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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年06月26日 08:48:50
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Science and technology科学技术The Cambrian explosion寒武纪大爆发Kingdom come 动物王国出现Chinese palaeontologists hope to explain the rise of the animals中国古生物学家希望解释动物的起源AMONG the mysteries of evolution, one of the most profound is what exactly happened at the beginning of the Cambrian period.在众多进化之谜中,其中意义最深远的就是在寒武纪开始时期到底发生了什么。Before that period, which started 541m years ago and ran on for 56m years, life was a modest thing.在寒武纪之前,从5.41亿年前开始持续5600万年的时代里,生命是适度存在的。Bacteria had been around for about 3 billion years, but for most of this time they had had the Earth to themselves.细菌已经存在了大约30亿年,但是在多数时间里,它们主宰着地球。Seaweeds, jellyfish-like creatures, sponges and the odd worm do start to put in an appearance a few million years before the Cambrian begins.海藻、类似水母的生物、海绵生物和奇怪的虫子确实在寒武纪开始的前几百万年已经出现。But red in tooth and claw the Precambrian was not—for neither teeth nor claws existed.但是前寒武纪时期却不是腥牙血爪,因为那个时候牙齿和爪子都没有出现。Then, in the 20m-year blink of a geological eye, animals arrived in force.然后,在地质学看来一眨眼的2000万年中,动物大规模的出现了。Most of the main groups of the animal kingdom—arthropods, brachiopods, coelenterates, echinoderms, molluscs and even chordates, the branch from which vertebrates went on to develop—are found in the fossil beds of the Cambrian.人们在寒武纪群落里发现了动物王国的主要动物集群,包括腕足、腔肠、棘皮、软体和脊索。The sudden evolution of this megafauna is known as the Cambrian explosion.寒武纪因威尔士的群山而得名,But two centuries after it was noticed, in the mountains of Wales after which the Cambrian period is named, nobody knows what detonated it.在寒武纪被注意到的两个多世纪里,没人知道到底为什么会发生大爆炸。A group of Chinese scientists, led by Zhu Maoyan of the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, plan to change that with a project called “From the Snowball Earth to the Cambrian explosion: the evolution of life and environment 600m years ago”.由南京地质古生物研究所的朱茂炎领导的中国科学家小组计划通过一个名为“从雪球事件到寒武纪大爆发:距今6亿年前后的生物与环境演变”的项目改变这种情况。The “Snowball Earth” refers to a series of ice ages that happened between 725m and 541m years ago.雪球事件指的是7.25亿-5.41年前一系列的冰川时代。These were, at their maxima, among the most extensive glaciations in the Earth’s history.在顶峰时期,它们是地球史上最大规模的冰川时期。They alternated, though, with periods that make the modern tropics seem chilly: the planet’s average temperature was sometimes as high as 50C.不过他们是交替发生的,在某些时候,使得现在的热带地区变的寒冷,有时候全球的平均温度却高达50度。Add the fact that a supercontinent was breaking up at this time, and you have a picture of a world in chaos.从而导致了一个超大陆分裂,从此我们就有了一个混乱的地球,Just the sort of thing that might drive evolution.就是这些事情可能导致进化的发生。Dr Zhu and his colleagues hope to find out exactly how these environmental changes correspond to changes in the fossil record.朱士和他的同事希望从化石记录的变化中发现这个时期环境是如何确切变化的。The animals’ carnival动物狂欢节Fortunately, China’s fossil record for this period is rich.幸运的是,中国在这个时期的化石资料是非常丰富的。Until recently, the only known fossils of Precambrian animals were what is called the Ediacaran fauna—a handful of strange creatures found in Australia, Canada and the English Midlands that lived in the Ediacaran period, between 635m and 541m years ago, and which bear little resemblance to what came afterwards.直到目前,唯一知道的前寒武纪一少部分化石是埃迪卡拉动物群。它们生活与生活在距今6.35亿年到5.42亿年之间埃迪卡拉纪,在澳大利亚、加拿大、英格兰中部等地区被发现,但是他们和寒武纪的生物相似性很少。In 1998, however, a team led by Chen Junyuan, also of the Nanjing Institute, and another led by Xiao Shuhai of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute, in America, discovered a 580m-year-old Lagersttte—a place where fossils are particularly well preserved—in a geological formation called the Doushantuo, which sps out across southern China.然而,1998年,一个由同样来自南京所的陈俊元和美国弗吉尼亚理工大学的肖书海共同领导的小组在中国南部一个广泛存在的陡山沱地质构造中发现了一个距今5.8亿年且保存出奇的好的生物群。Portents of the modern world 现代世界的前兆This Lagersttte has yielded many previously unknown species, including microscopic sponges, small tubular organisms of unknown nature, things that look like jellyfish but might not be and a range of what appear to be embryos that show bilateral symmetry.这个生物群落发现了许多之前不知道的物种,包括微型海绵生物,不知名物种的小管器官,一些似是而非的软体动物,以及一些有对称结构的像是胚胎的生物。What these embryos would have grown into is unclear. But some might be the ancestors of the Cambrian megafauna.这些胚胎将会长成什么不得而知,但是他们中的一些可能就是寒武纪大型动物的祖先。To try to link the evolution of these species with changes in the environment, Chu Xuelei of the Institute of Geology and Geophysics in Beijing and his colleagues have been looking at carbon isotopes in the Doushantuo rocks.为了把这些物种的进化和环境变化联系起来,北京地质与地球物理研究所的储雪雷和他的同事用碳同位素方法测试陡山沱石块。They have found that the proportion of 12C—a light isotope of carbon that is more easily incorporated by living organisms into organic matter than its heavy cousin, 13C—increased on at least three occasions during the Ediacaran period.他们发现在埃迪卡拉纪有至少三次12C的增加,而较轻的碳同位素12C相比于它的同胞13C更容易被生物体吸收转化为有机物。They suggest these increases mark moments when the amount of oxygen in seawater went up, because more oxygen would mean more oxidisation of buried organic matter. That would liberate its 12C, for incorporation into rocks.他们推测这些增长标志当时海水中的氧含量在增长,因为更多的氧气意味着更多的埋藏的有机物的氧化。他们在变成化石的过程中就将释放12C。Each of Dr Chu’s oxidation events corresponds with an increase in the size, complexity and diversity of life, both plant and animal.褚士的每个氧化事项都与动植物在其体积,复杂性、多样性上的增加有关。What triggered what, however, is unclear.然而,哪一个引发哪一个却不得而知。There may have been an increase in photosynthesis because there were more algae around.这有可能因为出现了更多的藻类,光合作用增强,Or eroded material from newly formed mountains may have buried organic matter that would otherwise have reacted with oxygen, leading to a build-up of the gas.或者是新形成的山脉上的腐蚀物质埋藏本该和氧气反应的有机物,导致气体的增加。The last—and most dramatic—rise in oxygen took place towards the end of the Ediacaran.最戏剧性的,也是氧气含量最后的增长发生在埃迪卡拉纪末期。Follow-up work by Dr Zhu, in nine other sections of the Doushantuo formation, suggests this surge started just after the final Precambrian glacial period about 560m years ago, and went on for 9m years.后续的工作由朱士完成,有九个其他的陡山沱构造说明这个激增仅仅是在最后一次前寒武纪冰川之后,大约5.6亿年前,并且持续了900万年。These dates overlap with those of signs of oxidation found in rocks in other parts of the world, confirming that whatever was going on affected the entire planet.这些数据和全球其他地方发现的化石中的氧化物一起确定了到底是什么将影响整个星球。Dr Zhu suspects this global environmental shift propelled the evolution of complex animals.朱士认为是全球环境的变化促进了复杂动物的进化。Dr Zhu also plans to push back before the Ediacaran period.朱士还计划回推到埃迪卡拉纪之前。Other researchers have found fossils of algae and wormlike creatures in rocks in northern China that pre-date the end of the Marinoan glaciation, 635m years ago, which marks the boundary between the Ediacaran and the Cryogenian period that precedes it.其他研究者已经在中国北部的石块中发现了藻类和类似虫子的生物的化石,其年代在6.35亿年之前的圣马力诺冰期末端之前,圣马力诺冰期确定了其之前埃迪卡拉纪和成冰纪之间的边界。Such fossils are hard to study, so Dr Zhu will use new imaging technologies that can look at them without having to clean away the surrounding rock, and are also able to detect traces of fossil organic matter invisible to the eye.这些化石很难去研究,所以朱士利用可以清晰成像而不用去清除周边石块的新成像技术,并且可以探测不被肉眼可见的化石有机物的踪迹。Besides digging back before the Ediacaran, the new project’s researchers also intend to analyse the unfolding of the Cambrian explosion itself by taking advantage of other Lagersttten—for China has several that date from the Cambrian.除了研究埃迪卡拉纪之前以外,新项目的研究者还利用其他生物群去分析未解开的寒武纪大爆炸,因为中国有好几个这样寒武纪的群落。Dr Chen, indeed, first made his name in 1984, when he excavated one at Chengjiang in Yunnan province.陈士因为1984年发掘了云南澄江生物群而出名,It dates from 525m years ago, which make it 20m years older than the most famous CambrianLagersttte in the West, the Burgess shale of British Columbia, in Canada.澄江生物群大概在5.25亿年以前,这就使得他比西方著名的加拿大不列颠哥伦比亚的波基斯页岩寒武纪群落早了2000万年。The project’s researchers plan to see how, evolutionarily speaking, the various Lagerst?tten relate to one another, to try to determine exactly when different groups of organisms emerged.这个项目的研究者计划从进化学上解释,不同的群落是怎么和其他的群落发生联系,并且试图解决到底什么时候出现了不同的生物分类。They will also look at the chemistry of elements other than carbon and oxygen—particularly nitrogen and phosphorous, which are essential to life, and sulphur, which often indicates the absence of oxygen and is thus antithetical to much animal life.他们不单单只是观察氧和碳元素,尤其是生命必须的氮和磷,以及经常指示缺少氧且和大部分动物生命对立的硫。Dr Zhu hopes to map changes in the distribution of these chemicals across time and space.朱士希望绘制这些元素随着时间和空间分布变化图,确认这些变化的关联性,He will assess how these changes correlate, whether they are related to weathering, mountain building and the ebb and flow of glaciers, how they could have affected the evolution of life, and how plants and animals might themselves have altered the chemistry of air and sea.它们是否和天气,造山,冰川的起伏有关,他们怎样影响生命的进化,以及动植物他们自己是如何改变空气和海洋中的化学组成。Most ambitiously, Dr Zhu, Dr Xiao and their colleagues hope to drill right through several fossiliferous sites in southern China where Ediacaran rocks turn seamlessly into Cambrian ones.朱士,肖士以及他们的团队很有雄心的希望在中国南部那些无缝连接埃迪卡拉纪和寒武纪的几个含有化石的地方穿凿而过。Such places are valuable because in most parts of the world there is a gap, known as an unconformity, between the Ediacaran and the Cambrian.这些地方都很有价值,世界的大部分地区,埃迪卡拉和寒武纪之间都有空白,这种空白被称为不整合面。Unconformities are places where rocks have been eroded before new ones are deposited, and the widesp Ediacaran-Cambrian unconformity has been a big obstacle to understanding the Cambrian explosion.不整合面地方的石块在新的沉积之前已经被侵蚀,埃迪卡拉纪-寒武纪之间广泛的不整合面是了解寒武纪大爆发的一个重大障碍。With luck, then, a mystery first noticed in the Welsh mountains in the early 19th century will be solved in the Chinese ones in the early 21st.幸运的是,在19世纪早期威尔士群山中发现的神奇事件将被21世纪中国发现的群落所解决。If it is, the origin of the animal kingdom will have become clear, and an important gap in the history of humanity itself will have been filled.如果是的话,那动物王国的起源将会变得更清晰,人类历史中一个重要的空白将被填补。 /201312/268598

China’s return to greatness中国回归强大Marching forward艰难前行The great power is still licking old wounds这个强国仍在舔舐旧伤口Aug 3rd 2013 |From the print editionWealth and Power: China’s Long March to the Twenty-First Century. By Orville Schell and John Delury. Random House; 478 pages《富强:中国21世纪的长征》MODERN China’s founding trauma came in 1842, when British troops pushed opium down the throats of a prostrate nation at the Treaty of Nanjing. Today this brutal military and diplomatic defeat is hailed in China for the way its darkness forced a new dawn.现代中国的灾难始于1842年,英国军队在南京条约下强制向中国输送鸦片。今天残暴的军队和失败的外交在中国都不复存在了,黑暗之后迎来了黎明。Indeed, China celebrates defeat like other countries mark victories—and the humiliations of subsequent decades afford plenty of opportunities, with the once great empire carved up at the hands first of Europeans and then the Japanese. This grim past is central to the narrative of the ruling Communist Party. Without China’s legacy of humiliation, the party’s role in restoring fuqiang—wealth and power—would look less impressive.确实, 中国像其他国家一样庆祝胜利,这个曾经的强大帝国先后被欧洲列强和日本瓜分,给后代留下了深深的耻辱。这些残忍的过去经常被共产党说起。没有中华民族所经历的耻辱,共产党在重塑富强中起到的作用就不会这么令人印象深刻。Yet shame is woven into the national fabric. As early as the fifth century , King Goujian never allowed himself to forget a failed campaign that had cost him his kingdom and his liberty. He slept on a bed of sticks and hung above his head a gall bladder, which he licked daily; its bitter taste served to remind him of his grievance, and gave him the strength to later take his revenge. Chi ku—to eat bitterness—is a common phrase.在中国悠久的历史中,耻辱早就有所存在。公元前15世纪的时候,越王勾践永记亡国之痛,囚禁之苦。他睡在柴草上,头顶挂了个苦胆,每天都舔一舔,苦味让他紧记其委屈,让他有力量在以后复仇。吃苦是一个很常见的词语。In “Wealth and Power” Orville Schell, a longtime observer of China, and John Delury, a rising Sinologist and Korea expert, set out to find the roots of China’s economic success. In the style of Jonathan Spence, the doyen of China historians, they do so through pen-portraits of 11 intellectuals and politicians who strove to change China after 1842. Running through this absorbing book is the sense that China’s leaders, from the much maligned Empress Dowager Cixi to the recent reformist prime minister, Zhu Rongji, all tried, in their own way, to avenge the country’s history of shame.Orville Schell是一个对中国很了解的资深专家,John Delury是一个新晋的中国研究专家和韩国专家,他们合著《富强》一书,试图找到中国经济成功的根源。模仿中国历史学家Jonathan Spence前辈的风格,他们通过讲述1842年以后试图改变中国的11位知识分子和政治家论中国的成功。读这本引人入胜的书,让人们感觉从恶毒的皇太后慈禧到近代的改革派总理朱镕基都想用自己的方式一雪前耻。The work of restoring China’s lost wealth and power required overthrowing Confucian orthodoxy. The Confucian insistence on family over state, morality over materialism and ritual over reward had let the country down in the face of Western threats. Indeed the quest for wealth and power was first articulated by Confucius’s arch-rivals, the Legalists: “If a wise ruler masters wealth and power,” said the Legalist philosopher Han Feizi two millennia ago, “he can have whatever he desires.”重塑富强的中国需要颠覆儒家正统思想。儒家思想讲究家大于国,道德大于物质,先礼后兵,这让中国陷入了外国的威胁之中。真正对富强的追求首先被儒家的对手法家阐述。法家的代表人物韩非子2000年前说:“如果一个聪明的统治者掌握了富强,那么就什么都在掌控之中了。”In search of rejuvenation, the figures profiled in this book were obsessed with starting anew. They were prepared to try anything, especially lessons and ideas from the West. China’s road to modernity is littered with “–isms”: constitutionalism (Kang Youwei), social Darwinism (Yan Fu), enlightened despotism (Liang Qichao) and republicanism (Sun Yat-sen). Even the Chinese leader who clung most to traditional Confucian notions, Chiang Kai-shek, drew from Leninism and the fascism of Mussolini. (Little good it did, he may have reflected later, as a diminished dictator in his island-exile of Taiwan.)寻求复兴的过程中,本书中的人物都着迷于重新开始。他们准备尝试任何事物,尤其是来自西方的思想和教训。中国的现代化之路上充满了各种主义,有康有为的立宪主义,有严复的社会达尔文主义,有梁启超的开明专制主义,还有孙中山的共和主义。甚至是最讲究传统儒家信条的蒋介石都吸收列宁主义和墨索里尼的法西斯主义思想。(这在其后来独裁统治台湾期间没有带来什么好处。)Most of China’s experiments with Western recipes ended in disaster. The ancient pull of Chinese history seemed to resist modernity. In this light, Messrs Schell and Delury provocatively try to rehabilitate Mao Zedong. They have no illusions about the catastrophes he unleashed, such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution. Nor do they credit him with the power to predict the economic miracle that followed his death. But they suggest that Mao’s passion for permanent revolution—his eagerness to force-march China away from the country’s old habits—left a blank slate for Deng Xiaoping, the architect of Chinese prosperity. Mao had bequeathed a vast new “shovel-y” construction site for Deng’s own “‘great enterprise’ of reform and opening up”.中国大部分西为中用的实验都宣告失败。中国历史古代的力量似乎阻碍着现代化进程。基于这个认识,Messrs Schell和Delury试图重现毛泽东的成功之路。他们没有描述毛泽东亲手发动的灾难,比如说大跃进和文化大革命。他们也没有颂扬他预测死后的经济奇迹。但是他们论毛泽东对革命的热情,铲除旧风俗的欲望,为中国经济建设的总工程师邓小平扫清了道路。毛泽东把一大笔建设遗产留给了邓小平,使得邓小平能开展改革开放。It is a contentious claim. Other countries have got to where China is without passing through this gateway of trauma, bloodshed and suffering. And China’s growing wealth and military and diplomatic might is not the end of the story, as the authors acknowledge. The question now is what will China do with it?这个说法很有争议。其他国家在没有经历中国所经历的灾难,血泪和屈辱的情况下也达到了中国的地位。中国增长的财富,军事和外交实力不是故事的结束。问题是中国会用这些做什么?Liu Xiaobo, a Nobel peace laureate in prison—one of several jail terms to which he has been sentenced during his lifetime—is perhaps the most inspiring character portrayed in this book. He is certainly the most astute critic of the motivations behind China’s pursuit of wealth and power, including the almost “pathological” need among China’s leaders to overtake the West. He poses some incisive questions: who is served by China’s nationalism? When national pride is used to justify despotic government, what is the eventual cost to ordinary people?刘晓波,一位待在监狱的诺贝尔和平奖获得者,或许是本书中最令人感悟的角色。他正在刑,已经入狱数次。他是中国崛起动机最机敏的批评者。他甚至给出中国领导人赶超西方的近乎病态的原因。他提了很多尖锐的问题:中国民族主义的受益者是谁?当国家荣誉为暴政务,公民的代价是什么?Lu Xun, one of China’s greatest writers at the time of the country’s debasement in the early 20th century, complained that the Chinese act like slaves before strong people, and like masters in front of the weak. Today China is authoritarian at home and increasingly flexing its muscles abroad. Many now wonder whether the abused child, nourished on bitterness, must necessarily become an abuser itself; or whether, now that it is rich and strong, China will learn to be at peace with itself and the world. It is one of the great open questions of the day.鲁迅,20世纪初期中国最著名的作家,抱怨中国人在强者面前跟奴隶一样,在弱者面前跟主人一样。如今,中国在国内一党专政,在国外也展现自己的实力。很多人担心被欺负的小孩,受尽了苦头,会不会变成一个施虐者,或者,当中国富强了,中国会学会与世界和平相处。这是现在很重要的一个公开问题。 /201308/251261

  Lots of people have had dreams that seem to foretell thefuture.许多人都做过一些好像可以预知未来的梦。Some psychologists attribute this to “retrieval cues.”心理学家把这种现象归因于“提取线索”。Retrieval cues?提取线索?A retrieval cue is a coincidence in the real world thattriggers a dream memory which otherwise would have goneunnoticed.提取是一种巧合:现生活中的某个场景让你回忆起一个不被注意梦境。For example, did you know you dreamed about a little dog before the real dog showed up?比如,你知道你梦到的那只小出现在真实的之前吗?Oh, yes, I was thinking about it all morning.是的。我整个早上都在想这个梦。Really?真的吗?Welll, I think so.我想是吧。Maybe, or maybe the real event triggered a recollection of a dream, which not seems like itmust have been in your thoughts all along.也许吧,有或许是真实事件让你回忆起某个梦境,而这个梦境不一定一直都在你的脑海中。By the way did you have any other dreams last nightthat didnt come true?顺便问一下,你昨天晚上还做了其它没有实现的梦吗?Hmm, I dont remember what other else I dreamed.嗯,其他做过的梦都不记得了。Why not? Some studies suggest we have literally hundreds of dreams each night.为什么不记得了呢?有研究称我们每天晚上要做数百个梦。Ok, I get the point.好,我知道了。Maybe this dreaming the future stuff is more like picking and choosingdreams when they happen to fit. 也许梦见未来这种事更像是从成千上百个梦的中挑选一个碰巧合适情景的。Coincidences are bound to come up.所以,巧合就发生了。And if the coincidence acts as retrieval cue, the sensethat you predicted something can be pretty convincing…even if its just a dream.如果巧合作为提取线索,你能预测未来就相当有说力,尽管那只是一个梦。201406/303191

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  Business商业报道Mobile gaming in Japan日本的手机游戏业Gacha? Gotcha!嘎查?弹无虚发!Bureaucrats clamp down on a tech billionaire手机游戏技术巨头遭到政府打压NOT again.不要再重复了。Just when another tousle-haired Japanese entrepreneur hoped it was safe to make a billion or two,当另一个头发散乱的日本企业家希望能安全地创造出十亿,二十亿的价值,along come the forces of law and order threatening to throw the rule book at him:伴随而来的是法律与秩序的势力,威胁着要把规则手册扔给他:in this case, the Act Against Unjustified Premiums and Misleading Representations.在这件事上,他违反了不合理的额外费用和误导人的陈述。That, at least, is how some people viewed news this week that the Consumer Affairs Agency was investigating a feature,至少,一些人把这件事视为了这周的新闻,日本消费者厅正在调查一类以称为完整的嘎查为特色的游戏至少,一popular on Japan’s ubiquitous mobile-phone games, called a complete gacha, in which players collect sets of randomly generated tokens to swap for in-game rewards.即一类玩家收集随机产生的一套套游戏币,去交换虚拟世界里面的奖品,在日本的手机游戏中普遍存在的游戏。Such games have made fortunes for several internet start-ups.这样的游戏使几个新兴的网络公司积累了大量财富。Agency officials, however, have expressed worries that complete gacha may be a form of gambling,which can cause children and adults to splurge beyond their means.然而,机构官员,都对此表示担忧,因为完整的嘎查,可能是一种的形式,这会导致儿童和成年人变挥霍,最终无力付高昂的游戏费用。They questioned its legality.他们质疑这游戏模式的合法性。The retribution was swift.市场对此的回应迅速。In three days the value of GREE, whose 35-year-old owner, Yoshikazu Tanaka, has been called the youngest self-made billionaire after Facebook’s Mark Zuckerberg, plunged by a third.在三天内社交网站Gree的市值骤减了三分之一,公司创始人35岁的田中良和,曾被称为除了脸谱的马克扎克伯格之外,最年轻的白手起家的亿万富翁。DeNA, another social-games site, lost 22%.DeNA,另一家社交游戏网站,损失也达到了22%。To Yoshito Hori, a venture capitalist and former GREE backer, the news recalled a pattern of crackdowns on alleged abuses by start-ups in recent years that have discouraged the Japanese from setting up new businesses.崛义人,一名风险投资家和前GREE的投资者,这条新闻让他回想起最近几年政府打压新晋企业的种种措施,已经使日本人丧失了开创新商业的勇气。He urged the government to seek a harmonious solution that protected both consumers and entrepreneurs:他敦促政府寻找一个协调的解决方案,保护消费者以及企业家。Killing GREE or DeNA is like killing Sony or Matsushita when they were coming up after the war, he said.他说,毁掉GREE或者DeNA,就像毁掉二战后崛起的索尼和松下电器那样严重。On May 9th GREE and DeNA gave ground.5月9号,GREE和DeNA都作出了让步。GREE said it would stop the release of all new complete gacha games and phase out existing ones.GREE说他们将会停止发布全部新版完整的gacha游戏,并且逐步取消目前还存在的嘎查游戏。DeNA said it would also stop the practice.DeNA也说,他们将停止这类游戏上市。Mr Hori said he expected they might be prepared to pay back anyone who had overspent.崛义人说,他希望两间公司能准备资金还给那些曾经超了的人。It was not clear, though, whether the authorities would let the matter rest there.可是,当权者是否将听任这事情自由发展下去,目前还不清楚。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201306/245147

  Aboriginal people would have lived here too.土著人可能生活在这里。Hunting the wildlife in areas that are now deep underwater.在这片目前是大海深处的原始森林里打猎。Then the end of last ice age, ice of the poles melted and sea levels rose all around the round flooding this lowline coast.到冰河世纪的末期,两级的冰川开始融化,海平面开始上升,大量水涌入这片低洼的海岸。This happened nearly 10,000 years ago.这仅仅发生在1万年前。In fact, stories of the great flood still pass down in aboriginal culture.实际上大洪水的传说在土著文化中代代相传。As the sea rose, corals began to grow on the Rockey frenches of the continental shelf creating the Great Barrier Reef we see today.随着海平面上升,珊瑚开始在大陆架的岩石上生长,造就了今天这壮观的大堡礁。The shallow tropical waters are clear and warm.这片热带浅海干净温暖。Perfect conditions for corals to thrive.极适合珊瑚虫生活。Sheltered behind this long straight of reef, Alagoon was born.这条礁石维持一个环礁湖。An area protected water larger in size than the whole of Great Britain.围起来的水域面积比整个英国都大。And a new coastal line too which shallows Sandy waters.一条海岸线形成,伴着浅沙水域。The rising sea also cut a various of high ground creating the 600 islands that adopt the Agoon.上升的海岸线分割开高地,形成了散布于环礁湖内的600个小岛。201408/324737Disillusioned office workers幻灭的上班族Chinas losers中国失败者Amid sping prosperity, a generation of self-styled also-rans emerges繁荣之中产生的“失败”一代Man wearing suit on escalator自动扶梯上的穿西装者ZHU GUANG, a 25-year-old product tester, projects casual cool in his red Adidas jacket and canvas shoes. He sports the shadowy wisps of a moustache and goatee, as if he has the ambition to grow a beard but not the ability. On paper he is one of the millions of up-and-coming winners of the Chinese economy: a university graduate, the only child of factory workers in Shanghai, working for Lenovo, one of Chinas leading computer-makers.25岁的朱广是个产品测试员,红色的阿迪达斯夹克和帆布鞋显出他的随性。他的嘴唇和下巴上都留着稀疏的几缕胡子,似乎是想长一圈络腮胡子却没得逞。按理说,他是中国经济中千百万个有前途的成功者之一:他是大学毕业生,上海工人家庭的独子,并在中国最大的电脑制造商联想公司上班。But Mr Zhu considers himself a loser, not a winner. He earns 4,000 yuan a month after tax and says he feels like a faceless drone at work. He eats at the office canteen and goes home at night to a rented, 20-square-metre room in a shared flat, where he plays online games. He does not have a girlfriend or any prospect of finding one. “Lack of confidence”, he explains when asked why not. Like millions of others, he mockingly calls himself, in evocative modern street slang, a diaosi, the term for a loser that literally translates as “male pubic hair”. Figuratively it is a declaration of powerlessness in an economy where it is getting harder for the regular guy to succeed. Calling himself by this derisive nickname is a way of crying out, “like Gandhi”, says Mr Zhu, only partly in jest. “It is a quiet form of protest.”然而朱认为自己是个失败者。他的税后工资只是每月4,000元,并说自己工作时就像个没人注意的机器。通常,他在公司食堂吃饭,晚上就回到自己在合租公寓里租的20平米大的小房间玩网络游戏。他没有女友,也并不想找一个。“没信心啊”,当被问到为什么不找时,他这样回答。和千百万人一样,他戏称自己是“屌丝”,一个表示失败者的街头俚语,本义是“男性的yin毛”。它形象地表达出了这个经济体中那些越来越难获得成功的普通人的无力感。以这个称谓自嘲是一种发出呼声的方式,“就像甘地”,朱并只是在开玩笑,“这是一种无声的反抗。”Calling yourself a diaosi has also become a proud statement of solidarity with the masses against the perceived corruption of the wealthy. The word itself entered the language only recently, appealing to office grunts across the country, especially in the IT industry. A mostly male species, diaosi are often daydreamers with poor social skills and an obsession with online gaming. They are slightly different from Japans marriage-shunning “herbivore” young men in that fewer of them have chosen their station in life. Society has chosen it for them, especially with property prices climbing well beyond their reach. Several recent studies show that, while incomes across Chinese society continue to rise, social mobility has worsened. Yi Chen of Nanjing Audit University and Frank A. Cowell of the London School of Economics found that, since 2000, people at the bottom of society were more likely than in the 1990s to stay where they were. “China has become more rigid,” they conclude.自称屌丝已经成了宣称自己是和社会中的大多数一样厌恶富裕群体腐败行为的方式。这个词语最近才出现,最初来自于办公室的闲聊,尤其是IT这个多数工作者都是男性的行业。屌丝通常指那些缺乏社交能力、沉迷网络游戏还老做白日梦的人。他们和日本那些不愿结婚的“食草族”略有不同,极少数食草男已经选择了生活方式。但社会已经为屌丝们作出了选择,尤其是高速上涨的房价让他们根本无法触及。近期的几次调查显示,尽管中国社会的平均工资持续上涨,但社会流动性却进一步恶化了。南京审计学院的易辰(音)和伦敦政治经济学院的弗兰克·A·康维尔(Frank A. Cowell)发现,同上世纪90年代相比,2000年以后的社会底层群体停留在这个地位上的可能性更大。“中国社会已经变得更加僵化了。”他们总结到。An online sketch show, “Diaosi Man”, shown on Sohu.com, an internet portal, mercilessly mocks the tribe. Since its debut in 2012, the shows episodes have been streamed more than 1.5 billion times. In one recent episode a man tries to impress his beautiful dinner date with how busy he is at his job. He then receives a phone call from work, apologetically takes his leave to go to the office and finally pops up again as a waiter when his date asks for the bill. In the same episode a frustrated new driver curses repeatedly at a Lamborghini in the next lane and screams, “Are you bullying me because I dont know any traffic cops?” In the next scene he is in a neck brace and his nose is broken.门户网站搜狐的网络剧集《屌丝男士》无情地嘲讽着这一群体。自2012首播以来,这部剧集已经被浏览了15亿次。最近一集中,某男想向跟他约会吃饭的美女炫耀他的工作有多忙。然后,他接到了一个工作电话并抱歉地返回了办公室,结果在美女结账时却又现身了——原来他是个务员。同一集中,一个沮丧的新手驾驶员在向隔壁车道的兰基尼不停地叫骂,并大叫道:“你欺负我就因为我不认识交警吗?”到了下一个场景里,他已经带上了脖套,鼻子也受伤了。Mr Zhu says what makes him a diaosi is that he is the son of factory workers. He is not fu er dai—second-generation rich—or guan er dai—the son of powerful government officials. He and his diaosi colleagues feel that, with connections or cash, they might have attended a better university and found a better job.朱说自己变成屌丝是因为自己只是工人的儿子。他不是富二代或者官二代,爹妈不是富人也不是大官。他和屌丝同事们都觉得,如果有关系或者有钱的话,他们就能上更好的大学,并找到更好的工作。With after-tax income of nearly ,000 a year, Mr Zhu would look to many people in China comfortably on his way to the middle class. He is among the lower wage-earners at Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park in Shanghai, but even many higher earners call themselves diaosi, or refer to themselves as “IT labourers”. Though their salaries are above average even in Shanghai—which had Chinas third-highest annual urban disposable income per person in 2012 at 40,000 yuan—the cost of appearing successful is stratospheric. A fancy flat and a cool car are well beyond their reach. They are wage slaves who cannot hope to be gao fu shuai—tall, rich and handsome—and marry a woman who is bai fu mei—fair-skinned, rich and beautiful.有着8,000美金税后年薪的朱和许多人一样想成为中产阶级。他的工资在上海张江高科技园区并不算高,但很多收入更高的人也自称“屌丝”或者“码农”。虽然他们的工资甚至超过了上海平均工资,2012年上海的城市人均可配年收入达到了40,000元。想要看起来成功的代价非常高。他们永远买不起那些豪车洋房。他们只是工资的奴隶,成不了高富帅也娶不上白富美。This might seem quite normal for a rapidly developing economy. But Zhang Yi, a sociologist at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, a government think-tank in Beijing, says this diaosi feeling of relative deprivation is a troubling consequence of Chinas growing wealth gap. In an interview devoted to the subject for the website of Phoenix Television, a Hong Kong satellite network, Mr Zhang concluded that people at the bottom feel utterly alienated. They feel less hopeful than they did before of ever moving up in life, he said.对快速发展的经济体来说,这个现象似乎相当正常。然而中国社会科学院的张翼却认为,屌丝之所以会感到相对贫困化是中国日益增长的贫富差距的结果,令人感到担忧。在香港卫星电视台凤凰卫视网站一次关于这个话题的采访中,张翼总结说,底层人群怀着极强的疏离感。他说,相比以前,现如今的这些人认为改善个人境遇更加无望。In spite of this, however, they do still represent a marketing opportunity. There are, after all, many more of them than there are millionaires, even though it can be difficult to define the target market. At Dianping, a website offering restaurant reviews and consumer deals, Schubert You targets very low-wage workers in smaller cities (earning about 0 to 0 a month) with coupons and group discounts. Mr You does not consider the IT workers of Shanghai and Beijing to be true diaosi.尽管如此,屌丝群体依然是一个巨大的市场。虽然这个群体很难定位,但他们的数量比起百万富翁要多得多。来自大众点评网的Schubert You用优惠券和团购折扣来打动小城市的低收入工作者。You并不认为北京和上海的IT工作者真的就是屌丝。But surveys show they believe they are. Last year Analysys International, a research company in Beijing, asked a broad cross-section of office workers if they saw themselves as diaosi. More than 90% of programmers and journalists and about 80% of food and service industry and marketing workers said they did. Those surveyed who least identified with being losers were civil servants, working for the government or the Communist Party.不过调查显示这部分人自己倒是很确信。去年,位于北京的研究公司易观国际调查了不同层次的上班族,询问他们是否认为自己是屌丝。90%以上的程序员和记者,大约80%的食品、务行业以及销售人员都给出了肯定的。受访者中自认为是失败者的比率最低的人群是公务员,那些为政府或是其党派工作的人。 201405/297471

  Don:Heres a simple demonstration you can do with cool implications.唐:这是一个你可以做的具有很酷含义的简单演示。Find a large object that is brightly colored--lets make it a green door.找一个色鲜艳的大物件—让我们使它摇身一变成为一道绿色门。Stand with that door to your side but dont look directly at it; you want it to be in your peripheral vision.站在那扇门身边,但不要直视,你要想它是在你的周边视觉中。Now, without shifting your gaze, examine the door in the edge of your field of vision.现在,不用转移你的目光,仔细审视在你视野边缘的这扇门。What color is it? Answer? Its still green.它是什么颜色的?回答?它仍然是绿色的。Yael:Its still green? What kind of experiment is that?雅艾尔:它仍然是绿色的吗?这个实验到底想说明什么?I thought you were going to say something happens to the color.我以为你会说颜色发生了某些变化。Don:Thats exactly right!唐:完全正确!The color stays green, which means something has happened-- because nothing in your peripheral vision should have any color at all.之所以仍然是绿色,这意味着发生了一些事情—因为在你的周边视觉里应该应该没有任何颜色。Yael:Nothing in your peripheral vision should have any color? Why not?雅艾尔:在你的周边视觉内应该没有任何颜色?为什么没有呢?Don:Because color is what we perceive when light of a particular frequency meets cones-special cells in your retina.唐:因为颜色是特定频率光线投射到视网膜锥细胞上我们的感知。But the light being reflected off the door is only landing on the outside edge of your retina.但被反射到门的光只是在你的视网膜外边缘。And there are almost no cones on the edges.而且在边缘几乎没有视锥细胞。Everything we see roughly seventy-five degrees away from the point were fixed on should be black and white.从这一个固定的点大约七十五度我们看到的一切事物都应该是黑白两色。Yael:Thats fascinating! But why is the door still green?雅艾尔:太神奇了!但为什么门还是绿色的?Don:Presumably the door remains green because vision isnt a simple matter of retinal cells.唐:大概门仍然是绿色的是因为视觉不是简单的视网膜细胞。All the data your eyes send is interpreted by the brain.你眼中的所有数据发送给大脑解读。Your brain knows that the door is green, so it supplies information that isnt really there to keep the image stable.你的大脑知道门是绿色的,所以它提供信息,并不是真的在那里保持图像稳定。This is just one of the many ways your brain saves time and energy by making reasonably safe assumptions about the world around you.这只是你的大脑通过对你周围环境合理安全的假设节省时间和精力的其中一种方式。 201311/264414

  This is Florida, a taste of the tropical, one of the worlds most popular holiday destinations. Here mankinds unquenchable desire to explore and colonise reaches astronomical proportions. 这里是弗罗里达,一个充满热带风情的地方,同时也是世界上最著名的度假胜地之一。这里带给人们无法克制的探索和无穷的征欲望。Eight, seven, six, five, four, three, two, one. Ignition. Lift off.八、七、六、五、四、三、二、一。点火,发射。And yet we are relative newcomers here. While other creatures roamed this part of North America for hundreds of millennia, we only arrived at the end of the last great ice age, 13,000 years ago. For most of its existence, North America remained untouched by humans, its dramatic landscapes and wild life undisturbed. Then some time around 13,000 years ago, just as the ice started to relax its grip, hunters from the north set foot in Florida for the first time. Imagine if we could go back and join them as they explore this unknown land, encountering strange animals not seen before by human eyes.然而在这里,我们还只能算是初来乍到。其他生物已经在北美的这块土地徘徊了数十万年,而我们在13000年前的大冰河时期末期来到这里。对大多数存在的生物,北美仍是人类未及之地。这里风景优美,野生动物未受打扰的生活着。约在13000年以前,冰川开始渐渐化去,猎人从北而来,第一次涉足弗洛里达。想象一下,如果时间倒退,我们将追随者猎人的足迹,探寻这未知之地,遇见人类从未见过的奇异的生物。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属.201307/247621。

  

  bE33z~J3.M_Bp!pfGOG|CfMddEG[GOvdktBecause these two bull mammoths both had broken tusks,因为这两只公猛犸象都有根断象牙,they could have fought at closer quarters than they would do normally.因此可以比平常更接近对方进行肉搏战V4mImSDxgKd6Gp。Twisting and turning, they became locked in a deadly embrace.一阵扭打后,他们受困于致命的纠结,Even more bizarre, this twist of fate then caused a third fatality.更诡异的是,纠结命运还造成第三者的伤亡%;H8_REwY。Beneath one mammoths shoulder blade was the skull of a coyote, pressed into the ground.在一只猛犸象的肩胛骨下方,有具草原狼的头骨被压入地面下,While we can only speculate on just how the coyote died,现在我们只能推断草原狼究竟是怎么死的]eyDs#nZA2。its likely it was scavenging around the decomposing carcasses,可能是它在猛犸象旁吃食腐尸的时候,when one caved in and crushed it.大象突然倒下压倒了它VMH3~Xo[KOz)。Coyotes are still on the plains today.现在草原狼仍存活在草原上73w)vT9_Dr5@h。They hunt their food as well as scavenge carcasses,它们会捕食,也会吃腐尸Vp68DP*A(Sh)1。but small live prey can be more trouble than large dead ones.但是小型的活猎物,可能比大动物的尸体更难对付BjQDDw*AMJf17S(!。Prairie dogs are always on alert and once a trespasser is spotted,草原犬鼠随时保持警戒,只要看到了闯入者,the entire town vanishes into thin air.整群草原犬鼠就会立刻消失;]+YqYMM*)。Prairie dogs arent really dogs at all.草原犬鼠是啮齿动物,不是犬科动物z%]k|9Rg#j。Theyre rodents but coyotes are full-blooded members of the canine clan and like all dogs,草原狼则是血统纯正的犬科家族成员OhtpdrTq6cJ19。they sometimes hunt in groups to tackle bigger prey.它们和其他犬科动物一样,有时会合作捕猎大型猎物Z]ZTXX!I-(RJwzX1。Some prey, however, are just too big, even for a pack of coyotes.不过有些猎物过大,连草原狼也对付不了DE3#FATQ_E。But 13,000 years ago, there was another kind of canine hunter here,在一万三千年前,这里还存在另一种犬科猎者,one that gave even the bison a run for their money.就连野牛看到它们都会拔腿就跑mTDW@T]yk9eCh。The wolf -- the ultimate pack hunter.狼---终极群猎动物V~P8tMhR1!2|。Jv7RGoIuLlLet!Ekx*fIB6@Ub#^5-N5PTtt1pU4ZcNj-@P@2oPu201304/236414

  Post-office banking邮政Put your money where your mail is邮件在哪儿,钱就在哪儿Americas postal service ponders a foray into financial services美邮政业或将涉足金融业WITH a workforce of just over 491,000 in 2013, the ed States Postal Service is second only to Walmart among civilian employers in America. But it still employed more than 200,000 fewer people last year than it did just nine years earlier—when it handled nearly 500m more pieces of mail and had almost 2,000 more retail offices. The rise of e-mail has left Americas massive postal service with far less to do, and it has been scrambling to find ways to raise revenue.2013年,美国邮政务公司雇员超过491000人,成为仅次于沃尔玛的美国第二大雇主。九年前美邮需要处理近5亿封邮件,拥有2000多个办事处,和那时相比去年还是减少了超过20万雇员。电子邮件的崛起导致美国大量的邮政务没什么业务可做,他们开始寻求其他的收入增长点。Earlier this year its inspector-general released a white paper suggesting that post offices should begin offering financial services, such as cheque-cashing, small loans, bill payments, international money transfers and prepaid cards to which salaries or benefits could be transferred. The reasoning is simple: a lot of Americans have scant access to banks and a lot of post offices have too little to do.今年初,美邮总监发布的白皮书显示邮政业要开始提供金融务,这些务包括票兑现,小额贷款,账单付,国际转账以及能够预的工资卡。这么做的原因很简单:许多美国人对的需求得不到满足而一堆邮局又无事可做。More than one-quarter of American households are unbanked or underbanked, meaning they either lack a current or savings account, or they have one but still use alternatives to banks such as cheque-cashers and payday lenders. That is an expensive habit: the average underbanked household has an annual income of only ,500 or so, yet spends around 9.5% of that on fees and interest charged by these banking substitutes.超过四分之一的美国家庭没有账户或者没有得到充足的金融务,这意味着他们没有这种倾向或者没有储蓄账户,也可能他们有账户,但选择如票承兑人或发薪日贷款人等替代方式。这是种代价很高的习惯:一般来说没有账户的家庭年均收入25500美元,而付给这种替代机构的费用和利息达到9.5%左右。High-street banks find it hard to make money serving poor customers, since they tend to have little money on deposit that the banks can lend out. Penalties such as overdraft fees are not always enough to compensate. Since 2008, 93% of bank-branch closings have come in areas where median household income is below the national average.大型为穷人提供务很难赚到钱,因为他们的存款太少,而要把这些钱贷出去。透费这种惩罚措施并不总是能够偿还成本。自2008年起,93%的行陷入这样的境地—家庭账户收入的中值低于国家平均水平。These are the distressed customers to whose rescue the USPS hopes to ride. Some 59% of its post offices are in places with either a single bank or none at all. In rural hamlets they are often one of very few commercial establishments; even in the postal services diminished state, there are still more than seven post offices for every Walmart in America. Post offices aly sell money orders and provide electronic remittances to nine Latin American countries; from 1911 to 1967 the USPS also held personal deposits. Providing small, brief loans at lower interest rates than payday lenders could save low-income consumers hundreds of millions or even billions of dollars in interest and fees. The post office would compete not with banks, but with their more expensive stand-ins.正式这些贫穷的顾客点燃了美邮的希望。美邮59%的邮政所周围只有一家或者没有。在美国乡下,他们常常是为数不多的商业机构之一;即使是在邮政务日益萧条的州,邮政所和沃尔玛的数量比也大于7:1。邮政所造就开始向9个拉丁美洲国家卖邮政汇票并提供电子汇款务;1911年到1967年之间,美邮还有个人存款业务。提供利率比发薪日贷款人低的小额短期贷款,能为低收入客户节省数亿甚至数十亿美元的利息和费用。邮政局不是和竞争,而是在和比收费高的替代机构竞争。Some, notably the head of the committee of the House of Representatives that oversees the USPS, are unconvinced. They see the postal services expansion into financial services as government overreach, and a delay of the necessary “right-sizing” of a massive agency that does far less than it used to. Jennifer Tescher, who heads a charity focused on the underbanked called the Centre for Financial Services Innovation, notes that the USPS “has zero capacity, understanding or capability in this arena”. “The only asset they bring to the table”, she believes, “is distribution.” Even that is of limited value outside rural areas: Ms Tescher notes that just because a spot lacks bank branches does not mean it has no cheque-cashers and corner shops selling prepaid cards—many with longer and more convenient opening hours than the post office.众议院委员会负责人指出美邮的做法明显不具信力。他们把邮政业扩张到金融领域的行为视作政府的手伸的太长,认为这是在拖延这个远远低于过去功效的大型机构合理精简的步伐。一个专注于那些无法得到充分金融务的人的慈善团体—金融务创新中心的负责人詹妮弗说美邮不了解这一领域,既没资格也没能力。她相信美邮唯一的优势是渠道,即使这在农村以外地区基本没有价值。Tescher女士提到这些区域缺少网点并不意味着没有票承兑人和贩卖预付卡的小店—和邮局相比,他们的营业时间更长、更方便。Although turning the USPS into a part-time financial institution may seem outlandish in America, roughly 1 billion people in 50 countries rely on their postal systems for financial services, according to the Universal Postal Union, the ed Nations agency that helps the post arrive on time. The business models vary widely. In some countries post offices act as a payment centre, allowing people to receive remittances, pay bills and top up or tap money stored on their mobile phones. Some operate full-service banks: Japan Post, for instance, is one of the worlds biggest. In other countries, such as Brazil, commercial banks form partnerships with post offices; in Malawi private banks can rent space from post offices.根据万国邮政联盟,尽管美邮成为兼职的金融机构在美国看起来很奇怪,但世界上50个国家的10亿人依靠邮政系统提供的金融务。这种商业模式差别很大。在一些国家,邮局充当付中心的角色,人们可以接收汇款、付账单利用移动电话存取款。有一些则成为提供全面务的:比如日本邮政就是世界上最大的之一。在像巴西一类国家,商业和邮政成为合作伙伴;在马拉维,私人能向邮局租借场地。A World Bank study found last year that postal banks are likelier than conventional ones to provide accounts to those outside the financial mainstream. The bigger the postal network, the greater the ability to reach such people. That may not convince those who would like to see the USPS shrink, but for those who want to preserve it, it could help to justify its scale.去年世界研究发现,相对于传统,邮政更有可能为主流金融区域之外的人提供务。邮政网络越大,接触到这些人的能力就越大。这也许不足以说那些希望美邮精简的人,但对于那些想要保持它的人来说,这能帮助他们明美邮规模的合理性。 /201404/291901

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