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2019年08月26日 16:15:17|来源:国际在线|编辑:爱媒体
In his State of the Union Address, President Obama made a big deal about manufacturing jobs as a central part of his economic vision for the country. ;Our first priority is making America a magnet for new jobs in manufacturing;, he proclaimed. I support the president#39;s aim and passion to revive manufacturing, but to accomplish it we first have to jettison industrial era thinking. The industrial era and the 7.1 million manufacturing jobs lost in the U.S. from 1979 to 2012 aren#39;t coming back. We must create new 21st century manufacturing jobs that leverage what America is great at, creativity and innovation. Manufacturing will grow in the U.S. when we accelerate the use of technology to increase productivity, enable new business models designed for mass customization and unleash the manufacturers in all of us.美国总统奥巴马在国情咨文演讲中把制造业工作岗位当作美国经济发展蓝图中的重头戏。他说:“我们首要的任务,是要把美国变成新的制造业工作岗位的吸铁石。”我持奥巴马复兴制造业的目标和热情,但是要实现这个目标,我们首先要抛弃工业时代的旧思想。工业时代已经一去不返了,同时消失的还有美国1979年至2012年间在美国消亡的710万个制造业岗位。我们必须建立能够利用美国现有优势的21世纪的制造业岗位。随着我们加快利用科技促进产能,美国的制造业一定会再次增长,而且会催生为大规模定制化生产务的新商业模式,释放我们所有人的制造才能。To begin, we need to recognize that manufacturing isn#39;t an industry sector, it#39;s a capability with plenty of opportunity for innovation. We take industry sector definitions for granted. As if industries were clubs with exclusive admission criteria and secret handshakes only revealed to companies that agree to play by understood rules. The industrial era was defined by clearly delineated industries, making it easy to identify which sector every company was competing in. It was all so gentlemanly really, as if competition was governed, like boxing, by a code of generally accepted Marquess of Queensberry rules. Companies were all assigned a numerical Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code (now North American Industry Classification System, or NAICS) identifying which industry sector they fit in to.首先,我们需要认识到,制造并不单纯的是一个产业部门,而是一种能力,其中蕴含着许多创新机会。只是目前我们理所当然地把它看成一个产业部门。工业时代的“产业”就像一个个俱乐部,每个产业都有各自的准入标准和暗箱操作,只向那些同意按规则出牌的公司敞开。工业时代是由一个个界定清晰的产业构成的,我们很容易就能把每家公司归类到一个个产业部门里。看似颇有君子之风,就好像大家都在监督之下公平竞争,就像拳击赛一样,人人都要按规则出招。每个企业都会有一个标准产业代码(SIC)(现为北美产业分类系统,简称NAICS),用来确定各自属于哪个产业部门。Those days are over. Industries don#39;t work that way any more, the industrial era isn#39;t coming back. Is Google (GOOG) a manufacturer or a service provider or both? Their acquisition of Motorola Mobility and U.S. production of the Nexus Q home media player suggest Google is serious about building manufacturing capability. Is Apple (AAPL) a manufacturer or a service provider or both? It#39;s hard to tell the difference between a manufacturer and a service provider and the distinction is limiting. Today the lines are blurring. Think iPod. Apple didn#39;t bring the first MP3 player to the market. It changed the way we experienced music by delivering on a value proposition that bundled product (iPod) and service (iTunes). Apple didn#39;t view the competition as other product manufacturers Apple is a market maker not a share-taker.但是这样的日子已经结束了。各个产业的运行规则也不复如旧,工业时代也一去不返。谷歌(Google)到底是一家生产商还是务商,或者两者兼而有之?谷歌收购托罗拉移动(Motorola Mobility),在美国生产Nexus Q家庭媒体播放器,表明谷歌在非常认真地打造自己的生产能力。苹果(Apple)算生产商还是务商,又或两者兼而有之呢?现在我们已经很难指出生产商和务商之间的区别,而且二者之间的区别也很有限。如今生产商和务商之间的界限正在渐渐模糊。以iPod为例,苹果并不是第一个推出MP3播放器的厂家。但是苹果把它的产品(iPod)和务(iTunes)捆绑推出后,给我们带来了一种新的价值定位,改变了我们体验音乐的方式。苹果看待竞争的角度与其他产品生产商不同,苹果并不是抢占市场,而是在创造市场。Industrial-era thinking and NAICS industry codes force companies into characterizing their business models as being either product- or service-focused. This is a false choice. Making a product doesn#39;t define the market a company is creating or competing in. Describing a business as a manufacturer immediately constrains business model innovation opportunities. If we want to bring back manufacturing we have to start by changing our thinking about manufacturing.工业时代的思维方式以及NAICS产业代码使企业的思维模式陷入窠臼,它们的业务模式不是以产品为中心,就是以务为中心。这是一种错误的选择。生产一种产品,并不意味着一家公司只能在某个市场里竞争。把一家公司定位成生产商会限制业务模式的创新机会。如果我们希望重振美国的制造业,我们必须改变对制造业的思维模式。Once we realize that manufacturing is a capability we can get on with democratizing it. We can all be manufacturers. In the State of the Union Address President Obama announced his plan for a billion investment to build a National Network for Manufacturing Innovation composed of fifteen advanced manufacturing hubs. To bring manufacturing back to the U.S. we don#39;t need fifteen hubs, we need fifteen million makers creating stuff.一旦我们意识到,制造是一种能力,我们就可以通过把制造业大众化来实现这个目标。我们人人都可以成为制造商。奥巴马在国情咨文中宣布,计划投资10亿美元建立一个全国制造业创新网络,这个网络由15个先进的制造业中枢组成。要想让美国的制造业复兴,我们并不需要15个制造业中枢,我们需要的是1,500万个可以制造创新产品的人。It won#39;t be long before everyone will have access to a 3D printer. Talk about democratized manufacturing capability. Armed with a 3D printer, individual makers can create their own digital design for any imagined object or borrow a design from anywhere around the world. By simply pressing a button makers can set a 3D printer into motion rendering the physical object with layers of plastic or other material right before their eyes. What was science fiction ten years ago is reality today. It wasn#39;t long ago we listened to the whir of a dot-matrix printer spitting out documents from our computers, now a 3D printer renders any object we can dream up the same way. With the magic of 3D printing capability we are all manufacturers, constrained only by our imaginations.在不久的将来,3D打印技术将走进千家万户。这是制造能力的大众化。有了3D打印机后,人人都可以通过数码设计制造出各种想象中的物体,或者借用不管来自世界哪个角落的某种设计。只需要按一个按钮,3D打印机就可以用一层层的塑料或其它材质,把你设计的物品在你眼前“打印”出来。10年前的科幻小说情节如今已经成为现实。事实上,能让我们的电脑打印纸质文档的点矩阵打印机,还是不久之前才发明出来的,而现在3D打印机又以同样的方式,使我们梦想的各种物体都能呈现在我们眼前。有了3D打印机的魔力,人人都是制造商,唯一能限制我们的,就是我们的想象力。I agree with President Obama that our national mantra should be to make more stuff. I just think the effort should be less top-down and more bottom-up. The maker movement is aly in full swing. If you want to witness it first hand just go to one of the 60 community Maker Fairesbeing held around the world in 2013. Maker Faires are all-age community gatherings of makers. They are part science fair, part county fair, and part something entirely new. 165,000 people attended the two flagship Maker Faires in the Bay Area and New York in 2012. If you go, prepare to be blown away by an infectious passion to make things, creativity to hack and reassemble the parts and a do-it-yourself (DIY) fire in the belly that won#39;t be stopped.奥巴马把复兴美国经济的希望寄托在重振制造业上,我同意他的观点。但我认为,在实践这个目标的过程中,应该减少从上至下的成分,更多的是要自下而上。“全民造物”运动已经在蓬勃发展了。如果你想亲眼见它的发展,只需要参加2013年全球60个民间制造者大会中的一个。制造者大会是老老少少的民间制造者的盛会,它既是科学盛会,也是地区盛会,同时也是一种前所未有的新生事务。2012年,有16.5万人参加了旧金山湾区和纽约的两场创造者大会。如果你也去的话,你一定会被那种亲手制造东西的热情所感染,你心里一定会无可遏制地冒出亲自动手敲敲打打、组装零件和DIY点什么东西的念头。A maker movement is aly happening across the country. Imagine if instead of looking for top down solutions in a small number of manufacturing hubs we encouraged the bottom up maker momentum emerging in every community. Less push, more pull. We can all be manufacturers.“全民造物”运动已经在美国各地蓬勃展开了。想象一下,如果美国的每一个社区都由下而上地迸发出生产热情,而不是由上而下地依赖几个生产中枢,那会是什么情形。少一些“推动”,多一些“拉动”,我们人人都能成为制造家。Saul Kaplan is the author of The Business Model Innovation Factory. He is the founder and chief catalyst of the Business Innovation Factory (BIF) in Providence, RI, and blogs regularly at It#39;s Saul Connected.本文作者索尔.卡普兰是《商业模式创新工厂》一书的作者,也是美国罗德岛州普罗维登斯市的商业创新工厂公司的创始人和首席分析师,定期在It#39;s Saul Connected网站发表文。 /201303/227983Entrepreneurs and investors in California can expect to receive a rude shock in the mail if they sold their company in the last four years. Not only did the state#39;s Franchise Tax Board (FTB) eliminate a tax break on capital gains for small business owners and investors, it announced the tax would be reinstated retroactively. This means those who benefitted from the break can expect a bill for unpaid taxes, plus interest, stretching all the way back to 2008.如果加州企业主和投资者在过去的4年中出售过企业,那么等待他们的将是一封会让他们大吃一惊的信件。加州税务局(Franchise Tax Board)不仅取消了针对小型企业和投资者的资本收益税收减免政策,而且还宣布,税收政策在恢复后具有追溯效力。它意味着那些曾享受过税收减免政策的企业家们将收到未缴税款及其利息的账单,而且可征税时间将一直追溯至2008年。Since 1993, California entrepreneurs and early-stage investors have enjoyed a partial state income tax exclusion on sales of stock of a ;qualified; small business. This was an incentive for people to start and keep businesses in California. If they sold their company, they would only have to pay half of the regular state tax rate on what they gained -- about 4.5% instead of 9%. That could include founders of companies such as Instagram and Yelp (YELP).自1993年以来,销售“合格”小型企业股票的加州企业主和早期公司投资者一直都在享受州所得税的部分减免。这个政策对那些希望在加州创业、兴业的人们起到了鼓励作用。如果这些人卖掉了公司,他们只需按正常税率的一半缴纳所得税——即4.5%而不是9%。 照片分享应用公司Instagram和商铺点评网Yelp(Yelp)的创始人都在此列。The FTB announced its decision last December, and the ruling went into effect earlier this year. Now, not only will stockholders have to pay the full tax rate on capital gains, which has risen to about 13%, but they#39;ll also be billed retroactively for 50% of the taxes they excluded. The FTB says this will affect over 2,500 people and bring in about 0 million in revenue.加州税务局于去年12月宣布了这个决定,并于今年年初开始执行。目前,股东不仅需要按全额税率(已上升至约13%)为资本收益付所得税,而且还得补缴政策追溯期限内曾免掉的50%的税款。加州税务局表示,这项政策将涉及2,500多名纳税人,并带来约1.2亿美元的税收收入。Not surprisingly, the changes have led to concern among entrepreneurs.果然,这个变化引发了企业家们的担忧。;A lot of people who are going to be very affected don#39;t even know about it,; says Brian Overstreet, entrepreneur and co-founder of AdverseEvents, a pharmaceutical data firm. ;This is going to affect our decision to keep jobs and businesses in California.; Overstreet had previously co-founded Sagient Research Systems, a company he sold last year. As a result of the transaction he says he will personally have to pay an additional six-figure amount in taxes and interest.企业家、制药数据公司AdverseEvents联合创始人布莱恩?欧佛斯瑞特说:“尽管很多人都会受到很大的影响,但他们甚至都不知道这回事。它会动摇我们在加州继续发展的决心。”欧佛斯瑞特之前曾与他人联合创立了Sagient Research Systems公司,他于去年出售了这一公司。他个人将不得不为这笔交易额外付高达六位数的税金和利息。Ironically, it was the actions of a small business owner that led to the change. An Orange County businessman named Frank Cutler sued the FTB after being denied the tax break because less than 80% of his business was based in California, one of the incentive#39;s caveats. The California Court of Appeals sided with Cutler and struck down the provision, saying it was discriminatory. In response, the Franchise Tax Board decided to eliminate the incentive entirely.具有讽刺意味的是,正是小型企业自身的所作所为导致了这个变化。一位名叫弗兰克?卡特勒的橘子郡企业家因享受税收减免政策的要求遭到拒绝而将加州税务局告上了法庭,原因是这位企业家在加州的业务不足企业整个业务量的80%,并不满足减免政策的要求。加州上诉法院做出了有利于卡特勒的判决,废除了政策中的这个要求,并称这个要求带有歧视性。作为回应,加州税务局决定取消整个税收减免政策。Overstreet and a group of California entrepreneurs have formed a group dubbed California Business Defense to fight the ruling, saying the FTB#39;s actions were too broad. They argue it could have struck down the 80% rule instead of the entire tax break. ;The FTB had more than one choice to make here, and our position is that there were other precedents available, which they did not follow,; says Overstreet. ;The wheels are going too fast, the process needs to slow down so that cooler heads can prevail.;欧佛斯瑞特与多名加州企业家成立了一个名叫捍卫加州企业(California Business Defense)的组织,以对抗加州税务局的这一决定。他们表示,税务局此举的涉及面过于广泛。在他们看来,税务局应取消政策中80%业务的要求,而不是取消整个减免政策。欧佛斯瑞特说:“加州税务局并不是只有这一种选择。我们的立场是,之前也有过其他先例,但是他们并没有照着做。税务局的步子迈得太大了,有必要缓一缓,好让那些头脑比较冷静的人掌握话语权。”Denise Azimi, a representative for the FTB, said it had no choice but to remove the entire benefit. ;The benefit would have to be allowed regardless of where the business was located,; wrote Azimi in an email. ;While treating all taxpayers the same would cure the discrimination cited by the court, it conflicts with both the letter of the qualified small business stock law and its underlying legislative intent.;加州税务局代表丹尼斯·阿兹米则表示,除了取消整个政策以外别无他法。阿兹米在电子邮件中写道:“否则,无论所在地是哪里,任何企业都有权享受这一减免政策。尽管对所有纳税人一视同仁可以消除法院裁决中提到的歧视,但它既违反了合格小企业股票法,也有悖于这个法案根本的立法意图。”Ethan Anderson, co-founder and CEO of startup MyTime, says the FTB#39;s actions will make entrepreneurs think twice about setting up a business in the state. ;You can#39;t really plan for the future when the rules of the game are changing retroactively,; says Anderson. ;You feel insecure investing in the state, why would you take that additional risk when they#39;ve set a precedent now showing that anything could happen anytime?;创业公司MyTime创始人兼首席执行官伊森·安德森表示,加州税务局的举措会让打算来加州发展的企业家顾虑重重。安德森说:“如果游戏规则在变化之后具有追溯力,人们很难为将来做打算。人们会觉得在加州投资没有安全感。既然当局已经开创了先例,即一切都有可能随时发生,企业家为什么要去承担这个额外的风险呢?”Anderson says the ruling felt like ;a slap in the face,; especially since entrepreneurs like him have helped drive much of the state#39;s economy. ;Who else is creating the jobs? Why would they hurt us like this?; asks Anderson. ;The next time I start a business, it most probably won#39;t be in California.;安德森表示,这个决定感觉就像是“当头一棒”,特别是对于像他这样曾为加州的经济增长出过不少力的企业家。安德森质问:“工作机会都是谁带来的?为什么他们要这么伤害我们?下一次创办企业,我不大可能会继续选择加州。”It might just be in Texas. Anderson says he aly knew of at least one California entrepreneur who had bought a house there to establish out-of-state residency. The Lone Star state is home to Austin, one of the fastest growing tech hubs in the country. Unlike other hubslike New York and Boston, it offers lower taxes, less regulation, and relatively inexpensive real estate.California#39;s discontent hasn#39;t gone unnoticed by Texas governor Rick Perry, who visited the state earlier this month in an effort to lure businesses to Texas. ;Building a business is tough. But I hear building a business in California is next to impossible,; Perry says in a radio ad that accompanied his tour in California. ;See why our low taxes, sensible regulations, and fair legal system are just the thing to get your business moving to Texas.;德州倒是有可能。安德森表示,据他所知,至少已有一名加州企业家在德州买了房子,为的是有一个州外居所。奥斯丁市,这个美国增长速度最快的技术中心就坐落于孤星之州(德州别名——译注)。与纽约和波士顿这类技术中心不同的是,奥斯丁的税率更低,法规更少,而且地产价格相对更低廉。德州州长里克·佩里也注意到了加州企业家的不满情绪,他于本月月初的时候访问了加州,为的是把企业挖到德州。佩里在加州访问期间的电台广告中说:“创业难。但是我听说在加州创业难于上青天。我们(德州)有低税率、合理的规定以及公平的法律体制,这些难道不正是把企业搬到德州去的原因吗?”Chairman of the Austin Technology Council Joel Trammell says that in the wake of the recent income tax hikes and elimination of tax breaks in California, he fields calls every week from entrepreneurs and investors who have either decided to move or are exploring the option of setting up in Austin. ;All the major companies have a presence in Austin, so it#39;s pretty easy for people to switch,; says Trammell.奥斯丁技术委员会(Austin Technology Council)主席乔尔·特拉梅尔表示,鉴于最近加州所得税的激增和税收减免的取消,他每周都会接到企业主和投资者打来的电话。这些人有的已决定搬迁,有的正考察如何在奥斯丁设立企业。特拉梅尔说:“所有的大型企业都在奥斯丁成立了分部,所以那些搬到德州的企业家很快就能适应。”Apple (AAPL) and Samsung have both recently pledged to expand their presence in Austin while other companies are changing their structure to take advantage of the state. ;A lot of companies will set up their headquarters or non-technical staff here while maintaining the rest of the business in California,; says Trammell. Of course, both companies have a massive presence in the Golden state, not to mention other tech giants that call the Bay Area home, from Oracle (ORCL) to Facebook (FB).苹果(Apple)和三星(Samsung)最近都承诺要扩大在奥斯丁的业务,而其他一些企业也在改变结构,以利用德州的政策。特拉梅尔说:“很多企业将在这里设立总部,或者聘用非技术人员。与此同时,他们仍然会把其他的业务放在加州。”当然,这两家企业在黄金州(加州别名——译注)有着非常庞大的业务规模,更有甚者,其他一些技术巨头,从甲骨文(Oracle)到Facebook,都将旧金山湾区称之为他们的家。When the time came for him to set up his third company, Xeris Pharmaceuticals in 2010, serial entrepreneur John Kinzell decided he had had enough of California, despite living there for almost 25 years. He launched the company in Austin instead and says a lot of people followed him. ;It#39;s hard to swing a cat around without hitting someone from California who#39;s moved here or is at least looking,; says Kinzell. ;We have more companies here than talent, so they#39;re having to pull a lot from California.;2010年,连续创业家约翰·金泽尔打算创办自己的第三家企业Xeris Pharmaceuticals时,他觉得已受够了加州,尽管他在该州居住了近25年。他转而在奥斯丁成立了这家公司,还说此举吸引了大量追随者。金泽尔说:“在奥斯丁,刚搬来的加州企业家或至少打算搬到这里的加州企业家随处可见。在这里,企业比人才要多,因此企业不得不去加州挖人才。”He says it#39;s unlikely he or fellow entrepreneurs will ever move back. ;It#39;s just become a very unfriendly state to run a company,; says Kinzell. ;Once that sort of bleed starts, it gets hard to reverse it.;他表示,他和其他的企业家今后很可能都不会再搬回加州。金泽尔说:“加州已成为一个非常不利于企业发展的地方。而且一旦企业开始外迁,想要逆转这个趋势就很难了。” /201302/227308Google will allow users to decide what happens to their data after they die or become inactive online, the first major company to deal with the sensitive issue. The feature applies to email, social network Google Plus and other accounts. Users can choose to delete data after a set period of time, or pass it on to specific people.Internet users around the world have expressed concern about what happens to their data after their demise.;We hope that this new feature will enable you to plan your digital afterlife - in a way that protects your privacy and security - and make life easier for your loved ones after you#39;re gone,; Google said in a blogpost.谷歌将推出一项新功能,允许用户提前决定好自己身故或者停止使用网络后数据信息的处理方式,该功能适用于谷歌电子邮件、社交网站谷歌+以及其他相关账户。谷歌由此成为第一家主动针对网络数据遗产采取行动的互联网大公司。California-based Google also owns YouTube, photo-sharing service Picasa and Blogger.Google said users can opt to have their data deleted after three, six, nine or 12 months of inactivity. Alternatively, certain contacts can be sent data from some or all of their services.However, the company said it would text a provided number or email a secondary email address to warn users before any action is taken.People are increasingly placing content on social networks and data storage facilities hosted in cyberspace, or the ;cloud;.Other companies have also attempted to tackle the questions that raises after a person#39;s death. Facebook, as an example, allows users to ;memorialise; an account.据悉,用户可以选择在账户连续不活动3个月、6个月、9个月或12个月后允许系统删除其账户的所有数据,或者将数据传输给指定接收人。为了避免误删,系统会在删除或传输数据之前给用户的备用邮箱发送提示邮件。 /201304/235298

The nice thing about an infinite space such as, for instance, the one in which we live, is that you can find basically anything if you look hard enough.在我们生活的这个无垠的宇宙中,的确有那么一件好事,那就是无论你想找什么,只要你努力去找,基本上都能找到。To that end the Hubble Space Telescope often proves handy for discovering celestial objects shaped like everything from a sea horse, the letter X, tadpoles and flying saucers.正因为这样,哈勃太空望远镜常常能轻而易举地找到一些神迹,从海马,到字母X,从蝌蚪到飞碟,各种形状的神迹都能被它发现。Since it#39;s Christmas it seems appropriate that the ageing space camera turns its attention to finding seasonally-shaped nebulas.圣诞节将至,一把年纪的哈勃望远镜也应该把注意力转向寻找与圣诞有关的星云了。The bipolar star-forming region spotted by Hubble is actually two giant, super-hot streams of gas blasting outwards from a central star. But what it looks like is a beautiful, ghostly angel ring.哈勃这次发现的这片产星区有两极,是由一颗中央星向外延展所形成的超高温气流。看起来就像是美丽而诡异的天使羽翼。You know, if you look really hard.The image is credited to NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage Team. But we won#39;t be happy until we see a galaxy shaped like Santa. Hubble, it#39;s over to you.如果你仔细看的话,就能看出它的形状。这一图像已经提交给了美国宇航局、欧洲航天局和哈勃望远镜遗产团队。不过,如果我们看不到长得像圣诞老人的星系,我们是不会满意的。所以,哈勃,靠你咯!词汇点津: NASA美国国家航空和宇宙航行局(National Aeronautics and Space Administration)ESA 欧洲航天局(European Space Agency) /201112/165065

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