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2019年07月20日 05:46:50来源:飞中文

Fish ad鱼的招亲广告Today were looking at fish singles ads, lets see—single fish female seeks good father to help with eggs. Come on, dont be serious. Fish dont place ad in a paper, plus I thought a common assumption in biology is that reproductive behavior conflicts with parenting behavior, since more energy animals spent on parenting, the less energy it has to spend on courting and mating. So wouldnt the female fish be more likely to fall for a good wooer.今天我们来看看鱼的招亲广告——单身雌鱼在寻找能帮助产卵的优良雄鱼。你不是说真的吧?鱼不可能登广告,而且生物学上有一个常见的假设——繁殖与育儿行为相冲突。由于在育儿方面花了更多精力,在求爱和交配上剩的精力就少了。所以雌鱼难道不会选择一个更好的求爱者吗?Actually I hope. Scientists documented what is known as parental courtship behavior in the lab. Thats when an animal shows off its parenting skills to attract a mate. Really? Yep. University of Florida Researchers studied the sand goby, a small fish native to the European coast that is among the twenty percent of fish species that exhibit parenting behavior.我希望如此。科学家记录下了实验室内所谓的亲代求偶行为。这时动物展示它们的育儿技巧来求偶。佛罗里达大学的研究人员对沙鰕虎鱼,一种生于欧洲海岸的小鱼进行了研究。有20%的鱼类表现出育儿行为,沙鰕虎鱼属其中之一。Sand gobies nest under sea shells, and the males not only defend the nests, but also hollow them out. Then, once the eggs are laid, they use their pectoral fins to fan them, creating a current of oxygenated water that helps the eggs mature.沙鰕虎鱼在海螺壳下筑巢。雄性沙鰕虎鱼不仅要护巢,还要让它空无一物。产下卵后,它们会用胸鳍扇风,制造一股充满氧气的水,助卵成熟。Ok, but dont they also nibble on their eggs? They do indeed. But heres the interesting thing. The scientists observed that when there were female sand gobies around, the males spent less time nibbling and more time fanning their eggs and working on their nests. Show off. This was especially true for sand gobies with larger nests, maybe because bigger nests provide room for additional mating. And do the female sand gobies fall for these fatherly types? Thats the next question researchers trying to answer.但它们也要吃自己的宝宝吗?的确是。但有一个非常有趣的现象。科学家观察发现,当附近有雌沙鰕虎鱼时,雄沙鰕虎鱼花更少时间咬它们,而花更多时间给宝宝扇风,或者筑巢。这是卖弄。这种现象对有较大巢穴的雄沙鰕虎鱼而言更是如此,也许是因为巢越大,交配的空间越大。那么雌沙鰕虎鱼会为这种充满父爱型的动心吗?这是研究人员接下来要探索的问题了。 /201208/193980。

  • Shell calls the wells relatively simple,but will drill them as though they are the most complicated prospect in thecompany has ever done. Why? Deepwater Horizon and the disaster in the Gulf of Mexico.尽管壳牌(Shell)认为井本身并不复杂,但仍会像公司迄今为止最为复杂的远景地区那样进行钻探。为什么?因为深海地平线,因为曾经的墨西哥湾灾难。Wed have been tone deaf if we had thoughtthat it could be - would have been business as usual after the DeepwaterHorizon.如果我们认为在深海地平线之后可能——或者说可能已经一切正常,我们会表现的充耳不闻。Could this happen again like Shells Arcticwells, the disastrous Macondo well was exploratory, but Shell, unlike BP, hasno plans to bring up oil this summer. It will need a much bigger platform to dothat.这种事情可能再发生一次吗?壳牌勘探的北极井会否像灾难性的马康多油井(Macondo well)一样呢?但是,壳牌,与英国石油公司(BP)不同,今年夏天并没有出油的计划。这需要一个更大的平台。Shells wells will be capped and abandoned.The biggest difference, depth. Shell will be drilling in less than 200 feet ofwater in up to 8,000 feet below the seabed. Deepwater Horizon drilled through5,000 feet of water than more than 13,000 feet below the sea floor. Thepressure differences, enormous.壳牌公司的油井将会被封堵并被放弃。最大的区别在于,深度。壳牌的钻井水深不超过200英尺而海床以下最大深度不超过8000英尺。而深海地平线的钻井水深为5000英尺且海床以下超过13000英尺。压力差异是巨大的。The pressures are roughly about a third ofwhat youd see in a typical deepwater well.就如你所看到的,压力大约是标准深海油井的三分之一。Like all wells, Shell will use blowoutpreventers. Unlike BPs Shells blowout preventers will lie beneath the seabed,so a rig can disconnect more safely in case of emergency.与所有的油井一样,壳牌将会使用防喷器。与英国石油公司(BP)不同,壳牌的防喷器将置于海床之下,这样,在紧急情况下,钻机可以更安全地断开连接。As a part of what happened in the postDeepwater Horizon world, all these blowout preventers were actually broughtback to what we call original equipment manufacturer standards.作为出现在之前的深海地平线事件中的部分,实际上,所有带回的这些防喷器实际上就是我们所说的原始设备制造商的标准。In case of a blowout, Shell will have onhand a capping stack, thats what brought an end to the Gulf disaster.万一发生井喷,壳牌可以就近封堵叠加,这样就可以结束海湾灾难。Here we go. 下面我们看这里。For drivers like Erinn Shmaeff, who has amountain of bills and a three-year-old to raise, she think there should be roomfor exploration, but none of the risks of another Deepwater Horizon.对开车的人来说,例如ErinnShmaeff,她有大堆的账单要付,还有一个三岁的孩子要抚养,她认为石油勘探是必要的,但是不得有再次发生深海地平线事故的风险。I would want to know like where it wouldbe, Id want to know how damaging it would be to the environment if it wouldhave an impact on the local wildlife.我想知道它(油井)会在哪儿,如果它会对当地野生生物造成冲击,它又会对环境造成怎样的破坏。Regulators insist the risk in the Arctic is acceptable. With no easy oil left to find, itis only hard choices from here on out.监管机构坚持在北极的作业的风险是可以接受的。现在,已经没什么易于开发的油田,因此,这只是一个艰难的选择。Miguel Marquez, CNN, Anchorage, Alaska.美国有线新闻网(CNN)记者Miguel Marquez于阿拉斯加州安克雷奇报道。201210/202759。
  • Business.商业。Aviation.航空业。Ghost at the feast.盛宴上的幽灵。Airlines stand to lose heavily should the euro collapse.一旦欧元崩溃,航空公司必遭致重大损失。MEETINGS of airline bosses are rarely cheerful events, profits being tighter than leg room in economy. But this years annual gathering of the International Air Transport Association (IATA) should have been different. For a start, the airlines umbrella group picked the most promising market to host the pow-wow, which was held in Beijing. Not only is air travel booming within and from China, but the countrys airlines also made half of all global profits last year.通常在利润空间比经济舱的放脚空间还要拮据时,航空公司老板们才会碰头——这鲜有好事 。但今年的国际航空运输协会(IATA)年会本应不同于以往。首先,航空业这一伞状组织选择了最具潜力的市场——北京,来举办这次年会。中国蓬勃发展的空中旅行带动了世界航空业的振兴,并且中国航空公司利润占到世界航空公司利润的一半。But as IATA delegates assembled for their gala dinner on June 11th at the Great Hall of the People in Tiananmen Square, there was a ghost at the feast. The topic on most peoples minds was not the dozens of airports to be opened this decade in China, nor the quarter of a trillion dollars the host country is spending to become an aviation and aerospace superpower. On the contrary, all eyes were focused on the spectre of financial chaos in Europe.6月11日在天安门人民大会堂举办的晚宴上,除了汇聚一堂的国际航协代表们,还有一个令人扫兴的幽灵。人们最为关心的话题并不是这个十年里中国将投入运营的几十个新机场,也不是中国为了将自身建设成航空航天超级大国而投入的2500亿美元资金。相反,欧元区金融混乱这个幽灵成为所有人关注的焦点。The euro zones troubles have aly pushed many European carriers into the red. IATA predicts that there is a ;serious risk; of bankruptcies. Indeed, Malev and Spainair, two fair-sized European airlines, have aly gone bust. Several big airline groups, notably Air France-KLM, are trying to make deep cuts. The global industrys after-tax profits are forecast to fall from .9 billion in 2011 to billion this year; that is just 0.5% of revenue (see chart). And if the euro collapses? ;It would be worse than 9/11,; says Willie Walsh, the boss of I, which owns British Airways and Iberia.欧元区的问题已经使许多欧洲航空公司陷入亏损。国际航协预测(这些公司)存在;极高的;破产的风险,事实上,已经有两家规模不小的航空公司——匈牙利航空和西班牙航空面临破产。数个大型航空集团,尤其是法航荷航集团正在努力大幅削减开。据预测,全球航空产业税后利润额从2011年的79亿美元降至今年的30亿美元,净利润率仅为0.5%。那么,如果欧元崩溃又会怎样?;那将会比911时还要糟糕;国际航空集团(I,控股British Airways and Iberia)总裁Willie Walsh回答道。Things feel all the worse because 2012 might otherwise have been a good year. Oil prices have moderated of late. Global passenger traffic has risen by 6%, faster than the long-term trend. Freight contracted in 2011, but is reviving in many markets (though not Asia). Asset utilisation is 79%, up from 74% in . Planes are relatively full, especially in America.让事情感觉更糟的是——2012本来应该是更为美好的一年。最近国际油价已经回落。全球客运量上涨6%,增速快于长期水平。尽管2011年航空货运市场萎缩,但是很多市场正在复苏(亚洲市场不在此列)。资产利用率从年的74%上升到79%。飞机空座率也相当低,尤其是在美国。That said, the industry faces three risks besides a European meltdown. First, an oil-supply shock-resulting from an Iranian crisis, say-would send fuel prices sharply up again and wipe out profits. Some airlines, including KLM, are investing in biofuels, but full commercialisation looks a decade away. Others use financial hedges, but these are pricey and can backfire if oil prices drop. Delta is even now finalising a deal to buy an oil refinery.这意味着,除了欧洲危机外航空业还面临着三大风险。第一,伊朗危机引发的石油供给紧张可能很快将油价再次推高,带走航空业利润。包括KLM在内的一些航空公司正在投资于生物燃料(的研发),但生物燃料的完全商业化看来要等到十年以后。其他公司则采用金融对冲工具,但这过于昂贵,如果油价下跌,结果还会适得其反。Delta甚至正在敲定一桩购买炼油厂的交易。The second risk arises from the flood of new planes due to be delivered shortly. Production snags at both Airbus and Boeing have kept capacity tighter than planned. If everyone uses their new planes to expand capacity, rather than to replace clunkers, there could be a lot of empty seats.第二大风险则源于短期内将有大批新飞机交付使用。由于存在生产障碍,空客和波音的客舱容量都低于原有计划。如果各航空公司都利用新飞机增加载客量,而不是用以替换旧飞机,那将产生许多空座。The final threat pits ghost against host. The European Commissions inclusion of greenhouse gases from aviation in its emissions-trading scheme (ETS) is opposed by over 30 countries, of which China is the most defiant. If a compromise is not found, European countries must levy hefty fines on offenders and may seize aircraft-which could set off a trade war. On June 12th the China Air Transport Association, which represents Chinese carriers, said that China would retaliate with similar measures.最后一项威胁是:这个幽灵将与东道国——中国对抗。欧洲委员会针对航空业温室气体排放制定的排放交易计划(ETS)遭到到30多个国家的反对,其中来自中国的抗议最为强烈。如果不做出让步,欧洲国家将会对违反ETS的企业征收巨额罚款,并可能面临禁飞——这会引发贸易战。6月22日,代表中国航空公司的中国航空运输协会表示中国将会采取相应的报复手段。The Chinese government has forbidden its airlines from participating in the ETS. It has even threatened to cancel orders placed by its airlines with Airbus. No coincidence, then, that this weeks banquet was paid for by the European aircraftmaker. The Chinese appear unbowed.中国政府禁止中国航空公司参与欧盟排放交易体系,甚至以取消国内航空公司与空客签下的订单作为威胁。那么,本周的宴会是由欧洲飞机制造商买单也并非巧合——看来中国并不打算妥协。 /201209/199822。
  • I got a glimpse, really, of Michael Jordan and what he was all about the first time ever coached him. About two minutes to go in the game, I called a time-out. And we were down two it was right there in the balance. And I had some little powder on my mouth from where I chewed some gum and chewed it so hard that it really had become powder. And Michael grabbed a cup of water and he handed it to me, and he said, ;Take a drink of this water, clear that stuff off your mouth. Im not going to let you lose your first game.;我曾回首,真的,迈克尔;乔丹有史以来第一次展现了他的才华。大约两分钟的比赛,我叫了暂停。而我们只剩下2分。我嘴里嚼的口香糖因为用力已经成为了粉末。迈克尔抓起一杯水递给我,他说:;喝口水,漱漱嘴。我不会让你失去如此珍贵的第一场比赛。;The level of faith that I have in anything in life is taught to you from your parents. It is a trait that I would never trade anything for! And if I can ever pass anything on to my kids, it would be to be optimistic about everything in life.相信我这个水平的人在自己的人生中任何事情都是由你的父母教导。这是一种回忆,我不会拿任何东西交换!如果我能传授给孩子任何东西,也将是乐观的看待生活中的每一件事。He was only a freshman at the University of North Carolina, but with the 1982 NCAA Championship at stake, his teams fate was in his hands, and he never hesitated.他只是个北卡罗莱纳大学的新生,而在1982年 NCAA锦标赛中,他的球队的命运已经掌握在他的手中,而他却从未犹豫。Goes back to Michael Jordan, jumper from out on the left! The Tar Heels are going to win the national championship!回到迈克尔;乔丹,他在左边起跳了!他要赢得全国冠军!注:听力文本来源于普特201201/167851。
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