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来源:服务生活    发布时间:2019年12月05日 23:09:20    编辑:admin         

When Captain Flint Was Still A Good Man. By Nick Dybek.《那时,弗林特船长仍是个好人》尼克迪贝克著VAST, turbulent and mysterious, the sea is a gift to storytellers. It is a perilous passageway to new lands and a bountiful source of food, beauty and lore.大海,广袤、躁动而神秘的大海,是上天赐给讲故事人的礼物。它是通向新奇世界的惊险通道,是食物的源头,美丽的源头也是传说的源头。Life on the rough seas turns ordinary men into heroes, but also into scoundrels and martyrs. No wonder these sodden, salt-crusted figures populate some of the best fiction.生活在波涛汹涌的大海上可以既可以把普通人蜕变成英雄,也可将其变成恶棍或者烈士。难怪最好的小说中总不乏那些浑身湿透,透着盐味的角色。Nick Dybek has turned to such enduring tropes for his debut novel, “When Captain Flint Was Still A Good Man”.尼克迪贝克在自己的处女作小说《那时,弗林特船长仍是个好人》中选用了这一经久不衰的主题。His story is set on Loyalty Island, a thin peninsula off the coast of Washington state, full of “the stink of herring, nickel paint, and kelp rotting on moorings and beaches”.他的故事设定在忠诚岛上,这是一座华盛顿州海岸线外的一座半岛。岛上“充斥着鲱鱼、镍漆的味道和挺锚处和海岸边飘来的腐烂的海藻的臭味。”In this remote fishing village, manhood means spending half of every year on a boat near Alaska, winching up crab pots from the freezing depths of the Bering Sea.在这座遥远的渔村,男子气概意昧着每年花超过半年的时间驾船游弋在阿拉斯加附近,从冰冷的白令海深处,用绞盘绞起虾笼。The women stay behind, the boys hope to join their fathers and the men return home.女人留在家中,孩子们则希望与父亲一起出海。If they are lucky, as shaggy, greasy strangers, telling stories that ;were grey, drenched in icy slime. They made you gasp but not smile, and the men who told them smiled—if at all—only at the gasps.;如果幸运的话,大人们便可安全返家,像蓬头垢面满身油污的陌生人一样,讲述“灰色的,被冰冷泥浆浸湿的”故事,“这些故事让人屏息凝神,但并不能使人发笑,讲述人如果想笑的话,也只会在喘息间微笑。”The book begins with the village on the edge of a crisis that occurred when the narrator was a boy.故事开始于这座渔村处于危机边缘的时刻,那时讲述者还是个孩子。John Gaunt, the owner of the fishing fleet, is on his death bed. He is the third generation of Gaunts to steer the fate and fortunes of Loyalty Island, and he has apparently left everything to his son Richard.渔船队老板约翰刚特躺在床上与世长辞。约翰刚特是掌控者忠诚岛命运和财富的刚特家族的第三代,他的死把所有一切身后事都交给了儿子理查德。But the proud locals loathe Richard. They know that he is no fisherman, but an urban and effeminate man, not yet 30, who left town to go to university and rarely comes back.但自豪的当地人讨厌理查德。他们认为理查德算不上渔民,是个娘娘腔的的城里人。理查德当时30岁,很早就离开小镇去上大学,很少回来。Just as the boats are primed for another season, Richard seems y to sell to the Japanese. The people of Loyalty want only what they aly have, and they are prepared to guard it fiercely.正当所有船只未下一个渔季蓄势待发时,理查德似乎想将船只卖给日本人。忠诚岛上居民只想保持现有的生活方式不变,因此他们准备坚定地捍卫这一切。This story is recalled from a distance by Cal. Older and living anonymously in Chicago, Cal was 14 when Loyalty Island faced this uncertain future—an age when he could still lionise his father and the other fishermen, but also be a keen observer.故事是通过远离渔村的一个名叫卡尔的人的回忆展开的。现在的卡尔衣步入老年。默默无闻地居住在芝加哥市,但在忠诚岛遭遇不确定未来的危机时,卡尔年仅14岁,在这个年龄,他仍崇拜自己的父亲和其他渔民,同时又是一个敏锐的观察者。;I was still young enough to believe that the important questions had been answered somewhere,; he muses, a reminiscence with hard edges.他沉思道,“我当时太年轻,认为重要的问题都有”,这样的回忆棱角分明。As a child he sensed that something was not right between his parents, who lived ;like strangers on an aeroplane, squeezing politely past each other in tight spaces;.虽然是个孩子,他仍能感觉到父母的关系不很正常,他们就像“飞机上的乘客一样,在狭小的空间,客客气气地挤在一起”。But he adored them both—his gruff but gentle father (;hands as thick as strip steaks;) and his melancholic wisp of a mother, who was wooed to Loyalty but never fitted in.但他喜欢父母——父亲是个急性子不过温文尔雅,母亲略带一丝忧郁气质。父亲希望母亲能够爱上忠诚岛,但母亲从未融入到这里的生活。Instead she found nourishment in her substantial record collection (from Bruce Springsteens ;Nebraska; to John Coltranes ;bawling; sax), foreign films and John Gaunt, her only local friend.相反,她从大量的唱片、国外电影和与约翰刚特的交往中自得其乐,而约翰刚特是她在当地唯一的朋友。A seafaring life may be full of suffering, but it is also full of a macho romance that lends a larger sense of destiny to it all.虽然航海生活充满苦楚,但同样也能充满阳刚的传奇,增添了一种强烈的人生终极感。Mr Dybek considers several similarly timeworn themes, such as the spaces that grow between people, and especially the currents that set fathers and sons adrift.迪贝克精心布置了若干相似的陈旧话题,如人与人之间产生的距离感,尤其是将父子送往海洋的洋流。At times this book bears the stain of a debut: the circumstances too implausible; the kids too precocious; the similes too frequent and the album references too cool (a Facebook-y list).有时,这本书也会出现处女作的缺陷——如背景不真实,儿童太过早熟,比喻太频繁,参考书目太酷(一张脸谱列表)。But there is also wisdom here, and the momentum of a thrilling yarn, delivered as if by a scarred man by the consoling light of a fire.但书中自有智慧存,令人兴奋的故事就像是由一名疤面汉子坐在火堆旁向我们娓娓道来一样,火光让人安详。201205/181260。

梦可以预知未来?D: Lots of people have had dreams that seem to foretell the future. Some psychologists attribute this to ;retrieval cues;.许多人都做过一些好像可以预知未来的梦。心理学家把这种现象归因于“提取线索”。Y: Retrieval cues?提取线索?D: A retrieval cue is a coincidence in the real world that triggers a dream memory which otherwise would have gone unnoticed. For example, did you know you dreamed about a little dog before the real dog showed up?提取是一种巧合:现生活中的某个场景让你回忆起一个不被注意梦境。比如,你知道你梦到的那只小出现在真实的之前吗?Y: Oh, yes, I was thinking about it all morning.是的。我整个早上都在想这个梦。D: Really?真的吗?Y: Welll, I think so.我想是吧。D: Maybe, or maybe the real event triggered a recollection of a dream, which not seems like it must have been in your thoughts all along. By the way did you have any other dreams last night that didnt come true?也许吧,有或许是真实事件让你回忆起某个梦境,而这个梦境不一定一直都在你的脑海中。顺便问一下,你昨天晚上还做了其它没有实现的梦吗?Y: Hmm, I dont remember what other else I dreamed.嗯,其他做过的梦都不记得了。D: Why not? Some studies suggest we have literally hundreds of dreams each night.为什么不记得了呢?有研究称我们每天晚上要做数百个梦。Y: Ok, I get the point. Maybe this dreaming the future stuff is more like picking and choosing dreams when they happen to fit. 好,我知道了。也许梦见未来这种事更像是从成千上百个梦的中挑选一个碰巧合适情景的。D: Coincidences are bound to come up. And if the coincidence acts as retrieval cue, the sense that you predicted something can be pretty convincing… even if its just a dream.所以,巧合就发生了。如果巧合作为提取线索,你能预测未来就相当有说力,尽管那只是一个梦。 /201211/207010。

Many people at one time or another have experienced déjà vu. French for “aly seen,” déjà vu is a sudden strong feeling that a moment identical to the present one has occurred at some earlier time.许多人都曾经有过记忆幻觉的经历。déjà vu 一词是法语,意为“似曾相识的感觉”,表示人们突然间强烈感到现在发生的事在以前同样发生过。To a cognitive psychologist, déjà vu is proof of the immense amount of knowledge and experience we store in our brains. When we experience déjà vu, what actually happens is that, in a fraction of a second, we retrieve bits of many different memory fragments and piece them together, producing what seems to be a complete memory.对于一个认知心理学家来说,记忆幻觉是积累在我们大脑中的大量知识和经验的明。似曾相识的感觉来袭时,实际上发生的是,大脑在一瞬间搜索出许多不同的、零碎的记忆片段,然后将其拼凑在一起,伪造出一个看似完整的记忆。So, if you experience déjà vu in a mall restaurant while waiting for a pepperoni pizza with your best friend, your mind has taken perhaps hundreds of stored memories of various experiences, and put together fragments from those memories to give you the sensation of having been there before, even though you havent been there before at all.所以,如果你对在一家小餐馆里与最好的朋友等腊肠披萨的场景似曾相识的话,那么你的脑海里也许储存着数百个不同经历的记忆,然后大脑将这些记忆片段拼凑起来,让你感觉之前来过这里,即使你之前根本没有来过这里。Cognitive psychologists who study how we use language are not surprised at the brains ability to create déjà vu. Actually, language comprehension and déjà vu have many parallels. When you hear someone speak, you usually understand them even though youve probably never heard their words presented in exactly the same way.研究人类如何使用语言的认知科学家们对大脑的这种能力并不感到奇怪。实际上,语言的理解能力和记忆幻觉有许多相似之处。当你听到有人说话时,通常你能够听懂他们的话,即使你从未听过此种表达方式。You understand these sentences because your brain is able to remember the individual meanings of words, based on hundreds of past experiences with those words. Your brain takes the meanings of individual words and splices them together to comprehend their meaning as a whole. As with déjà vu, this entire process happens in a split second.你能明白这些句子是因为大脑能够根据之前数百次的经历,记起单词的意思。然后你的大脑译出每个单词的意思,并把它们拼接在一起,去理解整个句子的意思。对于记忆幻觉来讲,这整个过程都是在一瞬间发生的。原文译文属!201301/223182。

Volcanos and Water火山与水Firefighters use water to battle a towering inferno.You might wonder if water could also stifle an erupting volcano. Actually, this experiment happens every time a volcano erupts at the bottom of the ocean. What happens when a volcano erupts underwater? Well find it out on todays moment of science.消防员用水来扑灭熊熊燃烧的大火,你或许想知道水是否也可以用来扑灭喷发的火山。事实上,每次海底火山喷发就是对此进行的一个实验。当海底火山喷发时,都发生了什么呢?我们今天就跟随科学一刻栏目一起探个究竟吧。Most of the worlds volcanic action happens an average of eight thousand five hundred feet underwater. Deep beneath the waves there are an estimated one million volcanos. As with land volcanos, molten lava pushes up from beneath the sea floor at thousands of degrees Fahrenheit.世界上大多数的火山活动都发生在海平面以下平均8500英尺的地方。在海底大约有一百万座火山。至于地面上的火山,就是由华氏几千度的炽热的岩浆从海底向上冲出而成。Ocean water cant ;put out; the volcano the way firefighters put out a fire, but it does have a profound effect on what happens to the lava once its out of the ground. The biggest difference between undersea and land volcanos has nothing to do with waters wetness, but with its pressure.海水并不能像消防员灭火一样扑灭火山,但是当岩浆冲出地面时,它确实能起到不小的作用。扑灭海底火山和地面的火山最大的不同在于水的压力,与水的湿度并没有关系。At these depths, the water pressure can be two hundred and fifty times more powerful than air pressure at the Earths surface. This prevents bubbles from forming in the lava, eliminating the likelihood of an explosive eruption like some land eruptions are.在这样的深度,水压可以是地面上空气压力的250多倍。压力可以阻止岩浆中形成气泡,这也就消除了地面火山爆炸性喷发的可能性。Instead, lava squeezes out of the ground like toothpaste out of a tube, forming glassy rock formations that look like long, stacked pillows. The pressure is so high that steam never even forms where lava touches water. You could be in a boat over a giant, erupting volcano, and never even know it was there.相反,岩浆就像牙膏挤出管子那样挤出地面,形成一道道玻璃般的岩层,看起来就想是一条长长的堆叠的枕头。压力是如此巨大,以至于这些岩石接触到海水时连水蒸汽都还无法形成。因此,你或许就曾经驾船行驶在一个巨大的喷发的火山上而丝毫没有察觉。So,you cant put out a volcano with water. But on our next program, well find out what happened to a town that tried to do this anyway—and in a way succeeded!所以,用水不可能扑灭火山。但是在我们下一期的节目中我们将会告诉您一个镇子曾经试图这样做,而且从某种程度上来说,他们成功了! /201207/191298。

Science and Technolgy科技The evolution of co-operation合作关系的演变Make or break?建立还是终止?Social networking tames cheats社交网络驯欺骗者HOW people collaborate, in the face of numerous temptations to cheat, is an important field of psychological and economic research.在无数互相欺骗的诱惑中,人们如何建立合作关系?这是心理和经济学研究的一个很重要的领域。A lot of this research focuses on the ;tit-for-tat; theory of co-operation:关于这个领域的很多研究都集中在;以牙还牙;的合作理论:that humans are disposed, when dealing with another person, to behave in a generous manner until that other person shows himself not to be generous. At this point co-operation is withdrawn.那就是,一个人在处理和另外一个人的关系时,开始都会选择慷慨的态度,直到对方显露出不慷慨的迹象,这个时候也是合作关系终止的时候。Fool me once, in other words, shame on you. Fool me twice, shame on me.用另外一种话说,就是;欺我一回,罪过在你,欺我二回,罪过在我。;When he encounters such a withdrawal of collaboration, the theory goes, the malefactor will learn the error of his ways and become a more co-operative individual.当遭遇这样的一次合作终止,如理论所说,作为合作规则的破坏者,他会开始反省他处事的过错,并且开始变成更加乐于合作的个体。And there is experimental evidence, based on specially designed games, that tit-for-tat does work for pairs of people. Human societies, though, are more complex than mere dyads.在特殊设计的游戏基础上得出的实验据显示,;以牙还牙;理论在两个人的关系中确实奏效。And until recently, it has been difficult to model that complexity in the laboratory.然而人类社会关系远比两两之间更为复杂。But a paper published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences by Nicholas Christakis and his colleagues at Harvard has changed that.直到最近,这种复杂的关系还难以在实验室中模拟出来。但在这周,哈佛大学Nicholas Christakis和他的同事在;国家科学院院刊;上发表的论文改变了这个状况。Dr Christakis arranged for a collaboration-testing game to be played over the web, with many participants.Christakis士在网上安排了一场多人参与的实验测试游戏。As a result, he and his team have gained a more sophisticated insight into the way co-operation develops.经过这个实验,他和同事对人际合作发展方式有了更深的理解。Dr Christakis used what is known as a public-goods game for his experiment.Christakis士在这个实验中采用称为;公共利益;的游戏。At the beginning of such a game, points are doled out to each participant. During every round, players are given the opportunity to donate points to their neighbours.游戏之初,每个参与者分发到少量的分数。在接下来每一轮游戏中,参与者都有机会赠送分数给他的邻居。Points so donated are augmented by an equal number from the masters of the game.赠送者的分数能够在游戏管理者那里得到与之舍出分数相等量的增长。If everyone co-operates, then, everyone ends up richer. A ;defector; who refuses to donate to his co-operating neighbours will, however, benefit at the expense of those neighbours.如果参与者都合作的话,每个人最终分数都会比最开始的多。而拒绝赠送分数的;破坏者;却从他邻居们的损失中获益。At the games end, the points are converted into real money, to ensure that proper incentives are in place.为了保适当的奖励到位,游戏后这些分数可以变换成钱。To play his large-scale public-goods game, Dr Christakis recruited 785 volunteers via Mechanical Turk—a service provided by Amazon, an online retailer, that works by farming out small tasks to an army of individual workers.为了展开这个大型的;公共利益;游戏,Christakis士通过网上零售商亚马逊提供的土耳其机器人网络务招收了785名志愿者。这是个发包小任务给个体劳动队伍的务网络。Each volunteer was randomly assigned links to, on average, eight other players. Together, they played repeated rounds of one of three variations of the game.在这个网络上,每个志愿者大约和八个随机分配的参与者连接组队,并根据三种设定的游戏模式重复开展。In the first, participants always interacted with the same group of people.第一种模式,参与者总是和同一组人合作。In the second, the connections were randomly reshuffled after each round.第二种模式,每一轮游戏后合作者都随机重组。In the final version, one-third of the possible pairings between participants were chosen at random after each round (such pairs may or may not, therefore, have been dealing with each other in the previous round).最后一种,每一轮后,三分之一的组合将被选中并随机重组(因此这些重组的组合中可能有人在前面的游戏中已经合作过了。)。One player from each pair was first told or reminded of how the other had behaved in the previous round, and was then asked whether he wanted to break his connection with that player, if he aly had one, or form a new connection, if he had not.组合中一人会被告知或提醒他的合作对象在前面一轮游戏中的表现,他可以选择是否解除和这个人的合作,如果他已经有一个合作对象的话;如果他没有合作对象,他则可以选择是否建立新的合作联系。In all versions of the game, roughly 60% of players started out co-operating.在所有三种模式中,大约60%的参与者最开始都是遵守合作规则。However, in the first two, this decreased over time as the pernicious influence of the freeloaders sp.可是头两种模式中,随着吃白食恶劣影响的扩展,遵守的人数也跟着下降。The larger the fraction of a subjects partners who defected in a given round, the less likely that person was to co-operate in the next—classical tit-for-tat.一个参与者合作过的对象中破坏规则的人数比例越高,这个参与者在下一轮的游戏中越不可能遵守合作规则-典型的;以牙还牙;。However, this tit-for-tat retaliation was not enough to save co-operation, and after a dozen rounds only 10-20% of the players were still willing to co-operate.然后,这种;以牙还牙;的报复并不能拯救合作的持续,在十几轮游戏后,只有10-20%的参与者还愿意合作。In the variant where participants had some choice over whom they interacted with, though, the amount of co-operation stayed stable as the rounds progressed.然而在参与者可以选择合作对象的模式中,合作的人数随着游戏的进行保持稳定。When Dr Christakis and his team looked at how the relationships between players were evolving in this third version, they found that connections between two co-operators were much more likely to be maintained than links that involved a defector.Christakis士和他的团队观察第三种模式中参与者的关系如何演变时,他们发现没有碰到过破坏者的组合更容易保持合作。Over time, the co-operators accumulated more social connections than the defectors did.在游戏中,合作者比破坏者积累了更多的合作关系。Furthermore, as they were shunned, the defectors began to change their behaviour.而且,被拒绝后,破坏者也开始改变他们的行为。A defectors likelihood of switching to co-operation increased with the number of players who had broken links with him in the previous round.在前面一轮游戏中和他中止合作的人越多,他越有可能转向合作者。Unlike straightforward tit-for-tat, social retaliation was having a marked effect.不像简单的以牙还牙,社会报复有一个标记作用。The next question, then, is whether such a mechanism holds outside the laboratory.接下来的问题是,这样的一个机制在实验室外是否可行?To find out, Dr Christakis has forged links with some anthropologists.为了找出,Christakis士已经和一些人类学家取得联系。They hope to report the answer soon.他们希望能够很快得出结论。 /201210/205226。

Business商业The internet and file-sharing互联网及文件共享Dotcom bust网站大搜捕The arrest of Kim Dotcom has rocked the world of cyberlockersKim Dotcom被逮捕的遭遇使全球网络存储业务受到震动MOST people running a business that could end up on the wrong end of a lawsuit would keep a low profile.大多数人在经营与现有法律相抵触的业务时都保持低调,但是Kim Dotcom(上图左)却是个异类。Not Kim Dotcom (pictured). The boss of Megaupload, a popular website that let users store and share music, films and other content,他拥有的Megaupload是一家著名网站,为用户提供包括音乐、电影和其他内容在内的文件共享务。Mr Dotcom went out of his way to attract attention—and not just by changing his surname from Schmitz.Kim Dotcom用各种标新立异的行为吸引众人的目光-不仅仅是将自己的姓从Schmitz改成Dotcom(网站)。He surrounded himself with glamorous women and fast cars bearing number plates such as ;GUILTY;. He likened himself to Dr Evil, a movie villain, though he looks more like Dr Evils henchman, Fat Bastard.他的周围总有一群妙龄女郎,开着挂着;罪人;牌照的汽车飞驰而过。他将自己比作邪恶士(Dr Evil),电影王牌大贱谍中的大反派,尽管事实上他长得更像邪恶士的喽啰,混蛋胖子(Fat Bastard)。American investigators examining Megauploads business concluded that it was encouraging its users to share pirated content.美国调查人员对Megaupload经营的业务进行了调查,调查结论是它助长了用户对盗版内容的传播。They persuaded authorities in Britain, Hong Kong and other countries to seize the firms assets and to arrest its owners, including Mr Dotcom, who was nabbed by police in New Zealand on January 20th after being found with a shotgun in a ;safe room; at his mega-mansion.调查人员要求英国、香港和其他地区的政府当局扣押该公司资产并逮捕包括Mr Dotcom在内的所有股东。最终,Mr Dotcom于1月20日在其新西兰豪宅的一间;安全室;里被警方逮捕,被捕时还带着猎。The raid occurred just as Hollywood was howling after Congress gave up on a bill to crack down on piracy.这次突然行动发生前不久,好莱坞还在为国会搁置一项打击盗版的法案而大声抱怨。The closure of Megaupload—which insists it has done nothing wrong—has triggered a swift response from other file-sharing sites, or ;cyberlockers;.尽管不承认犯有任何错误,Megaupload还是被关闭了,这在其他文件共享网站(或者说;网络储存箱;)迅速引发强烈反响。Some, such as FileSonic and FileServe, stopped users from sharing material with one another.其中,FileSonic和FileServe已经停止用户间文件共享。Others, such as Uploaded.to, blocked users in America from accessing their services.另而像Uploaded.to的一些网站停止为美国用户提供务。And others, such as X7.to, shut down altogether.另外一些网站,比如X7.to,则完全关闭了网站。Their critics say this shows that cyberlockers realise illegal file-sharing will no longer be tolerated. Correspondence cited in an indictment of the Megaupload site in America suggests that the firm knew of the problems with illegal content.网络共享务的批评者说,这些反应显示了网络存储业务的提供者们已经意识到,为非法文件提供共享务将不再被容忍。;Were not pirates,; writes the author of one e-mail cited in it.对Megaupload的诉状援引了一封电子邮件,暗示公司其实知道其涉及非法内容。;Were just providing shipping services to pirates.;;我们不是海盗,;电子邮件的作者写道。;我们只是为海盗们提供运输务。;The legal assault on Megaupload will probably cause at least some traffic to migrate to cyberlockers in Russia and other countries where property rights are weak.对Megaupload进行的法律诉讼将很可能导致一些文件共享务提供商将业务转移到像俄罗斯这样对知识产权保护较弱的国家。Determined pirates could also make more use of ;torrent; sites such as The Pirate Bay, which allow peer-to-peer transfers.顽固的海盗们也可能更多使用;种子;网站,比如为用户提供P2P传输的The Pirate Bay。The technology underlying such sites could make them even trickier to deal with than cyberlockers.这些网站采用的技术方式使其比网络存储网站更难对付。 /201211/210040。

In todays Tech Bytes, the worlds largest cellphone maker is said to release its first laptop in the US. Nokia starts taking orders on the booklet 3G beginning October 22th. It will run Microsofts new Windows 7 software, have a ten-inch screen and a GPS navigation chip and a 12-hour battery life. The computer will be sold at Best Buy stores and online. It costs 300 dollars with a 2-year broadband contract from ATamp;T or 600 dollars without that contract.欢迎收看今天的Tech Bytes,世界最大手机制造商宣布将在美国发售自己的首款上网本。诺基亚的这款上网本名叫boodlet 3G,将于10月22日发售。这款上网本运行win7系统,拥有10英寸高清显示屏,GPS导航芯片和12小时待机时间电池。该产品将在网上商城Best Buy销售。售价300美元,并附带为期两年的ATamp;T网络套餐,没有套餐的售价600美元。There is a new version of the popular pocket-size flip camera. The premium version of the MinoHD can record 2 hours of , double the previous model. It also has a larger screen and a port that lets users plug into an HDTV. The flip software now uploads movies directly to the Facebook in addition to Youtube and Myspace and it has a movie magic mode that automatically arranges clips into a movie. The camera costs 230 dollars.世界最小高清摄像机又出新款。这款高级版的MInoHDTV可录像长达2小时,是前一代产品的两倍。此外,它的屏幕更大,并且有高清电视接口。这款产品可以直接上传视频到脸谱网,优酷,我的空间,并且拥有视频编辑功能,能自动将拍摄视频转换成微电影。这款摄像机售价230美元。Well, it appears digital cameras cant kill the Polaroid after all. The instant film is making a comeback about 18 months after Polaroid said it would stop producing it. The companys new owners say that new cameras and film will go on sale some time next year. The film would say thanks in large part to a group of fans, entrepreneurs and former Polariod employees whove been working since last year to design new film for the instant camera.很明显,数码相机不能取代拍立得。生产这种即显胶片的生产商宣布将停止生产18个月。这家公司的刚刚易主,新主人表示新的照相机和胶片将于明年再进行发售。新出售的胶片将在很大程度上答谢广大粉丝,公司经营者,和相关工作人员,他们从去年就开始为立得拍相机设计新式胶卷。Finally, the fan is getting a high-tech makeover. The British inventor of the Bagless Vacuum has come up with a bladeless fan. The Dyson Air Multiplier works by drawing air into its base and enforcing the air out through that ring. Inventor James Dyson says it creates a smooth uninterrupted flow of cooling air unlike a traditional fan with blades that chop the air. But this kind of comfort does not come cheap, a 10-inch model costs 300 dollars.最后一则消息,风扇使用者的福音来了。英国一名研究真空的科学家发明了一种无刀片的风扇。这种戴森空气倍增器通过压缩空气进入风扇底部并使空气从圆环部分排出。发明者James Dyson表示这种风扇不像传统风扇搅乱空气流动,而是提供持续不间断的凉爽。但这种凉爽并不便宜,一款1-寸的风扇 售价300美元。For information of all these stories, log on the technology pages at the abcnews.com. Those are your Tech Byte, Im Jerremy Harberd.关注以上新闻的更多信息,请登录abcnews.com的科技板块。这就是今天的Tech Byte,我是Jerremy Harverd。MinoHD 世界上最小的高清摄像机premium version 改良版polaroid camera 波拉一步照相机;即显胶片照相机注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201208/193676。

Technology Collective behavior Follow my leader科技 集体行为 跟领导走A groups “intelligence” depends in part on its membersignorance群体“智慧”部分依赖于群体成员的“愚昧”HUMAN beings like to think of themselves asthe animal kingdoms smartest alecks.人们总是喜欢将自己看作动物王国中最聪明的。It may come as a surprise to some,therefore, that Iain Couzin of Princeton University believes they havesomething to learn from lesser creatures that move about in a large crowd.然而,令一些人感到惊讶的是,普林斯顿大学的Iain Couzin相信人们能从更低等的、大群活动的动物中学到东西。As he told the AAAS meeting in Washington, DC, groups of animals often make whatlook like wise decisions,正如他在华盛顿AAAS(American Association forthe Advancement of Science,美国科学促进会)召开的会议上所说的,虽然群居动物中的大部分成员对接下来会发生什么一无所知,even when most of the members of those groups areignorant of what is going on.但整个群体却常常做出看起来更明智的决定。Coming to that conclusion was not easy. Beforelessons can be drawn from critters perched on the lower rungs of theevolutionary ladder, their behaviour must first be understood.得出这个结论并不容易。因为必须首先理解这些动物的行为,人们才能借鉴,而由于这些动物处于进化阶梯的较低位置,(人们并不容易理解)。One way to dothis is to tag them with devices that follow them around—motion-capturesensors, radio transmitters or global-positioning-system detectors that can puta precise figure on their movements.要做的这点,首先要用设备为他们打上标签以便跟踪——采用运动传感器、无线电发射装置和全球定位系统的探测器能精确描述它们活动。Unfortunately, it is impossible to tag morethan a few individuals in a herd, flock or swarm.不幸的是,能被标定的个体只是兽群、鸟群或蜂群中的少数。Researchers have thereforetended to extrapolate from these few results by using various computer models.研究者们因此将这些少量数据采用各种电脑模型进行推演。Dr Couzin has done quite a bit of this himself.Couzin士已经完成了一部分工作。Most recently, he has modelledthe behaviour of shoals of fish.最近,他建立了鱼群行为模型。He posited that how they swim will depend oneach individuals competing tendencies to stick close to the others (and thusmove in the same direction as them) while not actually getting too close to anyparticular other fish.他推测鱼群游动的方式有赖于鱼类个体倾向于截住对方,而又不真的靠近对方的竞争方式(因此它们总是同向游动)。It turns out that by fiddling with these tendencies, avirtual shoal can be made to swirl spontaneously in a circle, just like somereal species do.基于这些倾向就归纳出模型,这些模拟的鱼群可以自行转圈巡游,就像真的一样。That is a start. But real shoals do not existto swim in circles.那只是一个开始。不过真实的鱼群并不只是转圈游动。Their purpose is to help their members eat and avoid beingeaten.他们的目的是帮助成员觅食,同时防止被猎食。At any one time, however, only some individuals know about—and can thusreact to—food and threats.然而,无论什么时候,只有一些个体能对食物和威胁做出反应。Dr Couzin therefore wanted to find out how suchtemporary leaders influence the behaviour of the rest.因此,Couzin士想找出这些临时领导如何影响其余个体行为。He discovered that leadership is extremelyefficient.Couzin士发现这种领导方式及其有效。The larger a shoal is, the smaller is the proportion of it thatneeds to know what is actually going on for it to feed and avoid predationeffectively.鱼群越大,需要知道接下来做什么才能有效觅食和避免危险的“领导”比例就越小。Indeed, having too many leaders with conflicting opinions resultsin confusion.的确,领导越多,矛盾观点造成的混乱就越多。At least, that is true in the model. He is now testing it inreality.至少,模型上是这样。他现在正在真实环境下测试模型。Tracking individual fish in a shoal is hard.跟踪记录鱼群中的个体很困难。Fortunately, advances in pattern-recognition software mean it is no longerimpossible.幸运的是,模式识别软件的进步让这变成可能。Systems designed to follow people are now clever enough not only totrack a person in a crowd, but also to tell in which direction his head isturned.为跟踪人类设计的系统已经足够智能,不仅能跟踪人群中的某个人,而且能显示这个人的头转向何方。Since, from above, the oval shape of a human head is not unlike theoblong body of a fish, this software can, with a little tweaking, followpiscine antics, too.因此,尽管鱼类的身体是长条形,与这个软件可以识别的人类椭圆形头部不同,从原理上说,只要稍作修改使之适应鱼类外形即可。Robo fish机器鱼Dr Couzin has been using a program developedby Colin Twomey, a graduate student at his laboratory, to track individual fishin a tank.Couzin士一直在使用他实验室的研究生Colin Twomey开发的程序来记录水池中鱼类个体的行为。The result is not just a model of shoaling fish, but a precisenumerical representation of their actual movements and fields of vision.这个成果不仅是鱼群的模型,更是鱼群真实行动和视野的精确数值反应。That means it is possible to investigate whether real-life fishy leaders have thesame effect on a group as their virtual kin.这就意味着深入研究真实鱼群中的领导们与他们的“模拟亲戚”在鱼群中是否有同样影响变成可能。Alas, merely observing a shoal does not makeit clear which individuals lead and which follow.然而,仅仅只观察一个鱼群并不能清楚地区分哪个是领导,哪个是随从。Instead, Dr Couzin has builta biddable robot three-spined stickleback.作为替代,Couzin士制作了一条能发出命令的机器三棘刺鱼。A preliminary study of a shoal often flesh-and-blood sticklebacks shows that they do indeed mingle with therobot and that they follow its leadership cues as predicted.对一个有十条真实刺鱼鱼群的初步研究显示,他们确实接纳了那条机器鱼,并且接受它的领导指示。He is now making arobot predator to see how the shoal reacts to less benign intruders.他现在正在制作一个机器猎食者,用来观察鱼群对凶猛入侵者的反应。If the models are anything to go by, the bestoutcome for the group—in this case, not being eaten—seems to depend on mostmembers being blissfully unaware of the world outside the shoal and simplytaking their cue from others.如果模型一切正常,那么就可得出对群体来说最好的结果——不会被吃掉——这看起来有赖于大多数成员对鱼群外部世界毫无知觉,仅仅只是接受其他鱼指示的“傻鱼傻福”。This phenomenon, Dr Couzin argues, applies to allmanner of organisms, from individual cells in a tissue to (rather worryingly)voters in the democratic process.Couzin士指出,这个现象符合所有的组织行为,从组织中的个体单位到民主过程中的选民(似乎更令人头痛)。His team has aly begun probing thequestion of voting patterns.他的研究团队已经开始探索选举模式的问题。But is ignorance really political bliss?然而,愚昧真是政治之福吗?DrCouzins models do not yet capture what happens when the leaders themselvesturn out to be sharks.Couzin士的模型还没有涉及领导们自己变成“鲨鱼”会发生什么。 /201301/219159。