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楼主:好卫生 时间:2019年10月18日 03:26:07 点击:0 回复:0
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Whether you#39;re the life of the party, a bookworm or a night owl, your personality plays a surprisingly large role in your ability to slim down. Follow this guide to discover your personality type and use your own characteristics to lose weight and keep it off for good.不论你是派对狂、大书虫还是夜猫子,你的性格都会极大地影响你的减肥能力。从下面找出你的性格类型,然后根据自己的性格特点来成功减肥吧。If you#39;re impulsive...如果你是冲动型……In a famous 1972 study, scientists offered young children a choice between a single marshmallow immediately or, if they could wait 15 minutes, two marshmallows. Those who waited went onto experience more success and higher SAT scores later on in life. The ability to delay gratification also relates to weight loss, says Art Markman, Ph.D., professor of psychology at the University of Texas.在1972年一个著名研究中,科学家让一帮小孩选择是立即得到一个棉花糖,还是等15分钟后得到两个棉花糖。结果明选择耐心等待的小孩日后在生活中能获得更高分数或更大成就。德克萨斯大学的心理学教授阿特-马克曼认为,延迟满足感的能力和减肥大有关联。 /201402/276229When Adam Liu decided to research his family roots, he had no problem tracing his grandmother’s family back to Ireland and England from his home computer in Sydney, Australia. But he soon hit a wall with the great-grandfather who left China to seek his fortune in Singapore in the 1890s.生活在澳大利亚悉尼的刘先生(Adam Liu,刘为音译)想要探寻家族根源,他毫不费劲地用家中的电脑搜索到,祖母的家族来自爱尔兰和英格兰。但在寻找有关曾祖父的信息时,他一无所获。他的曾祖父在19世纪90年代离开中国去了新加坡。He decided to hire a tiny start-up called My China Roots based near Beijing’s Confucius Temple. It offers bespoke ancestry searches for overseas Chinese seeking insight into where their forefathers came from, and what drove them to leave.刘先生决定请一家名为“中华家脉”(My China Roots)的小公司来帮他寻根。“中华家脉”是一家规模很小的初创公司,办公地址在北京孔庙附近,为海外华人提供定制寻根务,帮助他们探寻自己的祖先来自哪里、以及当初离开中国的原因。“You want to have a real, tangible connection to where you stand in the context of history,” says Mr Liu, who first became curious about his roots when he was assigned to draw a family tree in school.刘先生说:“人会希望切实地触摸自己与历史的联系。”他第一次对自己的家族根源产生兴趣,是在有一次学校布置作业、让他们画下自己的族谱时。The Chinese diaspora numbers 50m whose ancestors settled the trading posts of southeast Asia over the past 200 years but also voyaged to places further afield, such as Manchester, home to Britain’s largest Chinese community, and the crowded streets of New York’s Lower East Side.全世界有5000万华侨华人。在过去200年里,他们的祖先不仅在东南亚各贸易城市定居下来,还有些走得更远,来到了曼彻斯特(那里有英国最大的中国城)和纽约下东区的拥挤街区。“The overwhelming majority left for non-pleasant reasons. Whether poverty or political it was never pleasant,” says Huihan Lie, My China Roots founder and the descendent of Dutch-speaking Indonesian Chinese who moved to the Netherlands after Indonesia’s independence.“中华家脉”创始人李伟汉(Huihan Lie)的祖辈是印尼华人,说荷兰语,在印尼独立后移民到了荷兰。李伟汉说:“大多数华人都是迫不得已才离开的。要么是因为贫穷,要么是因为政治方面的原因,总之回想起来绝不让人愉快。”Ancestry.com reported revenues of 0m last year selling services to North Americans, Australians and others researching their roots. Businesses focusing on European ancestry are basically data providers, offering electronic searches of material from Ellis Island or centuries of marriage, death and census records.家谱网(Ancestry.com)去年报告营收5.4亿美元,其业务是向北美、澳大利亚和其他地区的华人提供寻根务。在欧洲提供寻根务的公司主要是数据提供商,提供从埃利斯岛(Ellis Island,指美国移民局——译者注)搜索的资料,以及多个世纪的婚姻、死亡和人口普查资料。Chinese ancestry research, by contrast, is “hard to scale up”, Mr Lie discovered.李伟汉发现,相形之下,中国的寻根务则“很难做大”。Chinese families record their births and deaths in the jia pu, or ancestral book, which can stretch across centuries. Most are maintained by the clan or temple in the ancestral village, not by any public authority, which makes it hard to compile digital databases. Many vanished during a century of war and attacks by early communists, including the fanatical Red Guards.中国人在家谱里记录族人的出生和死亡,记录的时间跨度可达数个世纪。家谱大多由古老村庄中的宗祠祖庙、而不是公共机关管理,因此很难编制数字化数据库。许多家谱在一个世纪的战争中遗失了,还有许多被狂热的红卫兵等初期共产主义者毁掉了。“There’s a lot of personal history that’s so easily destroyed,” says Mr Lie, who tries to make his clients’ ancestors “come alive” with descriptions of their surroundings and the political context of their lives.李伟汉说:“很多个人历史很容易就被毁灭了。”他试图通过描述当时的环境和他们生活的政治背景,还原客户祖先的生前情景。Some online ancestry websites offer advice for overseas Chinese – for instance, by explaining the limited online databases of jia pu and other records – but few sell search services. And those records are inaccessible for people such as Mr Liu who do not Chinese.有一些在线寻根网站为海外华人提供建议,比如对网上有限的家谱资料和其他记录进行解释,但很少有网站会代客户进行寻找。像刘先生这样的华人也不会中文,因此也看不懂那些记录。The task is complicated by the short list of Chinese family names (the top 100 account for about 85 per cent of all Chinese, compared with about 25,000 relatively common British surnames) and the unwillingness of many emigrants to confide in their assimilated children.中国人的姓相对较少(100个大姓就占了所有中国人的85%,而英国人有2.5万个常用姓),许多华人移民也不愿把家世告诉已经被异乡同化了的子女,这两点让寻根变得更加困难。Most jia pu fail to record the full names of wives or daughters, in effect limiting most searches to the father’s line.大多数家谱未记录妻子或女儿的全名,导致大多数搜索只能局限于父系。My China Roots’s small team of researchers act like detectives, identifying villages through local historical associations and interviewing elderly residents to determine how the family has fared since the client’s ancestor left home. When the team visited Mr Liu’s ancestral temple in inland Jiangxi province, they discovered a lineage that stretched back 3,000 years.“中华家脉”的研究员人数很少,他们的工作方式好像侦探——通过地方史志机构找到祖村,探访年长居民、打探客户祖先离乡后整个家族的变迁。研究员们造访刘先生老家位于江西省的宗祠后发现,刘氏家族的谱系可追溯至3000年前。To expand, Mr Lie is training a network of promising young provincial researchers.为扩大业务,李伟汉正在培养一批年轻有前途的乡土研究员。It is a race against time. Mr Lie traced his mother’s roots to a village near Zhangzhou, the silk-trading city in China’s southern Fujian province that they left seven generations ago. But like much of China’s heritage, the 500-year-old clan temple that protected the family records during centuries of war and revolution is about to fall victim to an even more implacable force – economic development and the wreckers’ ball.这是一场与时间的赛跑。李伟汉追溯到,他母亲的祖先来自福建丝绸贸易古城漳州附近的一个村庄,他们在七代以前离开家乡。但如中国大部分传统事物的命运一样,那座已有500年历史、在几个世纪的战火和革命中保护了家族记录的宗祠,即将被一股更加难以阻挡的力量摧毁,那就是经济发展和拆迁队的破碎机。 /201409/331368

Researchers have found we have an inbuilt ability to tell how intelligent a man is just by looking at them. The team from the Czech Republic found people were unable to perform the same deduction on women.研究表明,我们其实有一种与生俱来的能力,那就是通过看一个男人的脸来判定他的智商,这项发现来自捷克共和国研究小组,不过研究人员表示这一推论不适用于女性。The team used static facial photographs of 40 men and 40 women to test the relationship between measured IQ, perceived intelligence, and facial shape.这一研究团队分析了40个男人和40个女人静态的面部图,测试其智商、认知能力和脸型的关系。Both men and women were able to accurately evaluate the intelligence of men by viewing facial photographs, they discovered.他们发现,男性和女性都能够通过看男人的脸型精准地评估出他的智商。The study, in the journal PLoS One, reports people tend to associate certain facial traits with high intelligence.该研究发布在《公共科学图书馆期刊》上。研究报告表明,人们倾向于把某种脸型特征与高智商联系起来。#39;Faces that are perceived as highly intelligent are rather prolonged with a broader distance between the eyes, a larger nose, a slight upturn to the corners of the mouth, and a sharper, pointing, less rounded chin.“那些被认为高智商的男人一般拥有一张长脸,并且瞳距较宽、鼻子较大、嘴角微翘、下巴比较尖细。”#39;By contrast, the perception of lower intelligence is associated with broader, more rounded faces with eyes closer to each other, a shorter nose, declining corners of the mouth, and a rounded and massive chin.“相反,人们一般认为智商较低的人面部宽阔圆润,并且瞳距较窄、鼻子较小、嘴角下倾、下巴较圆厚。”#39;By contrast, we found no correlation between morphological traits and real intelligence measured with IQ test, either in men or women.“和脸型相比,我们发现无论是男性还是女性,智商和体型都没有关系。” /201404/290338

September is an exciting month in every college freshman’s life. For many, it’s the first time they leave home to live in a new environment. But after the hustle and bustle of the first few weeks, excitement gives way to a less enjoyable emotion — homesickness.对所有大一新生来说,每年的九月都是激动人心的日子。许多人都是第一次走出家门,在一个新环境中生活。但在开学数周的喧嚣过后,激动的心情慢慢地被一丝乡愁所取代。Homesickness manifests itself in many ways. You may miss mum’s cooking, your pets, or even your old bed. All this becomes a fond memory of the past. Homesickness can be a bitter feeling, especially when faced with the challenges of settling into an unfamiliar environment.乡愁的表现方式可谓多种多样。你可能想念妈妈的厨艺、你的宠物、甚至是自己的旧床铺。林林总总汇集成对过去时光的美好记忆。乡愁是苦涩的,尤其当你置身陌生环境中,面临诸多挑战时。But remember, you’re not alone. According to a recent B article, 70 percent of British college students experience homesickness. In this increasingly globalized world in which people migrate to far away places for education, work or a relationship, homesickness is a feeling shared by many adults.但记住,你并不孤单。英国广播公司B近日报道称,70%的英国大学生饱受思乡之苦。在这个日益全球化的世界里,人们为了学业、工作或感情而远走他乡,许多成年人心中都弥漫着乡愁。Relocating to a new place is not an easy process, particularly if you don’t speak the local language or are not familiar with local customs.易地而居并非易事,尤其当你对当地语言与风俗一窍不通时。Homesickness can have similar symptoms to depression, explains psychologist Caroline Schuster in an interview with the B. In extreme cases it can develop into a panic attack, she says, while it can also result in social withdrawal, sleep disruption, nightmares, and concentration problems.心理学家卡洛琳#8226;舒斯特在接受B采访时解释道,乡愁与抑郁症状相似。她表示,乡愁严重时可发展成恐慌症,同时也会导致逃避社交、睡眠障碍、噩梦连连以及注意力无法集中等问题。The most famous adult to have suffered from homesickness is probably Odysseus, the hero of Homer’s epic poem, who spent 10 years on a journey trying to get home. It was the memories of his family that helped him get through those difficult times.饱受思乡之苦的、最为著名的人物要数荷马史诗《奥德赛》中的英雄人物——奥德修斯,他历时十年才与家人团聚。正是凭借与家人有关的记忆,他才得以度过重重难关。But the term homesickness, or nostalgia, wasn’t invented until the 17th century. It was considered a disorder by a Swiss physician, who attributed soldiers’ mental and physical discomfort to their longing to return home, “nostos” in Greek, and the accompanying pain, “algos”.然而,乡愁一词(英文homesickness,又被称为“nostalgia”)直到17世纪才得以面世。一名瑞士医生视其为一种疾病,认为士兵们的身心不适源于他们的思乡之情。Nostalgia一词来自希腊语词,nostos(返乡)以及 algos(思乡之痛)。Back then, people saw homesickness as a dangerous and even fatal disease, says Susan Matt, author of Homesickness: An American History. Gradually, it came to be considered childish and immature, she says, ill-fitting to a culture of capitalism and imperialism that required people to travel and explore.《乡愁:一种美国历史》一书的作者苏珊#8226;马特表示,那时人们将乡愁视为一种危险、甚至致命的疾病。她说,后来,乡愁被认为是幼稚、不成熟的表现,是人们不适应资本主义与帝国主义文化的表现。而这种症状需要他们在旅途中不断摸索克。Studies in recent years, however, have shown that nostalgia may have some benefits to our mental health.而近年来的一些研究结果显示,乡愁可能对我们的心理健康大有裨益。After a decade of surveys and research, Constantine Sedikides, a US social psychologist, found thatnostalgia is what makes us human.经过近十载的调查研究,美国社会心理学家康斯坦丁#8226;塞迪基德斯发现,乡愁是人性的一部分。In an interview with The New York Times, Sedikides explains that nostalgia can counteract loneliness, boredom and anxiety. It makes people more generous toward strangers and more tolerant of outsiders. Couples feel closer and happier when they share nostalgic memories.在接受《纽约时报》采访时,塞迪基德斯解释道,乡愁能够抵消孤独、厌烦以及焦虑。这使得人们在面对陌生人时更加慷慨,对外人更加宽容。分享过往的时光使得情侣间更加亲近和快乐。Sedikides admits that nostalgia has its painful side, but the net effect is to make life seem more meaningful. When people speak wistfully of the past, they typically become more optimistic and inspired about the future. The trick is not to become obsessive about the past, but always to live life forward.塞迪基德斯承认乡愁固然有痛苦的一面,但它可以有效地让生命更有意义。怀旧时,人们通常会变得更加乐观、对未来充满希望。而诀窍在于,不过过分迷恋过去,生活要一直向前看。 /201310/262219

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