城口碑    发布时间:2019年06月19日 22:16:42    编辑:admin         

Competition used to be easy. That is in theory, if not always in practice. Until recently, most competent companies had a clear idea of who their rivals were, how to compete and on what field to fight.竞争曾经很容易。从理论上来说如此,即便实际上并非总是如此。直到不久以前,多数胜任的公司都清楚自己的竞争对手是谁,如何竞争以及在哪个领域竞争。One of the starkest — and scariest — declarations of competitive intent came from Komatsu, the Japanese construction equipment manufacturer, in the 1970s. As employees trooped into work they would walk over doormats exhorting: “Kill Caterpillar!”. Companies benchmarked their operations and market share against their competitors to see where they stood.最露骨也最可怕的竞争意图宣言来自上世纪70年代的日本工程机械制造商小松(Komatsu)。员工上班时踩过的脚垫有这样的口号:“消灭卡特彼勒(Caterpillar)!”。企业会以竞争对手为对照,衡量自己的业务和市场份额,看看自己处在什么地位。But that strategic clarity has blurred in so many industries today to the point of near-invisibility thanks to the digital revolution and globalisation. Flying blind, companies seem happier to cut costs and buy back their shares than to invest purposefully for the future. Take the European telecommunications sector. Not long ago most telecoms companies were national monopolies with little, or no, competition. Today, it is hard to predict where the next threat is going to erupt.但由于数字革命和全球化,这种战略能见度如今在很多行业变得模糊,几乎到了看不见的地步。两眼一抹黑的企业似乎更乐意削减成本和回购股票,而不是抱着明确目的为未来投资。以欧洲电信行业为例。不久前,多数电信企业都是国有垄断企业,竞争很少,甚至毫无竞争。如今,很难预测下一个威胁将在何处爆发。WhatsApp, the California-based messaging service, was founded in 2009 and only registered in most companies’ consciousness when it was acquired by Facebook for more than bn in 2014. Yet in its short life WhatsApp has taken huge bites out of the lucrative text messaging markets. Today, WhatsApp has close to 1bn users sending 30bn messages a day. The global SMS text messaging market is just 20bn a day.总部位于加州的讯息务WhatsApp创建于2009年,在2014年以逾190亿美元被Facebook收购时才被多数企业注意到。然而,成立没几年的WhatsApp在有利可图的文本信息市场占据了巨大份额。如今,WhatsApp拥有近10亿用户,每天发送300亿条信息。全球文本短信市场每天的信息量只有200亿条。Car manufacturers are rapidly wising up to the threat posed by new generation tech firms, such as Tesla, Google and Uber, all intent on developing “apps on wheels”. Chinese and Indian companies, little heard of a few years ago, are bouncing out of their own markets to emerge as bold global competitors.汽车制造商正迅速意识到新一代科技公司构成的威胁,例如特斯拉(Tesla)、谷歌(Google)和优步(Uber),它们都试图开发“车载应用”。几年前还不为人知的中国和印度企业,正迈出国门,涌现为大胆的全球竞争者。As the driving force of capitalism, competition gives companies a purpose, a mission and a sense of direction. But how can companies compete in such a shape-shifting environment? There are perhaps two (partial) answers.作为资本主义的推动力,竞争赋予企业目标、使命和方向感。但企业在这种日新月异的环境下怎么竞争?对此可能有两个(不完全的)。The first is to do everything to understand the technological changes that are transforming the world, to identify the threats and opportunities early.首先是尽全力了解正在转变世界的科技变革,及早识别威胁和机遇。Gavin Patterson, chief executive of BT, the British telecoms group, says one of the functions of corporate leaders is to scan the horizon as never before. “As a CEO you have to be on the bridge looking outwards, looking for signs that something is happening, trying to anticipate it before it becomes a danger.”英国电信(BT)首席执行官加文#8226;帕特森(Gavin Patterson)表示,企业领导人的职能之一是以前所未有的警觉审视地平线。“作为CEO ,你不得不站在船舶驾驶室向远处眺望,寻找情况正在发生的蛛丝马迹,努力在它成为危险之前做好防范。”To that end, BT has opened innovation “scouting teams” in Silicon Valley and Israel, and tech partnerships with universities in China, the US, Abu Dhabi, India and the UK.为此,英国电信在硅谷和以色列设立了创新“侦察队”,并与中国、美国、阿布扎比、印度和英国的大学展开了科技合作。But even if you foresee the danger, it does not mean you can deal with it. After all, Kodak invented the first digital camera but failed to exploit the technology. The incentive structures of many companies are to minimise risk rather than maximise opportunity. Innovation is often a young company’s game.即便你预见到危险,也并不意味着你能够对付它。毕竟,柯达(Kodak)发明了第一台数码相机,但未能利用这种技术。很多企业的激励结构是为了将风险降至最低,而不是将机遇最大化。创新往往是年轻公司的游戏。The second answer is that companies must look as intensively inwards as they do outwards. Well-managed companies enjoy many advantages: strong brands, masses of consumer data, valuable historic data sets, networks of smart people and easy access to capital. But what is often lacking is the ambition that marks out the new tech companies, their ability to innovate rapidly and their extraordinary connection with consumers. In that sense, the main competition of so many established companies lies within their own organisations.第二个是企业必须既专注地向外看,还要向内看。管理有方的企业具备很多优势:强大品牌、海量消费者数据、宝贵的历史数据系列、聪明人网络以及资金获取容易。但他们往往缺乏的是新兴科技公司特有的那种雄心、快速创新的能力以及打动消费者的悟性。就此而言,很多老牌企业的主要竞争存在于企业内部。Larry Page, co-founder of Google, constantly urges his employees to keep being radical. In his Founders’ Letter of 2013, he warned that companies tend to grow comfortable doing what they have always done and only ever make incremental change. “This#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;leads to irrelevance over time,” he wrote.谷歌联合创始人拉里#8226;佩奇(Larry Page)不断敦促他的员工保持敢想敢干。在他2013年的创始人信函(Founders’ Letter)中,他警告称,企业往往变得满足于他们一直做的事情,只会做出增量变革。他写道:“随着时间推移,这……会导致变得无足轻重。”Google operates a 70/20/10 rule where employees are encouraged to spend 70 per cent of their time on their core business, 20 per cent on working with another team and 10 per cent on moonshots. How many traditional companies focus so much on radical ventures?谷歌实行70/20/10规则,员工被鼓励将他们70%的时间用于核心业务,20%用于与另一个团队合作,10%投入试验性的激进项目。有多少传统企业会把这么多注意力放在激进项目上?Vishal Sikka, chief executive of the Indian IT group Infosys, says that internal constraints can often be far more damaging than external threats. “The traditional definition of competition is irrelevant. We are increasingly competing against ourselves,” he says.印度IT集团Infosys首席执行官史维学(Vishal Sikka)表示,内部局限的破坏性往往要比外部威胁严重得多。他表示:“竞争的传统定义已不重要了。我们正越来越多地与自己竞争。”Quoting Siddhartha by the German writer Hermann Hesse, Mr Sikka argues that companies remain the masters of their own salvation whatever the market pressures: “Knowledge can be communicated. Wisdom cannot.” He adds: “Every company has to find its own unique wisdom.”史维学援引德国作家赫尔曼·黑塞(Hermann Hesse)的著作《悉达多》(Siddhartha)中的话辩称,不管市场压力如何,企业仍然是他们自己救赎的主人:“知识可以沟通。智慧不能。”他补充称:“每家公司都必须找到自己独特的智慧。” /201603/429162。

The San Francisco-based buyout firm Francisco Partners recently published a delicious analysis relevant to anyone wondering about what the future holds for technology stocks. It is a bulletin in which both pessimists and optimists can find hope and it offers a helpful perspective for those wondering about the current valuations of technology companies.总部位于旧金山的收购集团Francisco Partners最近发表了一份精辟的分析,它对于任何揣测科技股未来的人都很重要。在这份分析中,悲观者和乐观者都能找到希望,它为那些对科技公司当前估值感到纳闷的人提供了一个有帮助的视角。First, the bad news. The 15 technology companies with the largest market capitalisations in 2000 have been decimated — losing about .35tn, or roughly 60 per cent, of their combined market value. Only one, Microsoft, has a market capitalisation that is higher than in 2000. One extraordinary aspect of this meltdown is that it did not occur, as some might suspect, in the much ballyhooed dotcom wonder companies of yesteryear. Instead it was a blight that affected most of what were once considered blue-chip technology holdings. In 2000, Nortel sported a market value of 9bn that, like those of its classmates, had been bloated by the enthusiasm of the era; it has since gone bankrupt. While other members of this corporate bracket have avoided that ignominy, their long-term stock charts present bleak pictures. Cisco’s market value has faded from 3bn to 4bn; Intel’s from 8bn to 1bn; and EMC’s from 8bn to bn.首先是坏消息。2000年市值最高的15家科技公司已严重萎缩,市值损失约1.35万亿美元,约占它们总市值的60%。只有微软(Microsoft)一家的市值高于2000年水平。市值滑坡的一个不寻常之处在于,它没有像一些人可能猜测的那样,发生在当年被大肆炒作的网络奇迹公司身上。相反,这种不幸落在了多数曾经被视为蓝筹科技股的公司身上。2000年,北电网络(Nortel)市值高达2090亿美元,与同业一样,该公司的市值因为当年的市场热情而膨胀;后来该公司破产。尽管其他科技巨擘避免了这种不光结局,但它们的长期股价图表惨不忍睹。思科(Cisco)市值已从4030亿美元降至1440亿美元;英特尔(Intel)市值已从2880亿美元降至1610亿美元;EMC的市值从2180亿美元降至510亿美元。For the class of 2000, the sharpest property price declines have been in the deteriorating neighbourhoods of systems, hardware and semiconductors. This is because of the continuing decline in the cost of computing, the rise of open-source software, the move to the “cloud” and the emergence of huge datacentres where companies such as Amazon, Google and Facebook are designing their own approaches.对于2000年的知名公司而言,最大跌幅出现在系统、硬件和半导体等表现日益恶化的业务领域。这是因为计算成本持续下滑、开放源软件崛起、转向“云计算”的趋势,以及大规模数据中心的兴起,在数据中心领域,亚马逊(Amazon)、谷歌(Google)和Facebook等公司都在设计自己的策略。Now a word from sunnier climes. Fifteen companies that were together worth less than bn in 2000 are now among the world’s 50 top technology companies as measured by market capitalisation, with a combined worth of .1tn. (Had Amazon been included, rather than being classified as a retailer, this number would have swollen by another 0bn). Apple, which even in 2000 was viewed as little more than a curiosity, has risen in value from bn to 9bn. A few themes jump out of this listing: the power of novelty, the shift towards China, the benefits of patience and the virtues of capital efficiency.现在说点让人比较愉快的事情吧。2000年总市值不到100亿美元的15家公司,如今就市值而言已跻身全球科技公司50强,它们的总市值高达2.1万亿美元。(如果加上亚马逊(而不是将其列为一家零售商),这个数字会再增加2500亿美元)。即使在2000年,苹果(Apple)仍只是被视为一家奇特的公司,如今其市值已从60亿美元飙升至6590亿美元。这份名单体现出这样几个主题:新颖性的威力、重心转向中国的趋势、耐心的好处以及资本效率的重要性。Several of today’s most valuable technology companies did not even exist in 2000. Facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter together have a collective corporate history of only 33 years. Even Google and Salesforce were barely smudges on the horizon in 2000. These companies now have a combined value of about 0bn. Beyond some of the customised systems they operate in their own datacentres, and in Google’s case, some sideline activities such as its Nexus phones and Chrome notebooks, none of these companies sully their hands with anything as taxing as hardware. They have thrived from the artful deployment of software, in particular the “cloud based” variant, and — for Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter (and Google’s YouTube service) — organising and collating the contributions of their users.如今市值最高的几家科技公司在2000年甚至还未问世。Facebook、LinkedIn和Twitter三家公司的历史加起来也就33年。2000年,就连谷歌和Salesforce也还只是地平线上的小点。这些公司现在的总市值约为8500亿美元。除了它们在各自的数据中心运行的一些定制系统以及(就谷歌而言)像Nexus手机和Chrome笔记本等副业以外,这些公司都没有费神染指棘手的硬件业务。它们的成功来自于巧妙的软件部署,特别是“基于云”的软件,以及(就Facebook、 LinkedIn、Twitter以及谷歌的YouTube务而言)组织和整理用户生成的内容。Perched in a clump as the fourth, fifth and sixth most valuable technology companies of the day are Alibaba, Tencent and Baidu. This threesome is now worth 9bn — testament not just to how much China has progressed in a decade and a half but a harbinger of the next several decades as the country places increasing emphasis on spawning its own technology. Woe betide the management of any western technology company that underestimates the challenge posed by the vast number of emerging Chinese competitors, fuelled by an ambition and work regimen that is hard to match in Europe and the US.目前在市值排行榜上位居第四、第五和第六位的公司是阿里巴巴(Alibaba)、腾讯(Tencent)和百度(Baidu)。这三家公司目前的总市值为4090亿美元,这不仅明了中国在15年里取得了巨大进步,还预示着未来几十年的格局。中国正越来越注重发展自主技术。低估中国的大批新兴竞争对手将会带来的挑战,将给西方科技公司管理层带来厄运。驱使中国竞争对手的雄心和工作文化是欧美难以匹敌的。Finally, a note about two other themes that jump out of this listing: patience and profits.最后说一下这份名单体现出的另外两个主题:耐心和利润。Most investors in technology companies squander vast sums by reacting to short-term jitters or global jolts rather than concentrating on the staying power of those emerging enterprises on the right side of history.科技公司的多数投资者会浪费巨额资金,因为他们对短期恐慌或全球动荡做出条件反射式的反应,而不是专注于符合历史潮流的新兴企业的持久力。And for the founders and chief executives of all of the current billion-dollar “unicorns” there is another abiding message. Almost all of today’s technology juggernauts formed before about 2008 required smallish amounts of capital. Google, for example, consumed only m before turning profitable. Maybe this means that sooner or later a new class of company will come into vogue — a rare species known as the profitable unicorn.对于当前所有10亿美元级的“独角兽”企业的创始人和首席执行官而言,还有一条永恒的信息。在2008年左右之前创建的几乎所有科技巨擘,当初都需要很少的资金投入。例如,谷歌在实现盈利之前仅消耗了800万美元。这或许意味着,新一类的公司迟早会流行:它们将是被称为“盈利独角兽”的珍稀物种。 /201601/419983。

SYDNEY, Australia — The Australian authorities on Wednesday raided the home of a computer expert and entrepreneur in suburban Sydney, just hours after two news outlets identified the man as a likely creator of the digital currency Bitcoin.澳大利亚悉尼——本周三,澳大利亚当局在悉尼郊区搜查了一名电脑专家和创业者的住所,在那之前的几个小时,有两家新闻媒体称这名男子可能是数字货币“比特币”(Bitcoin)的发明者。The Australian Federal Police said the raid on the residence of the man, Craig Steven Wright, was for a tax investigation, and a spokesman said it had no connection to the Bitcoin reports. The Australian Taxation Office, which asked the police to carry out the raid, declined to comment on “any individual’s or entity’s tax affairs.”澳大利亚联邦警察表示,该男子名为克雷格·斯蒂文·莱特(Craig Steven Wright),搜查其住所是为了进行税务调查,警方发言人表示此次行动和比特币的新闻无关。而要求警方开展突袭行动的澳大利亚税务局(Australian Taxation Office)拒绝对“任何个人或实体的税务问题”置评。The raid, in the leafy suburb of Gordon on Sydney’s upper north shore, came hours after reports in Wired magazine and Gizmodo drew strong links between Mr. Wright and Satoshi Nakamoto, the pseudonymous creator of the virtual currency that has grown to billions of dollars in total value.这次突袭发生在悉尼上北海岸草木繁茂的郊区戈登(Gordon),就在《连线》(Wired)杂志和Gizmodo报道称莱特和中本聪(Satoshi Nakamoto)之间有紧密联系的几个小时之后。中本聪是比特币发明者的假名,这种虚拟货币的总价值已增长到了数十亿美元。The identity of Mr. Nakamoto has been a mystery since the currency’s computer code was released in 2009, with several false leads having been aired and debunked. The growing value of Bitcoin, which is managed by computers that run its peer-to-peer software, has driven the search for its elusive creator or creators.自2009年比特币的计算机代码发布以来,中本聪的身份一直是个谜,先后传出的几条假线索也都被揭穿。比特币是通过运行其点对点软件的计算机来管理的,随着它的价值日益增长,人们也一直在寻找它的的发明者。Wired, which was first to identify Mr. Wright as a possible inventor of the currency, cited old blog posts as well as leaked documents and emails. The magazine acknowledged that the trail of clues could be a hoax, but it added: “If Wright is seeking to fake his Nakamoto connection, his hoax would be practically as ambitious as Bitcoin itself.”《连线》率先指出莱特可能是比特币的发明者之一,它引用了一些早前的客文章以及泄露的文件和电邮作为据。该杂志承认,这些线索可能是一个骗局,但它表示:“如果莱特试图伪造出他和中本聪之间的联系,那么这个骗局的高明程度不亚于比特币本身。”The Gizmodo report said that Mr. Wright and Dave Kleiman, an American who died in 2013, “were involved in the development of the digital currency.”Gizmodo报道说,莱特和2013年去世的美国人戴夫·克莱曼(Dave Kleiman)“参与了这种电子货币的开发”。Both outlets cited what was described as a transcript of a 2014 meeting among Mr. Wright, lawyers and tax officials, in which he is ed as saying, “I did my best to try and hide the fact that I’ve been running Bitcoin since 2009.”这两家媒体都援引了一份记录,据称是2014年莱特与律师和税务官员之间的会议记录,其中莱特说,“我从2009年开始,一直在管理比特币,我尽了最大努力来隐瞒这个事实。”“By the end of this, I think half the world is going to bloody know,” he added, according to the transcript.记录显示,他说:“经过这件事之后,我觉得全世界有一半的人都会知道了。”Efforts to reach Mr. Wright on Wednesday were unsuccessful.本周三我们多番试图联系莱特,但均未成功。A Newsweek investigation in 2014 incorrectly identified the Bitcoin creator as Dorian Satoshi Nakamoto, a physicist living with his mother in Southern California. He denied the report, saying he had only learned of Bitcoin weeks earlier after a reporter contacted his son.《新闻周刊》(Newsweek)在2014年刊发的一篇调查文章误认为多利安·中本聪(Dorian Satoshi Nakamoto)是比特币的创造者。此人是一名物理学家,与母亲住在南加州,他否认了那篇报道的说法,称几周之前一名记者联系他儿子时,他才听说比特币这种东西。 /201512/415517。

The Spark Program星火计划At the end of the 1970s, the reform of economic institution first started in rural areas in China.The family output related contract responsibility system was established and has aroused the farmers’ enthusiasm for getting rich through hard working and brought about a significant change to the production relations in the rural areas. Since the beginning of the 1980s, the township industries have developed rapidly and the rural economy has become unprecedented active. The specialization and commercialization of agricultural production have made the farmers more and more aware of the importance of science and technology, and hence the requirements for sciences have widely emerged in the rural areas. In March 1985 , the Chinese government started the reform of scientific and technological institution in the whole country, further clarifying the policy for the development of science and technology,“Economic construction must rely on science and technology and scientific and technological workers to be oriented toward rural economy”, extend research achievements of science and technology to rural areas and help develop the rural economy. China is a large agricultural country with the rural population occupying 80% of the national total, and to solve the problems of agricultural, rural areas and farmers is needed by realizing the modernization of China and promoting the development of rural productive force.In May 1985 , the Ministry of Science and Technology submitted to the State Council a suggestion to “implement a batch of scientific and technological projects of quick benefit so as to promote Local economy” , in which the proverb “A single spark can start a prairie fir” was ed, hence came the name of Spark Program, meaning that the spark of science and technology will extend over the vast rural areas of China. The Chinese government approved the implementation of this program in early 1986.20世纪70年代末期,中国经济体制的改革率先在农村起步。家庭联产承包责任制的建立,激发了亿万农民劳动致富的热情,使中国农村生产关系发生了一次重大变革。进入80年代以后,乡镇工业发展迅猛,农业经济空前活跃。农业生产的专业化、商品化使农民越来越认识到科学技术的重要性,从而使农村普遍产生了对科学的需求和渴望。1985年3月,中国政府在全国实行科技体制改革,进一步明确了“经济建设必须依靠科学技术,科学技术工作必须面向经济建设”的科技发展方针,为广大科研院所和科技工作者面向农村经济主战场、向农村推广科技成果、帮助农村发展经济提供了契机。中国是一个农业大国,农村人口占80%,解决农业、农村和农民问题是实现中国现代化的关键,从这个基点出发,顺应全国经济体制改革的形势和农村生产力发展的需要,1985年5月,国家科委向国务院提出了“关于抓一批短、平、快科技项目促进地方经济振兴”的请示,引用了中国的一句谚语“星星之火,可以燎原”誉名为“星火计划”。寓意为科技的星星之火,必将燃遍中国的农村大地。1986年初中国政府批准实施这项计划。The Spark Program is the first program approved by the Chinese government to promote the development of rural economy by relying on science and technology and is an important component of plans for the national economic and scientific and technological development. The purpose of the program is to introduce advanced, appropriate technologies into the rural areas and lead the farmers to rely on science and technology in the rural areas, promote rural productivity, and expedite the sustainable, rapid and healthy development of agriculture and rural economy.星火计划是经中国政府批准实施的第一个依靠科学技术促进农村经济发展的计划,是我国国民经济和科技发展计划的重要组成部分。其宗旨是:把先进适用的技术引向农村,引导亿万农民依靠科技发展农村经济,引导乡镇企业的科技进步,促进农村劳动者整体素质的提高,推动农业和农村经济持续、快速、健康发展。 /201602/422146。

If you have a smartphone, you also have your very own digital personal assistant. There#39;s the iPhone#39;s Siri (now added to Apple TV), of course, but don#39;t forget Cortana on the Windows Phone or the S Voice on the Samsung Galaxy. All of these virtual voices have one thing in common: They all sound female.倘若你有一部智能手机,那你一定也会有自己的私人专属数码助手。苹果手机上装有Siri语音助手(现今苹果电视上也装有此功能),当然,类似的语音功能软件还有微软手机上的“Cortana”(微软小娜)以及三星“盖乐世”系列手机上的S Voice语音助手功能。但所有的这些虚拟语音功能都有一个共同的特点:均为女性发音。This, as you might#39;ve guessed, is no coincidence. Writing for Wired this week, Jessi Hempel explores some of the social-science research on the way people perceive male voices versus female voices. Take, for example, research conducted by Karl MacDorman, an Indiana University professor who studies human-computer interaction:你可能已经猜到,这些巧合并非偶然。杰西·亨普尔本周在美国《连线》杂志发表了一篇文章,文章写到他对一些社会科学方面的研究进行了调研,比如人们对男性和女性声音的感知方式差异。举个例子,印第安纳大学的一位主要研究人机交互的教授卡尔·麦克道曼曾经进行过这样一个研究:He and fellow researchers played clips of male and female voices to people of both genders, then asked them to identify which they preferred. The researchers also measured the way participants actually responded to the voices. In a 2011 paper, they reported that both women and men said female voices came across as warmer. In practice, women even showed a subconscious preference for responding to females; men remained subconsciously neutral. “Men will say they prefer female speech, and women really do prefer it,” MacDorman says.他和和其他研究人员给参与男女两性声音测试的志愿者分别播放了男性声音和女性声音的片段,然后让这些志愿者听完之后确定并选出所喜欢的声音。与此同时,研究人员还对志愿者实对声音的反馈进行了测量。他们曾经在 2011 年的一篇文章中指出,女性和男性志愿者都认为女性的声音听起来比较温暖人心。实验明,女性志愿者对女性的声音表现出了一种潜意识上的喜好,而男性志愿者则仍潜意识地保持中立。卡尔·麦克道曼教授表示:“男性志愿者总是说他们喜欢女性的声音,但女性志愿者才是真心实意地喜欢女性的声音。Then again, you can#39;t entirely discount the fact that the Silicon Valley tech-bros who are designing many of these virtual assistants may be falling back on the “stereotype of a compliant sidekick,” Hempel concedes. But then again, it will be interesting to watch how these voices evolve alongside the technology. After all, for their app, Domino#39;s went with an affable-sounding dude-voice, which they dubbed Dom.当然,杰西·亨普尔在文中还提到:我们不能完全否认这样一个事实,即许多来自硅谷的虚拟助手设计师们可能正在陷入“一个兼容的助手”这样一个刻板印象上。不过,能够见语音技术如何伴随科技不断演变进步,也是件十分有趣的事。毕竟,多米诺(Domino)就在他们的 App 中使用了一名暖男的声音,他们将它命名为 Dom。 /201511/408164。