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2019年09月24日 17:44:17    日报  参与评论()人

哈密市做韩式水晶唇多少钱成都华西整形韩式半永久化妆多少钱四川纹嘴唇价格 Could we be just two or three years away from curing cancer? Niven Narain, the president of Berg, a small Boston-based biotech firm, says that may very well be the case.我们是否真的在两三年之后,就能实现治愈癌症的愿景?波士顿小型生物科技公司Berg的总裁尼文o纳雷因表示,可能真是这样。With funding from billionaire real-estate tycoon Carl Berg as well as from Mitch Gray, Narain, a medical doctor by training, and his small army of scientists, technicians, and programmers, have spent the last six years perfecting and testing an artificial intelligence platform that he believes could soon crack the cancer code, in addition to discovering valuable information about a variety of other terrible diseases, including Parkinson’s.凭借亿万富翁、房地产业大鳄卡尔o伯格和米奇o格雷提供的资金,纳雷因和他带领的科学家、技术人员和编程人员团队耗时6年,完善并测试了一个人工智能平台,纳雷因认为,这个平台可能很快就会解开癌症的密码,同时为治疗包括帕金森症在内的一系列严重疾病提供有价值的信息。Thanks to partnerships formed with universities, hospitals, and even the U.S. Department of Defense, Berg and its supercomputers have been able to analyze thousands of patient records and tissue samples to find possible new drug targets and biomarkers.凭借着跟多所大学、医院甚至美国国防部建立的合作关系,伯格公司及其超级计算机系统已经分析了成千上万的病历和组织样本,以找到有可能全新的药物靶标和生物标志。All this data crunching has led to the development of Berg’s first drug, BPM 31510, which is in clinical trials. The drug acts by essentially reprogramming the metabolism of cancer cells, re-teaching them to undergo apoptosis, or cell death. In doing so, the cancer cells die off naturally, without the need for harmful and expensive chemotherapy.经过庞大的数据计算,伯格公司开发出第一款新药——BPM 31510,目前该药已经进入临床测试阶段。它可以重组癌细胞的新陈代谢,重新教会癌细胞如何死亡。在这个过程中,癌细胞就会自然死亡,使患者不必经历对身体伤害极大又十分昂贵的化疗过程。So far, Berg has concentrated most of its resources on prostate cancer, given the large amount of data available on the disease. But thanks to recently announced partnerships, the firm is now building a new modeltargeting pancreatic cancer, which is one of the deadliest forms of cancers with a survivorship rate of only 7%.到目前为止,伯格公司的主要资源都集中在前列腺癌上,因为目前有大量关于前列腺癌的数据可供研究。不过拜一项最新合作所赐,该公司现在已经开始构建针对胰腺癌的新模型了。胰腺癌也是最凶险的癌症之一,目前的存活率只有7%。Ambitious as that may be, it is really just the tip of the iceberg. In addition to mapping out prostate and pancreatic cancer, Berg hopes to analyze data from a whole host of other diseases, including breast cancer. Additionally, Berg thinks his company’s artificial intelligence platform can also revolutionize drug testing by creating individualized patient-specific treatment options, which he believes will ultimately reduce the risk of adverse drug interactions in clinical trials and hospitals by a significant degree.这个目标本身可谓雄心勃勃,但它还只是冰山的一角。除了治疗前列腺癌和胰腺癌之外,伯格公司还希望分析多种其它疾病的数据,包括乳腺癌。另外,伯格公司还认为,它的人工智能平台可以根据病人的特异性制定专门针对个别患者的治疗方案,从而将掀起一场药物测试的革命,并显著降低药物的负面作用在临床实验和医疗实践中的风险。I sat down with Berg and Narain to discuss how the company works and what they hope to accomplish in the next few years. The following interview has been edited for publication.我采访了卡尔o伯格和纳雷因,探讨了该公司的工作机制,以及他们在未来几年内的目标。以下是采访摘要。Fortune: Carl, why did you decide to move from real estate into healthcare and has it panned out like you thought it would?财富:卡尔,你为什么选择从房地产业转向医疗行业?它的进展是否符合你的预期?Carl Berg: I have been in the venture capital business for 40 years but I never once touched biotech because I was concerned about the risk associated with government approval – it’s bad enough when you’re doing venture capital but adding one more equation, like getting approval from the FDA [Food and Drug Administration] makes it a lot harder. But about eight years ago I said, instead of getting into a whole bunch of small companies, I am in a position now where I can do something really big in a hope that it changes the world. So that’s what motivated me, and then I met with Niven, and that’s what got it started.卡尔o伯格:我已经在风投界干了40年了,但我从来没有触碰过生物科技领域,因为我担心与政府审批有关的风险。做风投本身就不容易,又要多花一番工夫去获得美国食品药品监督的认,那就会更难。但大概8年前我曾说过,现在我不必再做一堆小公司了,而是有能力做一些影响力足够大甚至有希望改变世界的事。这个目标激励了我,然后我认识了尼文,我们就是这样开始这项事业的。Did Niven convince you to go into biotech or did you find Niven?是尼文说了你进入医疗行业,还是你找到了尼文?CB: I was considering a skin care product investment and I was introduced to Niven at the University of Miami. Niven was the project manager and about a couple months into work on this product, Niven called me and said “Carl, this skin care product appears to have an effect on cancer.” To which I said “Sure, whenever you cure somebody, let me know.”卡尔o伯格:当时我正考虑投资一款护肤产品,然后我在迈阿密大学经人介绍认识了尼文。尼文当时是那个项目的经理,那个项目开始大约一两个月后,尼文给我打电话说:“卡尔,这款护肤产品似乎对治疗癌症有效。”我说:“好吧,如果你治好了谁,记得让我知道。”You didn’t sound very convinced.你听起来好像不太相信。CB: Everybody knows that every cancer is different, so how could this one thing work? That didn’t make any sense to me. And Niven said, “Can I fly out to California and show you my results?” And he came out, and we talked, and I got convinced that the technology he was using and the approach he was taking, could revolutionize the pharmaceutical market.卡尔o伯格:人人都知道,每种癌症都是不一样的,那么这个东西怎么会有效呢?在我看来根本就说不通。这时尼文说:“我能飞到加州向你展示一下我的成果吗?”然后他就来了,经过一番交流,我相信他使用的技术和方法真的有可能在医药市场掀起一场革命。Niven, what did you say to convince Carl Berg that your work on skin cream could possibly lead to a cure for cancer?尼文,你是怎样让卡尔o伯格相信,你那款护肤产品上有可能治愈癌症?Niven Narain: When I met with Carl we were aligned philosophically that there has to be a better way to create a more efficient healthcare system – one that really matches the right patients to the right drugs in a very precise manner. So Carl supported taking this concept to the next level. Instead of treating humans with chemicals, that are screened to become drugs, we actually started with human tissue samples and work to understand the biology and develop drugs based on that. Using AI [artificial intelligence] instead of hypotheses.尼文o纳雷因:当我见到卡尔时,我们原则上同意,肯定有办法建立一个更高效的医疗系统,它能够以非常精确的方式,将病人与正确的药物进行匹配。卡尔持我们将这个理念引向深入。我们不是利用筛选过的化学制品治疗病人,而是从人体的细胞样本入手去了解人体生物学,然后据此研发药物的。我们使用的是人工智能,而不是各种假设。How exactly does artificial intelligence come into play here?人工智能究竟在这个过程中起了什么样的作用?NN: When you start with a hypothesis, you are dismissing a lot of other areas that might actually have an impact on whatever you are trying to figure out. How many times do we see drugs get to late stage trials and fail because the early science either wasn’t robust enough or focused on the wrong target?尼文o纳雷因:如果你从一个假设入手,你就排除了很多其他可能产生真正效果的领域。有多少次药物在晚期测试的失败,是因为它的早期科研不够扎实,或是选择了错误的靶标?At Berg, we use AI to create over 14 trillion data points on only one tissue sample. It is actually humanly impossible to go through all this data and use the traditional hypothesis inference model to glean any value out of all of it. So early on when we built what we call an interrogative biology platform using AI to go through all that data. AI is actually able to take all the information from the patient’s biology, clinical samples, and demographics and really categorize which ones are similar and which ones are different and then stratify those in a way that helps us understand the difference between the healthy and diseased.在伯格公司,我们只针对一个组织样本就建立了超过14万亿个数据点。无论是使用人力,还是使用传统的推理假设模型,要想从所有这些数据中摘取有价值的信息,都是不可能的。所以当我们构建我们所称的疑问型生物平台时,我们使用了人工智能来分析所有数据。人工智能可以从病人的生物数据、临床样本和人口统计资料中摘取所有的信息,并且可以根据类似性和差异性进行分类和分层,从而帮助我们了解健康细胞和病变细胞之间的差异。Fourteen trillion data points sounds like information overload.14万亿个数据点听起来有点超负荷的感觉。NN: So there are two components: the upfront biological and there is something called omics. We go much deeper than just analyzing the genome, we look at all the genes in that tissue sample, all the proteins, metabolites, lipids, patients records, demographics, age, sex, gender, etc. We combine the 30,000 genes in the body with about 60,000 proteins and a few hundred lipids, metabolites. Then we take those components and subject them to high order mathematic algorithm that essentially learns, uses machine learning, to learn the various associations and correlations.尼文o纳雷因:所以它有两个组成部分:首先是生物信息,然后还有所谓的“组学”。我们不仅仅是分析基因组,而是研究一个组织样本的所有基因、蛋白质、代谢分子、脂质、病历记录、人口统计学资料、年龄、性别等等信息。我们把人体的3万个基因与6万种蛋白蛋和几千种脂质、代谢分子的信息综合起来,然后把这些成分用具有机器学习功能的高阶数学算法进行计算,以了解它们的各种关联性和相关性。Omics – it’s a fairly new term. It means you’re going beyond just the genome. It means all the omics – proteomics, metabolomics, and proteins. So we may be born with 30,000 genes, and those genes were born with certain mutations, but that’s not the end of the story. You live in New York City, you are exposed to different things in the environment, your diet is different than someone who lives in Alabama and your sleeping habits are different from some who lives in Utah. We believe all of these things have to be put together to tell the whole story of your omics – the full profile of you.组学是一个相对较新的术语,它意味着你不能仅仅盯着基因组,而是所有的“组”——比如蛋白质组、代谢组等等。虽然可能我们出生就带着3万个基因,而且这些基因可能还有某些天生的突变,但这并不是故事的结尾。你住在纽约市,暴露在环境中的不同物质里,你的饮食与阿拉巴马州的某个人不一样,你的睡眠习惯也与犹他州的某个人不一样。所以我们认为,这些东西应该综合起来,才能完整描绘你的“组学”,即你的整体资料。But how does all of this get us to a cure for anything? Seems like a bunch of number crunching.但是这些东西怎样让我们治病?看起来只是一堆数据分析而已。NN: I know you cover the airline industry pretty intently, so you are probably familiar with those airline route maps that show all the connections between hubs cities and destinations. So with the interrogative biology platform, the result of all that number crunching looks similar to a 3D version of those maps. But instead of those connections going between cities, they are going between genes and proteins. We then focus in on the big hubs and see what, if anything, is wrong. For example, in a system, if Dallas is in Oklahoma, obviously we know something is wrong, so the AI helps to push Dallas back into North Texas, and analyze what events happened in the biology to make that a normal process again. This is what we focus in on. The elements within the biology, the genes and proteins that made that a healthy process again.尼文o纳雷因:我知道你经常报道航空业,你可能很熟悉航空公司的路线图了,它们展示了各个枢纽城市和目的地之间的联系。在我们的疑问型生物平台上,所有这些数据分析的结果看起来就像3D版的航空路线图。但这些联系并不是城市与城市之间的,而是基因与蛋白质之间。然后我们把重点放在那些大的枢纽上,看看是否出了什么问题。比如如果达拉斯市是在俄克拉荷马州境内,我们都知道肯定有问题,这时人工智能就会把达拉斯推回北德克萨斯州,然后分析生物学中的哪些事件可以让人体重启正常的流程。这就是我们的研究重点,即生物的基本元素,以及能让健康流程重启的基因和蛋白质。Have you had any success using this platform in a real world situation?在真实世界中,你利用该平台取得过成功吗?NN: We are in clinical trials for a drug, BPM 31510, which we developed using the interrogative platform. The results we have seen so far have been very encouraging. The platform predicted that the more metabolic, the better the treatment will work. And that is exactly what we are seeing in patients for certain types of cancer. For example, we tested this on a patient who had bladder cancer. It was a very aggressive cancer, which failed to respond to all other therapies. We then put him on BPM 31510, which targeted the metabolism of the cancer cell, and by week 18, the tumor was completely gone.尼文o纳雷因:我们正在测试一款名叫BPM 31510的药物,它就是我们利用疑问型平台研发的。目前显示的结果非常令人鼓舞。该平台显示,新陈代谢越多,治疗就会越有效。根据我们对患有某些癌症的病人的观察,的确是这样。比如我们在一名患有膀胱癌的病人身上测试了这款药物,膀胱癌是一种非常凶险的癌症,几乎对所有疗法都没有反应。我们在他身上使用了BPM 31510,该药以癌细胞的新陈代谢为靶向,到了第18周,他的肿瘤已经完全消失了。Is this a patented process?这种疗法取得专利了吗?NN: We spent the lion’s share of the first six years building the platform, developing it into various areas of focus, getting our early drugs into clinical trials and diversifying the use of the technology. And we have filed over 500 patents around the world that govern this specific elevated biology. So we have patents on the biological process, on the mathematics, the informatics, on each individual candidate biomarker, and drug targets. It is a very robust IP portfolio.尼文o纳雷因:我们把前六年的大部分时间花在构建平台、研究各个重点领域、对早期药物进行临床实验和实现技术使用的多样化上。我们在全球已经注册了500多个专利。所以我们在生物学、数学、信息学上都有专利,对每个个体生物指标和药物靶标也都有专利。总之我们有着非常坚实的知识产权资产。Who are your competitors and where are you versus them in taking this process to the next level?你们的竞争对手是谁?与他们相比,你们在今后的发展中处于何种地位?NN: We get asked that fairly often. There are folks and entities that do pieces of what Berg does. They’re leading companies focused on proteins or analytics, but there isn’t one company we can identify or know of that has taken the biology, the omics, the clinical capability and put it all into an interrogative platform to really allow for a robust understanding of the biology to discover drugs in a different way. Also, we are allowing the data to generate hypotheses instead of hypotheses generating data, so it’s a really different approach. We are fairly unique in that respect – both from a technology, but also from a commercial standpoint.尼文o纳雷因:我们经常会被问到这个问题。也有一些人和机构在做我们正在做的事。他们是一些蛋白质和分析学上的顶尖公司,但我们目前还没有发现哪家公司把有关的生物学、组学研究和临床能力整合到一个疑问型平台上,来对人体产生坚实的理解,并以一种新的方式开发药物。另外,我们是用数据产生假设,而不是用假设产生数据,所以它是一种不同的方法。我们在这方面还是挺独特的——无论是在技术上还是商业上。Carl, for the last few years, you and Mitch Gray have been the only investors in Berg. How come?卡尔,过去几年里,你和米奇o格雷一直是伯格公司的唯一投资人,为什么会这样?CB: I’ve learned that if you get too many people in the early stages of these things, especially within something as risky as this was, basically you have failed because people get upset and they get worried when anything goes wrong. Through all the years that I have been doing this I can kind of roll with the punches. If something goes haywire it doesn’t upset me that much. I know that’s what you’re going to expect.卡尔o伯格:如果你在这些东西的早期阶段就让太多人进入,尤其是这个项目又有比较高的风险,那么你基本上肯定会失败,因为只要有什么事情出了差错,人们就会感到沮丧和担心。凭借多年的风投经历,我基本上已经处变不惊了。就算出了大乱子,我也不会那么沮丧。我知道那就是你需要预料到的。Are you y to open things up now?你们现在打算开放融资了吗?CB: We are definitely planning on doing some other things and bringing in other investors, but we thought we ought to get to a certain point before we did that. I think we are now very close to that point.卡尔o伯格:我们当然希望做些其他事情,并且引入新的投资人。但我们希望在此之前先达到某一个点。我认为我们离那个点已经非常近了。 /201505/375632四川织眉毛一般要多少钱

彭州市做立体绣眉多少钱成都/市蓝美人做纹绣多少钱 When you starting dating someone new, the possibility always exists that your budding relationship could lead to a permanent commitment. Given this possibility, you want to leave nothing to chance about your future or that of your family if you and the girl you have begun dating get married or have children together. As you contemplate whether or not to ask her out, you should know these 10 things about a girl before dating her.当你与某人开始约会时,初识的怦然心动渐至日久情深,最终你可能就这么被拖进了婚姻的坟墓。鉴于这一可能性,如果你与这个女孩可以修成正果从此走上人生巅峰,那么你一定不想在未来的某个日子里突然“被小三”或者“喜当爹”。所以,在考虑要不要约她出去前,请务必了解以下10件关于这个女孩的事情。10.Relationship Status10.男女关系情况This tip may seem rather obvious; however, some ladies may not be upfront with you about their real relationship status. They could be wanting to start an illicit affair behind their partner or spouse#39;s back. They also may be on a relationship hiatus, but not fully available for a long-term commitment because of the possibility that their former boyfriend or spouse wanting to get back together. Either way, taking the time to pose this question to a girl that you are interested in dating can save you future heartache and emotional turmoil later. You should not assume that this girl will want to be with you exclusively even if she is in a romance with someone else.这则贴士的含义显而易见,然而,有些女人可能不会对你坦白她真实的感情状况。她们可能只是想背着配偶来段婚外恋,或是正处于感情空窗期,还抱有前男友或前夫会回头的幻想,想来段不以结婚为目的的恋爱。不管是哪种情况,你都有必要花点时间跟你的意中人聊聊这些问题,这样可以避免日后出现令人头疼的局面或感情的变数。如果你的意中人正跟别人热恋,那你就别幻想着她有朝一日能死心塌地跟你在一起啦。In fact, as silly as it may seem, you would fare well to ask a girl that you want to ask out if she is seeing or dating anyone exclusively. If she answers that she is seeing someone else, but open to dating you, you may proceed with caution and gauge your time with her accordingly to avoid any romantic complications. If she answers that she is not in a relationship with anyone, you can then proceed as you normally would in a new dating situation. When you have this information upfront, you can can figure out if asking her out is worth your time and effort.事实上,询问你想勾搭的女生是否名花有主似乎是一件很愚蠢的事情。如果她回答说自己正和别人谈着,但也可以给你个机会,那么你就得谨慎行事,并合计一下你们可以约会的时间。若是她表示现在还是单身,那么你就可以照常开展一段新的恋情。在正式开始约会前了解这些信息,你就知道该不该为了这段恋情付出时间和精力了。It can be difficult to know if someone is available for dating exclusively or not if you are not friends with this person or in that individual#39;s same circle of acquaintances. In this situation, you should trust your gut instincts and look for signs that this person may be dating someone else in addition to you. Further, if you both are new to each other, you should proceed slowly and get to know that person very well before taking your romance to the next level.如果你不是她的朋友,或只是与她的朋友圈有所交集,要了解她是否有恋人其实是一件很难的事情。在这种情况下,你应该相信自己的直觉,寻找她与别人约会的蛛丝马迹。长远的来说,在你俩还不熟的时候,别陷进这段感情,不妨先放慢进度,相识相知方可水到渠成。9.Age9.年龄Good manners dictate that a man should never ask a woman about her age. However, if you are unsure whether or not she is a minor, it is always best to err on the side of good judgment instead of good manners. Each state has different age of consent laws, which puts you at risk of committing a felony if you become seriously involved with someone who is underage. If the girl you want to ask out looks like she could be under the age of consent in your state, you should ask how old she is to protect yourself legally.有教养的男人是永远不会向女士询问年龄的。然而如果你不确定她是否已成年,比起保持风度矜持不问,还是“失礼”地坚守自己理性的判断较为明智。各州的法律对年龄的规定都不尽相同,这就导致你若是与未到法定年龄的女孩纠缠不清,会面临触犯重罪的危险。如果你想约的女孩看上去很“嫩”,即有可能未达到你所在州的法定年龄,为了避开“雷区”,你还是问一下女孩的年龄吧。Again, you can get this information from outside sources if you and she belong to the same circle of friends or acquaintances. However, if you are both unknown to each other, it would not be out of place to explain to her your concerns and gently insist that you be assured of her age before asking her out. If she refuses, you can chalk up her denial of your request as her loss rather than yours. If she agrees and shows you an identification card or some other proof of her age, you can take it as a sign that she is perhaps flattered and willing to go out with you after all.同理,你和她有共同好友或是朋友圈有交集的话,也可以从这些外来资源中获取你想要的信息。当然啦,你俩之前没有交集的话,那就得向她说明你的担忧并委婉地坚持一下自己的立场:为了保险起见,还是得先问清年龄再考虑约会的事。如果她拒绝回答,那么你要坚信她拒绝你的请求就是她的损失。如果她同意回答并给你看了身份或任何可以明她年龄的据,这就表明她在讨好你,也很乐意跟你约会。It is well known in today#39;s media that young girls lie about their ages all the time to get the attention of older teenage boys and men. Rather than get into a legal mess that could alter your future in devastating ways, you should make it a point to make sure that the girl you want to date is truly above that age of consent mark in your state. If she works with you or goes to college, for example, you can safely assume that she is of legal age. However, if you both are unknown to each other and meet by a chance encounter, you must use other tactics to ensure that this girl is genuinely and legally available for dating.众所周知,在现今的传媒生活中,小姑娘们为了吸引心智成熟的男性,总是会谎报自己的年龄。你应该时刻牢记,确保你想约的女孩的真实年龄超过所在州规定的年龄,如若不然,你将陷入一场法律纠纷,自毁前程。如果她是你同事或是校友,那就不必担心她的年龄问题了。但是你们俩若是意外邂逅的关系的话,那你还是得旁敲侧击,确保这个女孩达到法定年龄。8.Criminal History8.犯罪史Your legal future may not solely be tied up in whether or not the girl you are interested in is above the age of consent. It also may depend on what kind of criminal history she has. In the perfect scenario, the girl you want to date would have a clean criminal record and not even the slightest traffic infraction on it. However, statistics show that more people than ever have at least one arrest on their record, giving way to the chances that the girl you want to ask out has some sort of criminal past.未来你想没有麻烦也许不仅仅和你约会的女孩年龄相关,也取决于她有什么样的犯罪史。最好是你想约会的那个女孩很清白,甚至连交通违章都没有过。然而,数据表明,比以前更多的人都至少有一条被捕记录,所以你想要约会的女孩如果有犯罪记录,还是给她个机会吧。If the infraction was minor, such as speeding or littering, it more than likely will have little bearing on your possible future with her. However, if she has previously been arrested for drug possession, DUI, identity theft, assault, or some other serious charge, she may compromise your future significantly if you and she forge ahead with a relationship. Many people who have arrest records find it difficult to get a job, secure housing, and live a normal life after they have been released from jail or probation. Her inability to get a job or even approved for an apartment could leave you with the security you need to build a life with her.如果是小违章的话,比如超速或者乱扔垃圾,对你的未来不会有什么影响。然而,如果她之前因为藏毒被捕,酒后驾车,身份盗窃,人身攻击或者其他一些严重的指控,如果你执意要和她发展下去,可能会严重影响你的未来。大多有过逮捕记录的人出狱后或在缓刑期间很难找到工作,住房得不到保障,无法过上正常的生活。她想给你安全感,却连工作都没有,房子也没有,你还怎么和她生活下去呢。Further, depending on the nature of her crime and how well she has been rehabilitated, the possibility always exists that she could reoffend. You could inadvertently be putting yourself at risk of being an accomplice to her crimes or at least having knowledge about her behavior. You may be questioned by the police and cast in a suspicious light, which puts the burden on you to prove your own innocence. Before you ask out the girl you are interested in, you should verify if she has a criminal background. You can do this by researching online or checking the county court records in your city.此外,根据她犯罪的性质以及她洗心革面的程度,她再犯的可能性是一直存在的。你可能面临成为她犯罪同伙的危险或者至少你该她的行为有所认知。你会被警察传讯,并一直在警方怀疑之列,想明自己是清白的就难了。在你想约感兴趣的女孩之前,你应该查清她是否有犯罪记录。可以通过网上调查或查询你所在城市的地方法院记录。审校:小飞侠 编辑:Freya然 校对:丸子 /201507/386143广安半永久性化妆漂唇术哪家好

成都市提眉和切眉的区别 The Western Roman Empire may have fallen more than 1,500 years ago, but its rich legacy of innovation and invention can still be seen today. The Romans were prodigious builders and expert civil engineers, and their thriving civilization produced advances in technology, culture and architecture that remained unequaled for centuries. From aqueducts to newspapers, find out more about 10 innovations that built ancient Rome.西罗马帝国的没落已过去近1500年,但其在创造发明方面所留下的富饶文化遗产依然鲜活如新。罗马人是令世人惊讶的建设者,更是土木工程界的资深专家,其蓬勃发展的社会文明使古罗马帝国数个世纪以来在科技、文化、建筑等方面都保持着无可比拟的优越性。从修建大型输水道到创立报刊,接下来,让我们深入了解一下古罗马的十大创新之举。10.Battlefield Surgery10.战地外科The Romans invented many surgical tools and pioneered the use of the cesarean section, but their most valuable contributions to medicine came on the battlefield. Under the leadership of Augustus, they established a military medical corps that was one of the first dedicated field surgery units. These specially trained medics saved countless lives through the use of Roman medical innovations like hemostatic tourniquets and arterial surgical clamps to curb blood loss. Roman field doctors also performed physicals on new recruits and helped stem the sp of disease by overseeing sanitation in military camps. They were even known to disinfect instruments in hot water before use, pioneering a form of antiseptic surgery that was not fully embraced until the 19th century. Roman military medicine proved so advanced at treating wounds and promoting wellness that soldiers tended to live longer than the average citizen despite constantly facing the hazards of combat.罗马人发明了许多外科手术工具,并率先进行了剖腹产手术,但值得一提的是,他们在医学上最有价值的贡献都是在战场上。在奥古斯塔斯的统领下,他们组建了一个军队医疗队,这是最早致力于专业领域的一医疗队伍。这些经过特殊训练的医务人员使用止血带止血,使用动脉手术钳抑制术中出血等,通过这些医疗创新手段在战乱中拯救了无数条濒临死亡的生命。罗马的战地医生还为新入伍的军人进行体检,并监管军营的卫生条件以遏制疾病的传播。他们甚至知道在使用医疗用具之前需要在热水中对其进行消毒,开创了抗菌手术的先例,尽管这种手术形式直到19世纪都没有完全被世人接受。罗马军事医学鲜明的实了其在愈伤及保健方面技术的先进性,以至于士兵尽管饱受战争之苦,却依然比平民百姓的寿命要长。9.The Twelve Tables and the Corpus Juris Civilis9.十二铜表法及罗马民法大全Subpoena, habeas corpus, pro bono, affidavit—all these terms derive from the Roman legal system, which dominated Western law and government for centuries. The basis for early Roman law came from the Twelve Tables, a code that formed an essential part of the constitution during the Republican era. First adopted around 450 B.C., the Twelve Tables detailed laws regarding property, religion and divorce and listed punishments for everything from theft to black magic. Even more influential than the Twelve Tables was the Corpus Juris Civilis, an ambitious attempt to synthesize Rome’s history of law into one document. Established by the Byzantine emperor Justinian between 529 and 535 A.D., the Corpus Juris included modern legal concepts such as the notion that the accused is innocent until proven guilty. After the fall of the Roman empire, it became the basis for many of the world’s legal systems. Along with English common law and sharia law, Roman law remains hugely influential and is still reflected in the civil laws of several European nations as well as the U.S. state of Louisiana.传票,人身保护权益,义务法律,词,所有这些条款都出自罗马的法律制度,几个世纪以来,该制度在西方法律和政府管理中都占有重要的统治地位。最初的古罗马法律起源于《十二铜表法》,该法则为共和党时期制定的宪法中的一个重要部分。《十二铜表法》于公元前450年首次通过,详述了财产、宗教和离婚方面的相关条例,并列出了从盗窃到巫术等所有罪行的刑罚措施。然而,同《十二铜表法》相比,《罗马民法大全》更具影响力,这是一部雄心勃勃试图融合整个罗马史法律的百科全书。民法大全由拜占庭国王查士丁尼(公元529-535)起草,涵盖了很多近代法律原理,比如“除非被告被明有罪,否则就无罪释放”这样的概念。罗马帝国灭亡之后,其成为世界众多法律体系的基石。之后,英国普通法和伊斯兰教教法相继颁布,但古罗马法典仍发挥着其不容小觑的影响力,在一些欧洲国家以及美国路易斯安那州等地的民事法案上依然奏效。8.The Julian Calendar8.罗马儒略历(公历)The modern Gregorian calendar is modeled very closely on a Roman version that dates back more than 2,000 years. Early Roman calendars were likely cribbed from Greek models that operated around the lunar cycle. But because the Romans considered even numbers unlucky, they eventually altered their calendar to ensure that each month had an odd number of days. This practice continued until 46 B.C., when Julius Caesar and the astronomer Sosigenes instituted the Julian system to align the calendar with the solar year. Caesar lengthened the number of days in a year from 355 to the now-familiar 365 and eventually included the 12 months as we know them today. The Julian calendar was almost perfect, but it miscalculated the solar year by 11 minutes. These few minutes ultimately threw the calendar off by several days. This led to the adoption of the nearly identical Gregorian calendar in 1582, which fixed the discrepancy by altering the schedule of leap years.现代的公历与2000多年前的罗马儒略历极为相似。而罗马早期的日历又极有可能是抄袭自古希腊月亮运行周期的模型。由于罗马人认为偶数是极不吉利的,于是他们改写日历,使每个月都变为奇数天。这一做法在儒略历出现前一直被延用,直到公元前46年,罗马统帅尤利乌斯#8226;凯撒(Julius Caesar)与天文学家索西琴尼(Sosigenes)一起,创立了同阳历相符的儒略历。凯撒将当时的一年355天改为现在我们所熟知的一年365天,并最终将一年划分为12个月。儒略历几乎可以说是完美的日历了,但美中不足的是,我们实际一年的时长同365天相比存在11分钟的误差。于是人们最终采用了1582年设立的公历日历,该年历考虑到了由于闰年改变所存在的误差,使得日历更为精确。审校:省略珺 橘子 /201507/387458绵竹市做化妆造型多少钱玉溪市做纹绣多少钱




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