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2019年08月25日 05:13:42来源:安互动

When Julia Fowler was working as a fashion designer in Australia back in the early 2000s, she found herself frustrated by the lack of information available to help her understand and respond to the latest trends.2000年代初,当时还在澳大利亚从事时装设计工作的茱利亚o法勒发现了一个恼人的问题:手头上的信息源太少了,没法帮她及时了解和响应最新的流行趋势。“We had internal data on the performance of previous seasons’ products and access to inspirational trend sites,” she recalls, “but no way to understand opportunities we’d missed or concrete data on how we could improve our product assortment.”“我们掌握着前一季产品业绩的内部数据,也可以访问一些能够给人启发的时尚网站,但是没法知道我们错过了哪些机会,也没有具体数据告诉我们怎样才能改进我们的产品搭配。”她回忆道。With nowhere to turn, Fowler decided to take it upon herself to develop a solution to the problem. Her timing was just right: A methodology and series of technologies collectively called “big data” was beginning to swell in the technology industry.由于不知道向谁求助,法勒干脆决定自己开发一套解决方案。她挑选的时机再恰当不过。当时。一系列被合称为“大数据”的方法和技术刚刚开始席卷整个科技行业。Fowler has since swapped her title of designer for that of co-founder at Editd (pronounced “edited” and stylized in all caps), a company she launched five years ago with technical co-founder Geoff Watts, who now serves as the company’s CEO. Their mission: to help the world’s apparel retailers, brands, and suppliers deliver the right products at the right price and the right time.没过多久,法勒的头衔就变成了Editd公司联合创始人。另一名负责技术的联合创始人吉夫o瓦茨目前担任这家公司的CEO。他们的目标是帮助全球装零售商、品牌和供应商在正确的时间、以正确的价格交付正确的产品。“Every time you see a product on discount, it’s because the wrong decisions were made,” Fowler says. “This leads to a lot of wastage in the industry. I wanted to fix that problem.”法勒表示:“每次你看到一个产品打折,那都是由于错误的决策导致的。它导致这个行业出现了大量损耗,我希望解决这个问题。”Editd says it now has the biggest apparel data warehouse in the world. It offers that data up to customers along with real-time analytics and an assortment of other tools, powered by 120 servers and hundreds of terabytes of data. The London-based company, which has 27 employees and million in investment, counts Gap and Target among its customers. It’s also profitable, Watts says, though he declined to disclose the company’s revenues.Editd公司号称拥有目前全世界最大的装数据库。凭借120台务器和几百兆兆字节的数据,该公司不仅向客户提供各类装数据,还提供实时分析与各种其它工具。总部设在伦敦的Editd公司目前拥有27名员工和600万美元的资本,快时尚品牌Gap和塔吉特百货(Target)等大公司都是它的客户。瓦茨声称,Editd公司目前已经盈利,不过他拒绝透露该公司的具体收入。53 billion data points530亿个数据点Part of Editd’s secret sauce is the way it aggregates fashion trend and sales information from a wide variety of sources around the globe—from retail sites, social media, designer runway reports, and blogs covering trends—and then makes it accessible in real time. The company’s dataset includes no fewer than 53 billion data points on the fashion industry dating back more than four years. It covers more than 1,000 retailers around the globe and boasts 15 million high-resolution images. Its Social Monitor feature, an aggregated dashboard of social activity by fashion influencers and experts, includes more than 800,000 people.Editd的成功秘诀之一是,它汇总了来自全球各种来源的流行时尚数据和销售信息——从零售网站、社交媒体,到设计师的T台走秀报告,再到流行客——然后设法实时获取这些数据。该公司的数据库包含了至少530亿个来自时尚行业的数据点,有些信息可以追溯到四年前。它还涵盖了全球1000多个零售商,同时拥有1500多万张高清图片。它的“社交监控”功能监控着全球80多万名有影响力的时尚潮人和专家的社交活动。To keep its data ily accessible, Editd stores most of it in memory, not on disk. “That’s really important,” Watts explains. “We need to access all of that and query that in any possible way. It needs to be super-responsive.”为了随时读取这些数据,Editd公司把大部分数据储存在内存而不是硬盘里,对此瓦茨解释道:“这是非常重要的。我们需要以任何可能的方式读取和查询所有数据,它必须具有超强的响应力。”It also needs to be easy for a layperson to grasp. “People shouldn’t have to be data scientists to understand the insights,” Watts adds.另外,它必须足够简单易懂,让外行也能知道数据的意义。瓦茨表示:“用户不必非得是一名数据学家才能理解这些数据的含义。”With Editd’s service, apparel professionals in merchandising, buying, trading, and strategy can set up and tailor their own dashboards and monitor whatever they choose from virtually any device. The service spans menswear, womenswear, children’s apparel, accessories, and beauty. Because the output can be customized, a denim merchandiser at a premium retailer, for instance, would see a very different set of data than a women’s knitwear buyer at a mass-market chain store.借助于Editd提供的务,从事新品规划、采购、贸易和战略规划等工作的装业从业者几乎可以在任何设备上设置他们自己的“社交监控器”。Editd的务涵盖男装、女装、童装、配饰和美容等多个领域。由于输出端的信息是可以定制的,所以一家高端装店负责牛仔的业务员所看到的数据,与一家平价装连锁店的女款针织衫采购员所看到的数据是截然不同的。Editd issues daily and weekly retail reports to highlight new and discounted products in chosen market categories. Its analytics tools are intended to help industry professionals track the competition and refine their own product planning. A visual merchandising archive helps shape promotion strategies for upcoming seasons.Editd公司每天和每周分别都会发布反映特定市场类别的新品和打折商品情况的零售报告。它的分析工具则致力于帮助业内人士追踪竞争情况,改进自己的产品规划。Editd还有一个虚拟的销售规划档案工具,可以帮你制定下一季的促销战略。One of the biggest benefits of using Editd is that industry professionals no longer need to “comp shop,” short for competitive shopping, to research the competition. At one of Editd’s more data-driven customers, the entire buying and merchandising team used to stop work for one week every six to spend the time visiting competitors’ websites for information —how many types of skinny jeans are on offer, for example, and how they were priced.使用Editd的最大好处之一,就是业内人士们不必再去“竞争性购物”(即调查竞争对手)了。比如Editd公司就有一个非常重视数据的客户,该公司的整采购和销售团队每过六个星期就要专门抽出一周时间,到竞争对手的网站上搜集信息,比如他们有多少款紧身牛仔裤,每款定价多少钱等等。“They’d put together the reports in Excel, then the booklets were bound and distributed around the company,” Fowler says. “That was their playbook for the next six weeks.”法勒表示:“他们要把这些数据汇总到Excel表格里,然后做成小册子在公司里散发。这就是他们接下来六个星期里的‘销售兵法’。”Not only was the process time-consuming, but it was “fraught with danger,” Watts says. “So many errors creep into things.” In some cases, items might get double-counted. In others, different data collection methodologies might be used.瓦茨表示,这种方法不仅非常耗时,而且“充满了危险,很多错误都可能发生。”在一些情况下,有些项目可能被重复计算,还有些时候,一些不同的数据收集方法可能被混用。In a boundary-blurring business like fashion, categorizing products across retailers is another challenge. Pants, capris, or shorts—or something else entirely? “The way we analyze the kinds of products and the categories of products is very important,” Watts says. “We use computer vision and natural language processing to understand, for example, ‘This is a floral dress’ or ‘This is a cardigan.’ Unifying that and making it one consistent, clean data set is an incredibly important part of what we do.”在时尚业这样一个边界比较模糊的产业里,光是给产品分类就是一个不小的挑战。比如裤子就有长裤、七分裤、短裤等许多种类。瓦茨表示:“我们分析产品种类的方法也非常重要。我们使用了计算机视觉和自然语言处理程序给装分类,比如‘这是一件印花连衣裙’或‘这是一件羊毛开衫’等等。对于我们的工作来说,统一分类标准,生成一个干净、一致的数据库是一个极为重要的部分。”Today, an Editd user can simply run a query on cardigans, for example, and receive results in under a second, Fowler says. More than 50 million SKUs are tracked by the system, she adds.法勒表示,Editd的用户现在只需要输入“羊毛开衫”几个字进行查询,不到一秒钟便可以获取结果。她还补充道,Editd的系统可以追踪到5000多万个SKU(注:SKU即‘库存最小单位’。对于装业来说,某一款装的某一个颜色的某一个尺码,即是一个SKU。)One Editd customer, the British online retailer Asos, credits the company’s services for the 33% jump in sales it saw in the last quarter of 2013. The company gave 200 of its employees access to the Editd system with a particular focus on improving the pricing of its goods.Editd的用户之一英国在线零售商Asos声称,使用了Editd的务后,其2013年第四季度的销售额跃升了33%。这家公司尤其注重产品定价环节的改善,已经给予200多名员工进入Editd系统的权限。“What this technology and the changes to the industry are unlocking is the ability for customers to have exactly what they want and not necessarily what’s been decided for them,” Watts says. “It lets consumers be more fluid with their tastes and it lets the market be more efficient and more green.”瓦茨表示:“这项技术以及它给行业带来的变革,使客户能够获得他们真正想要的东西,而不是由别人决定给他们什么东西。它使客户可以更加动态地掌控他们的时尚格调,也使市场更加绿色。”A million products, 11 million SKUs100万个产品,1100万个SKUEditd isn’t the only fashion-focused company dipping its toes in the big-data waters. Vying for a share of the market is the British trend forecaster WGSN, which just last year launched its own first big-data offering, Instock.Editd并不是唯一一家试水大数据的时尚公司。英国时尚预测机构WGSN也想在这个市场上分一杯羹。WGSN去年刚刚推出了它的首个大数据务Instock。WGSN claims its dataset has more than a million products and 11 million SKUs each day from more than 10,000 global online brands and retailers. Instock, essentially a retail analytics service, is intended to complement its widely used trend-forecasting service by adhering to the same product-categorization taxonomy.WGSN称,它的数据库每天都从全球10000多个在线品牌和零售商那里搜集100多万个产品和1100多万个SKU数据。Instock本质上是一项零售分析务,它恪守着同一种产品分类方法,旨在补充该公司被广泛使用的时尚趋势预测务。“We link the taxonomy from the trend side in terms of how we categorize a specific shirt or dress or kimono and how we track it coming through and being presented in WGSN Instock,” explains Helen Slaven, global managing director for Instock. It’s a single, end-to-end taxonomy, in other words. By unifying the many ways in which different companies might interpret the same product line, industry professionals can make more effective decisions, she says.该公司负责Instock业务的全球常务董事海伦o斯拉文表示:“我们对一件T恤、一条裙子或一件和进行分类,并且将这种分类与它在WGSN Instock上的分类展示结合起来。”换句话说,它是一种统一的、端对端的分类方法。斯拉文指出,鉴于不同的公司对同一条产品线的命名可能存在差异,通过统一不同的命名口径,业内人士可以据此做出更有效的决策。More than 6,000 customers use WGSN’s trend service today. The newer Instock service counts almost 50 global clients in nine countries. This season, WGSN plans to complement its existing data on womenswear, footwear, and accessories with information on kids’ apparel and menswear. A new service called Analysis+ will offer custom cuts of the data and the option of additional analysis.目前已经有6000多个客户在使用WGSN的趋势务。最新推出的Instock务也已经在9个国家拥有了50名全球客户。除了女装、鞋类和配饰之外,WGSN还计划在本季继续补充童装和男装数据。另外,该公司还计划推出一项名叫Analysis+的务,用于向用户提供定制数据和附加分析功能。“It’s a really exciting time for big data and retail,” Slaven says. “By providing a lot more actionable insight, it’s completely changing the way retailers think about their process.”斯拉文表示:“对于大数据和零售业来说,现在真是个非常令人兴奋的时代。通过提供大量更加有可操作性的见解,大数据正在彻底改变零售商对业务流程的看法。”Watts, of Editd, agrees. “We help retailers have the right product at the right price and the right time,” he says. “That’s the kingmaking thing in retail. When you get that right, it unlocks a fortune.”Editd公司的瓦茨也认同这一点。“我们帮助零售商在正确的时间,以正确的价格,提供正确的产品。这在零售业可以说是惊天动地的事情。如果你做对了,它会为你带来一大笔财富。” /201409/332856。

  • This may be a statement of the obvious at Christmas, but our families can sometimes let us down. Evidence comes from a little-noticed survey published by the US Census Bureau in September.我们的家庭有时会让我们失望。美国人口普查局(US Census Bureau) 2013年9月发布的一项调查为这一观点提供了明,不过没引起多少关注。The findings are conveyed in a sad and simple graph. It reports a survey of “households experiencing hardship” in 2011 - and who helped them when times were tough. What counted as tough times? Having a phone disconnected, missing utility bill payments, falling into rent or mortgage arrears, or not seeing a doctor or dentist when needed.该项调查针对2011年“经历困境的家庭”,以及陷入困境时得到过谁的帮助,调查结果通过一幅简单而令人悲哀的图表呈现。那么怎样算是陷入困境呢?电话停机,漏缴公用事业账单,拖欠房租或房贷,或者生病了看不起医生或牙医。More than half of such households expected help from family members, as did almost half from friends. Rather fewer - about a fifth - hoped for help from a social agency, charity or church.一多半家庭期望得到家人的帮助,还有近一半则指望朋友帮助。只有很少一部分家庭(大约五分之一)希望得到社会机构、慈善团体或教堂的援助。The overwhelming majority were disappointed. It was rare for family members to provide help with rent arrears - about one time in six - and it was rarer still to receive financial help from other sources or for other purposes.结果绝大多数家庭的希望都落了空。家人极少帮忙付租金(大约六分之一),而从其他来源(或者为了其他目的)获得资金援助就更加罕见了。In short, hard-up Americans were confident of help in need from those close to them - and that confidence was misplaced. (If you#39;re looking for an explanation of the popularity of payday loans, this finding isn#39;t a bad start.)简言之,手头拮据的美国人相信能从亲友那儿得到帮助,但这种信任是没有根据的。(如果你想了解“发薪日贷款”为何如此流行,不妨从这份报告入手。)An optimistic ing of this research is that there are plenty of people whose families or friends did help them and thus never featured in the sample. Perhaps.这份研究当然也不乏乐观解读:也许有许多人得到了亲友的帮助,因此根本不在调查对象之列——或许吧。But as the economist Timothy Taylor comments, enough people experience disappointment to leave “lasting shadows”.但正如经济学家蒂莫西#8226;泰勒(Timothy Taylor)所言,生活中有太多人经历深切失望,这种失望给他们留下“持久的阴影”。This dispiriting stuff reminded me of Mark Granovetter#39;s work on “the strength of weak ties”, published in 1973. Granovetter, a sociologist, brought together two disparate strands of work: a survey of how people with professional or managerial jobs had found those jobs; and a theoretical analysis of the structure of social networks.这种令人沮丧的现实让我想起马克#8226;葛兰诺维特(Mark Granovetter)在1973年发表的《弱纽带的力量》(the strength of weak ties)。葛兰诺维特是社会学家,他将两项不相干的研究拉到一起:一个是关于人们怎样找到专业或管理工作的调查;另一个是对社会关系网结构的理论分析。Start with the theoretical observation first: the most irreplaceable social connections, paradoxically, are often rather weak or distant ones. A family group or clique of close friends all tend to know each other and know similar things at similar times. Their social ties are strong but also redundant, in the sense that there are many different paths through which information could pass from one member of that group to another.先谈理论观察:最不可取代的社会关系(听上去有点矛盾)往往是相当薄弱或者遥远的关系。家族或朋友圈成员倾向于在圈子内互相结交,他们在同一个时期知道的事情也大致相同。这种社会纽带虽强但也累赘,也就是说,信息在这些圈子内部的传播渠道非常多。By contrast, “weak ties” between one social cluster and another are valuable precisely because the social contact is unusual. Information passed along a weak tie will often be totally new - and if it doesn#39;t arrive through the weak tie, it is unlikely to arrive at all.与此形成反差的是,不同社会群体之间的“弱纽带”有价值,正是因为这样的社会联系不寻常。通过弱纽带传递的信息往往是全新的——换言之,如果不通过弱纽带,新信息可能压根传递不过来。Granovetter then supplemented this theoretical idea with his survey, showing that it was very common for people to find jobs - especially managerial jobs and jobs with which they were satisfied - through personal contacts. The old saw is true: it#39;s not what you know, it#39;s who you know. Or as Granovetter put it in his book Finding a Job, what matters most is “one#39;s position in a social network”.葛兰诺维特接着通过自己的调查对上述理论进行补充。调查显示,人们常常通过个人关系找到工作(尤其是管理工作,或者是称心如意的工作)。老话说得对:知道什么不重要,认识谁才重要。或套用葛兰诺维特在其著作《怎样找工作》(Finding a Job)中的说法,最重要的是“一个人在社会关系网中的位置”。But this is not because of crude nepotism: the key contacts who helped job-seekers find jobs were typically distant rather than close friends - old college contacts, perhaps, or former colleagues. Granovetter#39;s analysis made this finding make sense: it#39;s the more peripheral contacts who tell you things you don#39;t aly know.但这不同于裸的裙带关系:帮助求职者找到工作的关键联系人,一般关系并不密切,算不上老同学、前同事等密友。葛兰诺维特的分析为调查结果提供了合理的解释:比较的联系人才能提供你不知道的信息。More recent research - for instance, a “big data” analysis of millions of mobile phone records conducted by Jukka-Pekka Onnela, Albert-Laszlo Barabasi and others - has backed up Granovetter#39;s argument that the weaker ties are the vital ones.就拿最近一项研究为例,尤卡-佩卡#8226;翁内拉(Jukka-Pekka Onnela),奥尔贝特-拉斯洛#8226;鲍劳巴希(Albert-Laszlo Barabasi)等人分析了数以百万计的手机通话记录,用这些“大数据”对葛兰诺维特的观点提供了持,即弱纽带才是必不可少的。 /201401/273666。
  • Selfies have become ubiquitous over the past few years, with everyone from pop stars to the president of the ed States jumping on the bandwagon - but turns out the photo craze is at least a century old.近年来,“自拍”成了风靡全球的时尚。从流行歌手到美国总统,不一而足,都加入了这一潮流。但“自拍热”至少一个世纪前就已经有了。Writer and photographer Tom Byron has shared with the Internet community a handful of `selfies` taken by his great-grandfather dating back to 1909.作家兼摄影师汤姆·拜伦在网络社区上分享了几张自己曾祖父的“自拍照”。这些照片拍摄于1909年,已逾百岁。Unlike today`s compact smartphones and slender tablets, taking a selfie a hundred years ago was a complicated task that required the photographer to hold a large, boxy apparatus in front of him.不同于今天便携的智能手机和轻薄的平板电脑,百年前的“自拍”是一项繁琐的工程:你必须在面前举着一个大盒子一样的设备。The resulting images appeared disordered and out of proportion, similar to a reflection in a fun-house mirror.举着早期照相机拍出来的自拍照看起来有些不协调,与人的身体并不相称,有点类似哈哈镜的镜像。In the prints aged by time, Mr Byron Clayton, a bespectacled, moustached gentleman, is depicted smiling for the camera in his hand alongside his friends all dressed in impeccable suits and bowler hats.在这张标有时间的自拍照上,拜伦·克莱顿先生就是那位戴着眼镜、蓄着胡须的绅士。照片上的拜伦·克莱顿先生面带微笑地举着照相机,和他的朋友们一起,穿着得体的西装,戴着圆顶礼帽。Joseph Byron Clayton died in 1923, after which his son took over the Byron Company and continued to run it successfully until the middle of World War II, when business experienced a downturn and the company closed for good in October 1942.约瑟夫·拜伦·克莱顿先生于1923年离世,之后他的儿子继承了拜伦公司(摄影公司)并经营了下去。直到二次大战中期,公司面临萧条,于1942年10月永久关闭。Tom Byron, a married father of three, who earned several college degrees in economics, followed in his ancestors’ footsteps, working as a photographer until 2010, when he retired.汤姆·拜伦现在是三个孩子的父亲,他拿了好几个经济学文凭,但还是追随了自己祖辈的足迹。他一直是一名摄影师,直到2010年退休。 /201402/276503。
  • From nerdy TV shows like Big Bang Theory to ancient poetry, there are plenty of factors influencing whether Chinese tourists end up eating cheesecake in Pasadena or, say, admiring a willow tree in Cambridge. 从《生活大爆炸》(Big Bang Theory)这种傻乎乎的电视剧到优雅的古典诗词,影响中国游客去哪里度假的因素很多,这些因素最终决定他们是到帕萨迪纳吃芝士蛋糕还是去剑桥赏柳。So much for the whims of Chinese tourists. But just how happy are they when they finally arrive in their actual destinations of choice? 中国游客往往凭一时心血来潮决定去哪玩一圈,这暂且不论。不过到达目的地之后,他们的满意度怎样?A new report from a Chinese think-tank has some answers. According to the China Tourism Academy, among 22 destinations studied, the most satisfying destinations for tourists from the Middle Kingdom in this year#39;s first quarter were New Zealand, the U.S. and Canada. At the bottom were Cambodia, Indonesia and Vietnam. 中国旅游研究院(China Tourism Academy, 简称CTA)一份最新报告在一定程度上回答了这个问题。这家智库对22个旅游目的地做了调查,结果显示,在今年第一季度,中国游客最满意的三个国家是新西兰、美国和加拿大,垫底的是柬埔寨、印尼和越南。Rounding out the middle of the pack were countries such as France (No. 9), this year#39;s hot-spot destination of Japan (No. 12) and Russia (No. 15). (See list below for full rankings.) The think-tank is affiliated with the China National Tourism Administration, a government body. 排名居中的有法国(第九位)、今年比较火爆的日本(第12位)以及俄罗斯(第15位)(参见文章末尾的总排名)。CTA隶属于中国国家旅游局。The report found that Chinese tourists were most dissatisfied about the level of safety abroad, as well as poor Chinese-language services and the cost of travel. By contrast, overall atmosphere, transportation and urban management overseas got higher marks. 报告发现,中国游客对出境游最不满意的地方是安全问题、蹩脚的中文务和旅游成本。而在整体环境、交通和城市管理方面,出境游得分更高。Meanwhile, the number of outbound Chinese tourists has continued to climb. By CTA#39;s estimates, there were an estimated 26.4 million who went overseas in the first quarter of the year, an increase of 17% from the same period last year. Total spending by such tourists, CTA said, was likewise up at .4 billion, a rise of 16%. 与此同时,中国公民出境游人数正持续攀升。CTA估计,今年第一季度中国出境游客数量约为2,640万,同比增长17%,游客旅费出34亿美元,同比增长16%。Those numbers are expected to jump considerably: Brokerage CLSA estimates that by 2020, the number of mainland tourists headed overseas will hit 200 million per year, double the 100 million who went abroad last year. 预计这个数字还将大幅攀升。里昂券(CLSA)推测,到2020年,大陆游客境外游人数每年将达到2亿,去年为1亿。Given the levels of smog and crowds that await tourists across China, it#39;s perhaps no surprise that more Chinese tourists are choosing to pack their passports and holiday overseas. CTA said that the level of satisfaction among domestic tourists is the lowest it#39;s been since 2009, with their analysis citing air quality as one driving factor. 考虑到中国严重的雾霾和交通拥挤,不难理解越来越多的中国游客选择到海外享受假期。CTA称,目前国内游满意度是2009年以来最低的,空气质量是一个原因。Whether because of pollution or some other reason, foreign tourists have also been voting with their feet: The number of inbound visitors fell by 3%, down to 31 million, the agency said. CTA称,可能是担心污染或其他什么原因,海外游客也用脚投了票:中国接待入境游客人数减少3%,至3,100万。Top-Ranked Destinations For Chinese Outbound Tourists: 中国出境游目的地排名:1. New Zealand2. The ed States3. Canada4. Australia5. Singapore6. Italy7. Thailand8. The ed Kingdom9. France10. South Korea11. Germany12. Japan13. Spain14. Philippines15. Russia16. Malaysia17. Brazil18. South Africa19. Cambodia20. Indonesia21. Vietnam 1. 新西兰2. 美国3. 加拿大4. 澳大利亚5. 新加坡6. 意大利7. 泰国8. 英国9. 法国10. 韩国11. 德国12. 日本13. 西班牙14. 菲律宾15. 俄罗斯16. 马来西亚17. 巴西18. 南非19. 柬埔寨20. 印度尼西亚21. 越南 /201404/289089。
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