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来源:普及优惠    发布时间:2019年10月23日 04:38:45    编辑:admin         

The Philippines is among the countries being secretly monitored by a telecommunications spying program of the US National Security Agency (NSA), as revealed by whistleblower and fugitive Edward Snowden.据《菲律宾星报0日报道,美国“棱镜门”揭秘者爱德华#8226;斯诺登披露的文件显示,称菲律宾也在美国安局秘密监控的国家之列。Online publication The Intercept, a platform releasing Snowdens leaks, alleged in a post on Tuesday (Manila time) that NSAs cutting-edge surveillance program MYSTIC collects ;metadata; and content from mobile networks in the Caribbean, Mexico, Kenya, the Philippines and another unnamed country.刊登斯诺登泄密文件的在线网站The Intercept于马尼拉时间20日发文称,NSA代号为“神秘”(MYSTIC)的监控项目搜集加勒比地区、墨西哥、肯尼亚、菲律宾和另一个国家移动网络的“元数据”;All told, the NSA is using MYSTIC to gather personal data on mobile calls placed in countries with a combined population of more than 250 million people,; The Intercept writers Ryan Devereaux, Glenn Greenwald and Laura Poitras said in the report.文章称,NSA用“神秘”项目搜集的个人移动电话数据涉及不同国家.5亿多人。该文作者之一格伦#8226;格林沃尔德曾依据斯诺登提供的材料发表多篇文章揭露美国监视项目。Metadata are information revealing message or calls time stamp, source and destination--information collected by MYSTIC that may be authorized by the host country and even by the telecommunications firms. The program also offers ;near real-time, complete access to the additional target countrys GSM networks,; according to the document leaked by Snowden.所谓元数据,是指电话或者短信的时间、来源和接收者等信息。美国情报界曾在2013年的预算方案提出出资成立“神秘”项目,称该项目有能力获取上述国家的全面元数据信息,还可近乎实时监控一些国家的全球移动通信系统(GSM)网络。Another classified document, provided by Snowden, provides a NSA Special Source Operations description of MYSTIC as a ;program for embedded collection systems overtly installed on target networks predominantly for collection and processing of wireless/mobile communications networks.;斯诺登提供的另一份文件称,“神秘”项目可公开在目标网络安装嵌入式采集系统,搜集和处理无线电话/手机通讯网络的信息,公开的说法是为电信公司提供合法商业务。There is no indication whether MYSTIC also intercepts phone calls and voice data in the Philippines, but it does pull text messaging data.尚不知晓“神秘”项目是否还拦截了菲律宾人的电话和语音数据,但一份文件显示,搜集短信数据是确凿的。The Intercept said it asked NSA to comment, but it only said it does not collect foreign intelligence in an arbitrary and unconstrained way as it follows protocols to protect peoples privacy. Philippine laws prohibit wire tapping and related violations not authorized by all parties concerned.对于The Intercept的采访,美国国家安全局只表示,该机构没有以任意和无约束的方式搜集国外情报,并恪守保护个人隐私。巴哈马,墨西哥、肯尼亚和菲律宾方面均未回应。菲律宾法律禁止在未经当事各方授权的情况下执行窃听行为。来 /201405/302128。

SEATTLE The man from Baghdad showed up unannounced this month in a state office building in Salem, Oregon, with a piece of paper in his hand that he said was worth .4 million. He politely asked that his name be kept quiet, then told state officials that he had set up a local bank account into which they should deposit money annually. And then he went away, richer and more mysterious than when he arrived.西雅图——来自巴格达的这名男子本月突然出现在俄勒冈州塞勒姆市的一座政府办公楼前,手中握着一张据他称价40万美元的纸。他礼貌地要求对他的名字保密,而后告诉政府官员,他已开立一个本地的账户,他们应该将钱按年存入。然后他转身离开,比来时更富有也更神秘。It was not an ordinary day at the Oregon Lottery.这是俄勒冈州(Oregon Lottery)不寻常的一天。The story started with small details, lottery officials said, and became bigger from there: The man was 37, an Iraqi Kurd. He had recently arrived in the ed States from his home in Baghdad, and he said in fine English that he had won the Oregon Megabucks lottery drawing in late August by possessing the six correct numbers without ever having visited the state.官员称,这个故事从小细节开始,然后开始延伸:这名男子37岁,是伊拉克库尔德人。他最近离开巴格达的家来到美国,英语流利,他月下旬凭借六个正确号码赢得俄勒冈大百Oregon Megabucks)抽奖——那时他甚至还没有来过这个国家。The ticket, lottery officials learned, had been bought through thelotter.com, a company based in the island nation of Malta in the Mediterranean Sea, but had been printed out in a little deli on the outskirts of Bend, Oregon, called Binkys.官员了解到,这张通过一家总部设在地中海岛国马耳他的公司thelotter.com购买,但在俄勒冈本德市郊区一家名为Binkys的小熟食店打印。Lottery officials jaws dropped. Then they picked up the phone, calling the Department of Justice and Interpol. Was the man who he said he was, a successful businessman who had bought his ticket online? Was he on any kind of watch list? And how on earth would a lottery ticket from Binkys, of all places, end up in the possession of a man from halfway around the world?官员十分惊讶。然后他们拿起电话,呼叫司法Department of Justice)和国际刑警组Interpol)。这名男子是否如他自己所说,是在网上购买的成功商人?他是否处在任何类型的监视名单中?Binkys售出的一张,最终怎么会偏偏落入半个地球开外的人手中?But there was more: Despite Oregon laws that make lottery winners names public, the man wanted anonymity. His life, and the lives of members of his family, he said, could be put in danger back home if his new net worth became known.但故事不止如此:尽管俄勒冈法律公开者的名字,但这名男子希望匿名。他说,如果他新获得的财富为人们所知,他和家人的生命都可能在国内受到威胁。He told lottery officials that he had set up a bank account in Oregon where he wanted the first of 20 annual payments of 8,720 to be deposited, and that he intended to give the money to his two sons.他告诉官员,他已经在俄勒冈开立一个账户,他希望把20年付的第一5.872万美元存入该账户,他打算把钱给他两个儿子。Thelotter.com arranges lottery ticket sales from around the world to buyers from all corners. It boasts of having “official tickets for all the worlds biggest lotteriesincluding Powerball in the ed States and EuroMillions in France as well as 00 percent commission-free wins.”Thelotter.com可以办理世界各地的销售,卖给全球各个角落的买家。它声称拥有“所有全球最大抽奖活动的官方”——包括美国的强力Powerbal)和法国的欧洲乐透(EuroMillions)——以及“后100%免佣金”。Sean J. Riddell, a lawyer for thelotter.com, said the Oregon Lottery winner was still in the ed States, but declined a request for an interview. Nor, Riddell said, would the man comment on his work or other details of his life in Iraq, or how he had acquired his visa to come to the ed States.肖恩·J·里德Sean J. Riddell)是thelotter.com的一名律师,他说,俄勒冈的者仍在美国,但拒绝接受采访。里德尔还表示,这名男子不会透露他的工作或在伊拉克的其他生活细节,也不会回答他是如何获得美国签的。The Oregon Lotterys director, Jack Roberts, said that an investigation was continuing into whether international lottery ticket sales are entirely legal he said he had his doubts but that the winner had done nothing wrong as far as anyone could determine. Everything checked out, Roberts said, most crucially the six winning numbers on the ticket.俄勒冈总监杰克·罗伯Jack Roberts)称,关于国际销售是否完全合法的调查仍在继续,并表示自己对此有所怀疑,但谁也看不出者做错了任何事。罗伯茨说,一切都已经过审核,最关键的是上的六个号码。So the check was cut. Roberts said “yesto anonymity, as well, although he added that a court could overrule him if the decision was challenged.因此票已经开出。罗伯茨同意匿名,尽管他同时补充道,如果这一决定遭到质疑,法院可能会否决他。“I didnt want to be responsible if one of his kids gets kidnapped,Roberts said. “Its my decision that the need for his safety outweighs the publics need to know.”罗伯茨说,“我可不想因为我导致他的孩子被绑架之类。公众需要知道他是谁,但他更需要安全,这是我的决定。”Foreign residents have played and won U.S. state lotteries before. A group of Australians won .6 million in the Virginia Lottery in 1992. But that was before Internet commerce or online gambling existed in any widesp form.外国居民此前也曾参与并赢得美国992年,一群澳大利亚人在弗吉尼亚中赢得2760万美元。但当时不存在任何普及的互联网商务或在线形式。In 2012, two foreign residents won prizes through tickets in U.S. lotteries bought through thelotter.com, the company said, although those prizes were much smaller than the one claimed by the Iraqi man: .25 million between the two winners.Thelotter.com称,2012年,两名外国居民通过经由该公司购得的美国,不过奖金远低于这名伊拉克男子的金额:两位者共获得125万美元。Lottery laws are in many cases decades old and less than clear, legal experts said. Although a few states have experimented with online lottery sales, federal law makes it illegal to sell lottery tickets across state lines unless allowed by both states. Gambling online, with the exception of bets on horse racing, is legal only in Nevada, New Jersey and Delaware.法律专家说,有许多法律已有几十年历史,且并不明确。尽管少数几个州已试行在线销售,但联邦法律不允许跨州销售,除非同时得到两个州的允许。除赌马之外,在线仅在内华达、新泽西和特拉华州合法。But in cases like this, in which the lottery ticket was bought over the counter, not through the Internet, the uncertainty runs deeper still.但这类从柜台而非网络购买的情形有更多的不确定性。“I think thelotter.com is at best in a gray area of legality,said Keith C. Miller, who teaches gambling law at Drake University in Des Moines, Iowa.“我想,thelotter.com充其量不过是处于法律的灰色地带,基斯·C·米勒(Keith C. Miller)说道,他在爱荷华州得梅因市的德雷克大Drake University)讲授法。Another prominent gambling expert, I. Nelson Rose, a professor of law at Whittier Law School in Costa Mesa, California, went firmly the other way.I·纳尔逊·罗I. Nelson Rose)是位于加州科斯塔梅萨的惠蒂尔法学Whittier Law School)的法学教授,也是一位著名专家,他坚持另一种观点。“I think it probably was 100 percent legal,he said, referring to the Oregon transaction.“我认为这可能是100%合法的,”他这样评价俄勒冈的交易。The lotter.com said in an email that it made no wagers itself, or transferred any lottery tickets by mail or Internet, but that it instead provided what it called “a messenger service,using people who walk into shops like Binkys and plunk money on the counter. On its website, the company says that it makes its money in transaction fees for the ticket purchases and that it collects no percentage of winnings.Thelotter.com在一封电子邮件中指出,公司本身没有下赌注,也没有通过邮件或网络转移任何,但相反的是,它提供所谓的“信使务”,让人们走进像Binkys那样的商店,把钱掷在柜台上。公司在网站上自称通过购买的交易费赚钱,对金额没有抽成。“We physically purchase the official tickets through our reliable and secure local offices located in more than 25 countries and make a scanned copy available to the players secure personal accounts, which confirms their ownership,the company said in an email. “When a player wins, he is entitled to claim the prize in person.”“我们在超过25个国家设有可靠、安全的当地办事处,我们通过这些办事处实体购买官方,并向玩家的安全个人帐户提供扫描件,确认其所有权,”公司在一封电子邮件中这样说道。“当玩家时,他有权要求亲自兑奖。”Actual lottery tickets, the company added, are “never owned by us but only kept in a secured location on behalf of the customer until he claims his prize.The company said it had “handed over winning ticketsvalued at more than million.该公司还补充道,实际“从未归我们所有,我们只是代客户保存在一个安全的地方,直到他兑奖。”公司称,它已“转交的”价值超500万美元。来 /201512/416344。

Alexis Tsipras will accept all the bailout creditorsconditions that were on the table last weekend with only a handful of minor changes, according to a letter the Greek prime minister sent late on Tuesday night.根据希腊总理亚历克西#8226;齐普拉斯(Alexis Tsipras)周二晚上发出的一封信,齐普拉斯将接受纾困债权人提出的所有条件,只有少数地方要做少许改动。The two-page letter, sent to the heads of the European Commission, International Monetary Fund and European Central Bank and obtained by the Financial Times, elaborates on Tuesday’s surprise request for an extension of Greece’s now-expired bailout and for a new, third 29.1bn rescue.英国《金融时报》拿到了这封写给欧盟委员European Commission)、国际货币基金组IMF)及欧洲央ECB)负责人的信。这封信对周二希腊突然提出的延长纾困计划(该计划目前已经到期)的要求、以及申请新一91亿欧元援助计划的要求做了详细阐述。It was sent as eurozone central bankers were preparing on Wednesday to raise the heat on Greece and its banks by restricting their access to emergency loans, a decision that could topple at least one Greek bank.这封信发出之际,欧元区各国央行正准备在周三通过限制对希腊及其的紧急贷款,向希腊及其施压,该决定可能会导致至少一家希腊破产。Although the bailout’s expiry at midnight Tuesday night means the extension is no longer on the table, Mr Tsiprasnew letter, which marks a significant climbdown from his previous position, could serve as the basis of a new bailout in the coming days.齐普拉斯新发出的这封信,标志着他立场的极大转变。虽然周二午夜纾困计划的到期,意味着延长纾困计划期限不再在各方讨论范围之内,这封信或将成为随后几天新一轮纾困磋商的基础。Eurozone finance ministers are due to discuss Mr Tsiprasnew proposal in a conference call at 5:30pm, Brussels time (4.30pm BST).欧元区各国财长定于在布鲁塞尔当地时间下午5点半召开电话会议,讨论齐普拉斯的新提议。Mr Tsiprasletter says Athens will accept all the reforms of his country’s value added tax system with one change: a special 30 per cent discount for Greek islands, many of which are in remote and difficult-to-supply regions, be maintained.在信中,齐普拉斯表示,希腊政府将接受有关希腊增值税体系的所有改革方案,只有一处改动:对希腊群0%的特别折扣依然保留,因为这些岛屿中的许多都位于偏远而难以供应物资的地区。On the contentious issue of pension reform, Mr Tsipras requests that changes to move the retirement age to 67 by 2022 begin in October, rather than immediately. He also requests that a special “solidarity grantawarded to poorer pensioners, which he agrees to phase out by December 2019, be phased out more slowly than creditors request.至于极具争议的养老金改革问题,齐普拉斯要求从10月份才开始推出在2022年以前将退休年龄改7岁的改革举措——而不是马上推出。此外,他还要求向较贫穷的养老金领取人员发放专门的“团结补solidarity grant)”,并同意将0192月份以前逐步停止发放这一补助,这一速度比债权人要求得慢。“The Hellenic Republic is prepared to accept this staff-level agreement subject to the following amendments, additions or clarifications, as part of an extension of the expiring [bailout] program and the new [third] loan agreement for which a request was submitted today, Tuesday June 30th 2015,Mr Tsipras wrote. “As you will note, our amendments are concrete and they fully respect the robustness and credibility of the design of the overall program.”齐普拉斯写道:“希腊共和国准备在经过如下改动、补充或澄清的条件下,接受这一工作人员层面的协议。该协议旨在延长正在过期的(纾困)计划,它也是新的(第三轮)贷款协议的一部分。有关新一轮贷款的请求,已于今天,0150日星期二提交。正如您将注意到的,我们所做的修改十分具体,这些修改全面尊重了整个计划设计中所具备的健壮性和可靠性。”来 /201507/383860。

The Canadian military plane carrying 163 Syrians arrived late Thursday in Toronto.星期四晚间,加拿大军用飞机运63名叙利亚人抵达多伦多。The refugees were greeted upon their arrival by Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, the ministers of immigration, health and defense, Ontario Premier Kathleen Wynne and Toronto Mayor John Tory.这些难民抵达加拿大时,加拿大总理特鲁多、移民部长、卫生部长、国防部长、安大略省省长韦恩以及多伦多市长托利都到机场迎接。Trudeau said ;This is a wonderful night . . . we get to show the world how to open our hearts and welcome in people who are fleeing extraordinarily difficult situations.;特鲁多说,“今天晚上太好了,加拿大向世界展示了怎样诚心接纳那些逃离极端艰难处境的人们。”Canada is set to welcome 25,000 refugees by the end of February.加拿大计划在明年2月底之前接纳2千名难民。Canadas embrace of the refugees is in contrast to the ed States where a presidential candidate, several governors and ordinary citizens have been very vocal in their stance that the refugees should not be allowed into the country.加拿大接纳叙利亚难民的态度与美国形成对照,在美国,一名总统参选人、几名州长以及很多普通民众都直言不讳地表明立场,认为不应该允许难民进入美囀?来 /201512/415498。

Chinese state media and netizens have decried high pollution levels in the northeast city of Shenyang, which activists have said could be the ;worst ever; air quality seen in the country.中国官方媒体和网民们对中国东北部沈阳市的重度污染都有所描述,其中激进分子称,这是中国“最差”的空气质量了。On Sunday pollution ings were about 50 times higher than that considered safe by the World Health Organization. State media have blamed the local government for the thick smog.周日,沈阳的污染数据比世界卫生组织推荐的安全数据高出了近50倍。国内官方媒体职责地方政府管理不当。Pollution is a perennial problem in Chinas northeast, home to heavy industries including coal mining.In some parts of Shenyang, Sundays ings of tiny particulate which can get into the lungs, known as PM 2.5, exceeded 1,400 mg per cubic metre, according to state media Peoples Daily. The WHO recommends a maximum 24-hour average of 25 mg per cubic metre.对于以煤矿为主能源的东北重工业基地,污染是个永恒的问题。中国官方媒体人民日报称,周日沈阳的可吸入颗粒物,即PM2,5,达到了1400毫克每立方米。而世界卫生组织标准为每日平均最5毫克每平方米;As far as we are aware from the data we have been observing over the past few years, this is the highest ever PM 2.5 level recording; in the country, Dong Liansai a campaigner with environmental group Greenpeace, told AFP news agency. There has been no government confirmation of this assertion.一位绿色和平组织成员告诉法新社,在中国“这是我们近年来观察到的最高的PM2.5值”。但是政府并实这一说法Unreasonable不合理The deterioration in air quality came as the citys coal-powered heating system fired up for the winter. Local media reported delays in the enacting of emergency measures, such as warnings to the public and issuance of stop-work orders to work sites.随着冬天到来,城市了开动了以烧煤为主的供暖系统,这成为了空气质量的恶化的主要原因。地方媒体报道,政府延迟制定紧急措施,如警告公众和工地停工令等。A Global Times editorial blamed local officials for inexperience in tackling pollution and ;inconsistent channels of communication;. It also blamed ;unreasonable modes of energy consumption and [the] industrial structure;. But it also called for public understanding saying that in general, local governments ;are still on a learning curve;.环球时报的一篇社论职责地方政府在解决污染问题上缺乏经验,沟通不及时,并且能源消耗和工业结构不合理。但是它同时也提倡公众理解,并称,总体来说,地方政府在处理这些问题上还“正在学习”。On the microblogging platform Weibo, Shenyang residents have continued to post pictures of themselves wearing masks and of the city plunged in a hazy gloom, using the hashtag #Shenyang Haze#, as the pollution persisted.在微平台上,随着污染的持续,沈阳居民不断发出自己带着口罩处于一片雾霾之中的照片,并将标签定沈阳雾霾#;I cant go on living like this, #Shenyang Haze#, if this goes on any longer everyone will probably get cancer,; complained user BLS-Christine on Tuesday. Multiple Weibo users shared ghostly images of neon signs ;floating; in the air as buildings were rendered nearly invisible by the smog“我不能这样生活下去沈阳雾霾# 如果一直持续下去,每个人都很有可能得癌症。”一位微名为BLS-Christine的用户在周二抱怨到很多微用户分享了建筑物消失在雾霾中的,霓虹灯“漂浮”在空中的可怕的图片。Earlier this year Chinas environment ministry announced that only eight out of the countrys 74 biggest cities had passed the governments basic air quality standards in 2014. Most of the cities found to have the worst air were in the northeast of the country. China is attempting to cut pollution but still relies heavily on coal for its energy and industrial needs.今年早期,中国环境部宣布014年,在中国的74个大城市中,仅有8个达到了政府规定的空气质量标准。空气污染最严重的城市大多数都位于中国东北部。中国正在尝试减少污染,但是仍然依靠煤作为主要工业能源。来 /201511/409049。

Ever since the late Samuel Huntington predicted that international politics would be dominated by a “clash of civilisations his theory, first outlined in 1993[pub summer 1993 foreign affairs - was there an earlier iteration?], has found some of its keenest adherents among militant Islamists. The terrorists who inflicted mass murder on Paris are part of a movement that sees Islam and the west as locked in inevitable, mortal combat.已故的塞缪尔亨廷Samuel Huntington)曾预言,国际政治将由“文明的冲突”主导。该理论最早是993年提出的(发表在1993年夏天的《外交》杂Foreign Affairs)上)。自从提出以来,亨廷顿的理论在伊斯兰激进分子中找到了部分最忠实的拥趸。对巴黎实施大规模杀戮的恐怖分子,就从属于一项运动,该运动认为伊斯兰教和西方注定陷入不可避免的生死冲突。Leading western politicians, by contrast, have almost always rejected Huntington’s analysis. Even George W Bush said “there is no clash of civilisations And everyday life in multicultural western nations, most of which have large Muslim minorities, offers a daily refutation of the idea that different faiths and cultures cannot live and work together.相比之下,西方主要政客差不多总是在否认亨廷顿的分析。甚至连乔治圠布什(George W. Bush)都曾表示:“不存在文明的冲突。”文化多元的西方国家(它们多数都拥有规模庞大的穆斯林少数民族群体)的日常生活,每天都驳斥着认为不同信仰和文化无法共生、合作的观点。In the aftermath of the Paris attacks, that core idea needs to be reaffirmed. And yet a necessary restatement of liberal values should also not prevent a sober acknowledgment of some malign global trends. The fact is that hardline Islamism is on the rise even in some countries, such as Turkey, Malaysia and Bangladesh, previously regarded as models of moderate Muslim societies. At the same time, the expression of anti-Muslim prejudice is entering the political mainstream in the US, Europe and in India.在巴黎发生袭击事件之后,这一核心理念必须加以重申。然而,对自由价值观的必要重申,也不应阻止人们清醒地认识部分有害的全球趋势。事实上,强硬派伊斯兰主义正在崛起——即使在土耳其、马来西亚和孟加拉国等部分此前被视为温和穆斯林社会典范的国家也是如此。与此同时,带有反穆斯林偏见的言论也正在进入美国、欧洲和印度的主流政治。Taken together, these developments are narrowing the space for those who want to push back against the narrative of a “clash of civilisations综合而言,对于那些想要反驳“文明的冲突”说法的人来说,这些变化正在压缩他们的空间。Terrorist attacks, such as those in Paris, promote tensions between Muslims and non-Muslims as they are intended to. But there are also longer-term trends at work that are driving radicalisation. One of the most pernicious is the way in which the Gulf states, in particular Saudi Arabia, have used oil money to sp intolerant forms of Islam into the rest of the Muslim world.类似巴黎那样的恐怖主义袭击,加剧了穆斯林和非穆斯林之间的紧张关系——而这正是这些袭击的用意所在。不过,还有一些更长期的趋势在起作用,在推动世界的激进化。其中一个最具破坏性的趋势,就是海湾国家(尤其是沙特阿拉伯)利用石油资金,向穆斯林世界的其他地区传播不包容的伊斯兰教形式。The effects are now visible in Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, Africa and Europe. Malaysia has long been held up as an example of a successful and prosperous, multicultural nation with a Muslim-Malay majority and a large ethnic-Chinese minority. But things are changing. Bilahari Kausikan, a former head of the foreign ministry in neighbouring Singapore, notes a “significant and continuing narrowing of the political and social space for non-Muslimsin Malaysia. He adds: “Arab influences from the Middle East have for several decades steadily eroded the Malay variant of Islam... it with a more austere and exclusive interpretation.The corruption scandal that is currently undermining the government of Prime Minister Najib Razak has increased communal tensions, as the Malaysian government has fallen back on Muslim identity politics to rally support. One junior government minister even recently accused the opposition of being part of a global, Jewish conspiracy against Malaysia.这种趋势的影响目前在东南亚、印度次大陆、非洲和欧洲都可以看到。马来西亚长期被树立为成功而繁荣的多元化国家典范,不仅有占人口多数的穆斯林马来人,还有庞大的华裔少数民族。然而,事情正在发生变化。曾任马来西亚邻国新加坡外交部常任秘书的比拉哈里考西Bilahari Kausikan)指出,马来西亚“非穆斯林的政治和社会空间正遭遇显著而持续性的压缩”。他补充说:“几十年来,来自中东的阿拉伯的影响一直在稳步侵蚀着马来西亚的伊斯兰教……用更严厉、更排他的解释取而代之。”目前,腐败丑闻正在削弱马来西亚总理纳吉布拉扎克(Najib Razak)政府的影响力,加剧了马来西亚族群间的紧张。与此同时,马来西亚政府已开始借助穆斯林身份政治提升持率。最近,一名低级的政府部长甚至还曾指责反对党是针对马来西亚的全球性犹太阴谋的一部分。In Bangladesh, a Muslim country with a secular constitution, radical Islamists have been responsible for murders of intellectuals, bloggers and publishers, over the past year. There has also been a rise in attacks on Christians, Hindus and Shia Muslims. Much of this violence has been perpetrated by Isis or al-Qaeda. But, as in Malaysia, the rise of radical Islam seems to have been heavily influenced by the Gulf states through the funding of education and the connections forged by migrant workers.孟加拉国是一个拥有世俗化宪法的穆斯林国家。在孟加拉国,激进的伊斯兰主义者要为过去一年里发生的多起针对知识分子、客作者和出版界人士的谋杀负责。此外,针对基督教徒、印度教徒和什叶派(Shia)穆斯林的攻击也已增加。大量此种暴行都是“伊拉克和黎凡特伊斯兰国ISIS)或基地组al-Qaeda)犯下的。不过,和马来西亚类似,激进伊斯兰教的崛起似乎在很大程度上受到了海湾国家的影响——这种影响是通过教育资助和外来劳动者打造的人脉关系施加的。For many in the west, Turkey has long been the best example of a majority-Muslim country that is also a successful secular democracy. But in the era of President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, religion has become much more central to the country’s politics and identity. Mr Erdogan has been labelled as “mildly Islamistby The Economist and others. But there was nothing mild about his statement in 2014 that westerners “look like friends, but they want us dead, they like seeing our children die对西方许多人来说,长期以来土耳其一直是一个最佳典范:这里穆斯林占人口多数,同时也是个成功的世俗化民主国家。然而,在土耳其总统雷杰普吠伊普埃尔多安(Recep Tayyip Erdogan)的时代,宗教在土耳其政治和身份认同中的重要性已大大提高。埃尔多安已被《经济学人The Economist)和其他媒体打上了“温和伊斯兰主义者”的标签。但是,他在2014年的讲话可一点也不温和,他说,西方人“虽然看起来像朋友,实际上他们却希望我们灭亡,他们喜欢看着我们的孩子死去”。While India’s prime minister, Narendra Modi, has not said anything this inflammatory about Muslims, he has long been accused of tolerating anti-Islamic prejudice and violence. During his first months in office, Mr Modi reassured some critics by concentrating on economic reform. But in recent months, members of his Hindu-nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party have ramped up anti-secular and anti-Muslim rhetoric with the lynching of a Muslim man, accused of eating beef, making national headlines.尽管印度总理纳伦德拉莫迪(Narendra Modi)并未说过关于穆斯林的这么煽动性的话,长期以来他一直被指责纵容反伊斯兰的偏见和暴力活动。在上任的头几个月,莫迪通过将注意力集中于经济改革打消了部分批评人士的疑虑。然而最近几个月,莫迪领导的印度教民族主义政党人民党(Bharatiya Janata Party)的成员,加大了反世俗化和反穆斯林的言论。一位被控食用牛肉的穆斯林男子被私刑处死的消息,成为印度的头条新闻。In Europe, even before the Paris attacks, the migrant crisis had helped to fuel the rise of anti-Muslim parties and social movements. As Germany has opened its doors to refugees from the Middle East, violent attacks on migrant hostels have risen. In France, it is widely expected the far-right National Front will make significant gains in next month’s regional elections.在欧洲,在巴黎的袭击事件之前,难民危机就已助长了反穆斯林党派和社会运动的兴起。在德国向来自中东的难民打开大门之际,对难民收容所的暴力袭击活动也已增加。在法国,人们普遍预期极右翼国民阵线(National Front)在下个月的大区选举中将大幅领先 /201511/411312。