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2019年08月22日 18:12:20 | 作者:百姓报 | 来源:新华社
Liao Dynasty辽朝Social Economy社会经济The Liao went through different stages of economic development.辽朝经历了不同阶段的经济发展。In its early years, it mainly depended on outward expansion, slavery and thievery, so its development remained slow and disrupted.辽初期,国家主要依赖于向外扩张、奴隶、掠夺,因此它的发展缓慢而不连续。It was not until the reign of Emperor Shengzong when the Liao managed to institute feudal reform, its economy attained some distinct progress.一直到神宗时期进行封建改革后,辽的经济取得了明显的进步。The Liao rulers also adopted a differential economic management system, similar to its political one.辽朝的统治者还采取了一套特别的与其政治体系相似的经济管理体系。This system promoted the economic development throughout the whole northern area.这个体系加强了整个北部地区的经济发展。The Liao economy was based on horse and sheep raising and agriculture.辽朝的经济养马、养羊以及农业为基础。Fishing also played an important complementary role.渔业同样扮演着一个重要的补充者的角色。Those engaged in agriculture were mostly the Han people who lived in the southern area and the Bohai people who lived in the eastern area.从事农业的大多是南部的汉人和东部的渤海人。The nomadic zone consisted of various northern grassland nationalities and the fishing-hunting zone covered the Khitan area between the Xar Moron and Tuhe rivers, and the Jurchen people#39;s area in the northeast.游牧地区由不同的几个草原民族构成,打渔-打猎的地区涵盖了位于希拉木伦河和图河之间的契丹以及东北部的女真。The integration of the three economic zones into a political system sped up communication between differ?ent nationalities and promoted a higher level economic development.三个经济区域的融合加快了不同民族之间的交流并使经济发展到了一个更高的层次。The southern economy, which had been feudal for a long time, dominated the whole economy.南部地区的封建经济已经持续多年,这种经济占据了整个经济的主导地位。Besides, the supply of salt was controlled by government monopoly and provided an important source of revenue.除此之外,盐的经营权由政府垄断,是国家收入的重要来源。Iron smelting was also an important industrial contribution to the wealth of the dynasty.炼铁术也是让这个朝代富足的重要工业贡献。 /201511/406482The nation#39;s leading mobile-based car-hailing services provider Didi Kuaidi on Monday announced a special offer for its new ride-sharing services along with plans to get into the car-selling business. Experts said it has always been key to Didi#39;s strategy to broaden its product line, and the latest moves clearly show this.全国领先的手机打车应用软件提供商滴滴快的在星期一宣布将进入汽车行业,并将为新的乘车共享务提供优惠。专家分析称,滴滴的策略目标在于扩大它的产品线,而最新的这个举措就能够明这一点。According to a statement on Didi#39;s Sina Weibo account on Monday, if a customer requests a shared ride but doesn#39;t get one, he can take a taxi alone with a 50 percent discount on the fare. If he does find a shared ride, he gets a 50 percent discount on the fare for that ride as well as another discount of up to 10 yuan (.6).根据滴滴官方微周一发布的内容,如果消费者拼车失败,他可以以50%的折扣打车。如果他拼车成功,他同样可以半价乘车,此外还将获得十块钱(1.6美元)的补贴。The ride-sharing service of Didi Express began a test run on November 4 and was officially launched on December 1, said a statement Didi sent to the Global Times on Monday. Didi Express is one of Didi#39;s car-hailing apps.根据滴滴在星期一发表的声明显示,滴滴快车(滴滴旗下的叫车软件)的拼车务在十一月四号试运行,十二月一日正式投入运营。According to the statement, the Didi Express ride-sharing service is available in 14 domestic cities, including Beijing, Guangzhou in South China#39;s Guangdong Province and Chengdu in Southwest China#39;s Sichuan Province.滴滴快车的拼车务在14个城市运行,其中包括北京,以及中国南部广东省省会广州和西南部的四川省。The statement also said that this service has been well received by the market. During the test period, which ran from November 4 to 23, about 6.5 million orders were completed in six cities.声明还表示这项务已经被市场容纳。在11月4日至11月23日这段试运营期间,六个城市总共完成了六百五十万订单。However, most customers the Global Times contacted said they have concerns about the service.然而,《环球时报》采访到的多数消费者都对这项务表示了担忧。Tian Kai, a Beijing resident, told the Global Times on Monday that he would consider using the service only if the people sharing the car ;don#39;t smoke; and ;aren#39;t drunk or smelly.;北京市民田凯周一接受采访时表示,只有当拼车的人“不吸烟”,“没有喝醉身上也没有烟味”时他才会同意拼车。Lin Deren, another Beijing resident, also told the Global Times on Monday that he wouldn#39;t use the service because of safety reasons.另一北京市民林德仁也表示,出于安全考虑,他不会使用这项务。;Besides, the service is cheap but not that cheap,; he noted.“另外,这项务虽然便宜但也没有那么廉价。”他强调此点。Didi also announced on Monday that it would start tapping the market for vehicle purchases. According to another statement Didi sent to the Global Times, it would sell 100 Mercedes-Benz vehicles and 100 FAW Toyota cars on its test drive app Didi Shijia on Saturday.滴滴周一还宣布其已经瞄准开发购车行业。根据滴滴向《环球时报》提供的另一份声明,在周六它将在试运营中的滴滴试驾软件上售出100辆奔驰和100辆一汽丰田。Zhang said that test drives are a form of pre-sale service. Since Didi Shijia has built up a large customer base, it#39;s natural to monetize that resource by extending its service range to car sales.张旭称试驾是另一种形式的预售。由于滴滴试驾有很大的顾客群,因此它会很自然地利用这些资源开拓务,涉足汽车销售行业。On Monday, US car-hailing service provider Uber also announced that it would launch an ;electric vehicle day; the same day in 13 domestic cities, and passengers who choose to use their electric vehicles will get a range of discounts, according to a statement Uber sent to the Global Times on Monday.周一,美国叫车软件Uber也宣布了它将在国内13座城市同时发起“电子汽车日”。Uber向给《环球时报》发声明称,在当天选择使用电子汽车的顾客将会得到一定程度的折扣。Zhang said, however, that move wouldn#39;t pose a big challenge to Didi. ;Uber has a good reputation in China because of its corporate culture and marketing strategies, but I would say Didi#39;s businesses are both wide and deep in China,; he noted. ;It won#39;t be surpassed by Uber, at least in the near future.;然而张旭则表示这并不会给滴滴带来很大挑战。“Uber在中国有很好的声誉,因为它倡导合作,有优秀的市场营销策略,但是我认为滴滴在中国有广泛而深刻的市场。”他补充道。“滴滴不会被Uber压制,至少近些年不会。” /201512/415075Sometimes keeping up with your social media channels can feel more stressful than fun - and according to an experimental study conducted by The Happiness Research Institute, ditching Facebook in particular can result in a happier life. 有些时候,紧跟你的社交媒体渠道是一种压力而不是乐趣。根据一项快乐研究机构的实验研究发现,抛弃脸书(社交媒体)可以让生活更快乐。To determine whether using Facebook has any affect on one#39;s ;subjective well-being,; 1,095 participants in Denmark were randomly assigned to either quit Facebook entirely for one week or to continue as usual. Ninety-four percent of this sample visit the site on a daily basis, and 86 percent go through their news feed ;often; or ;very often.; The participants evaluated their lives prior to the experiment and were asked to again a week later.为了确定使用脸书是否对一个人“主观的幸福”有任何影响,1095个丹麦的参与者被随机安排成两组,一组在一星期内完全抛弃脸书,一组继续像平时一样使用。94%的样本每天登录这个网站,86%的人“经常”或“频繁”地访问他们的新闻来源。参与者在实验开始前评价自己的生活,并被要求在一星期之后再评价一次。Based on the results, the group that gave up Facebook for one week reported being significantly more satisfied with their life on a scale of one to 10 in comparison to the group that continued with their regular Facebook use. Both groups were also asked about their moods on the last day - those who#39;d taken a break claimed to be happier and more enthusiastic and less worried, sad, angry, and depressed than the other group.结论表明,放弃脸书一星期的群体对生活的满意度明显超出了继续使用脸书的人,高出了1到10的比例。两组人都被询问了他们昨天的心情如何,那些放弃社交媒体的人声称要比另一群人更快乐,更热情,不那么担忧,悲伤,生气和忧伤了。Quitting Facebook allowed the participants more time for social activity offline, which led to an increase in satisfaction with their social life. In addition, research showed that Facebook users are 55 percent more prone to feeling stressed. The study suggested that FOMO brings users down as seeing success and amazing experiences shared online can cause distress and ;Facebook envy.; ;Instead of focusing on what we actually need, we have an unfortunate tendency to focus on what other people have.;放弃社交媒体(脸书)让参与者有了更多线下社交活动的时间,这让他们提高了对社交生活的满意度。另外,调查表明脸书的使用者有55%的可能感到有压力。研究认为,错失恐惧症让使用者忧郁是因为看到网上成功且令人惊奇的经历会导致压力和“脸书嫉妒”。“我们有一种不幸的趋向,更容易关注别人有什么,而不是我们实际需要的。”Although the conducted study has its limitations, it may be worth a try to test this out on your own. Give up Facebook for one week to see if you notice a happier you!尽管这个实验有它的局限性,但你也值得亲自试验一下。放弃脸书一个星期,看能否发现一个更快乐的自己!译文属原创,,不得转载。 /201511/412792

Xiongnu, a powerful nomadic people living on the Mongolian plateau, often harassed the south at the end of the Warring States Period.奴人分布在蒙古高原上,战国末年以来,常向南方侵犯。In 215 B. C. , the First Emperor had Meng Tian lead 300 000 soldiers to fend off these nomads, and finally recovered the south area of Hetao plain.公元前215 年,秦始皇派蒙恬率军30万抗击匈奴,收复河套以南地区。Then, Meng Tian crossed the Yellow River northward, repaired and augmented the old walls left by Qin, Zhao and Yan according to the terrain, and eventually linked these defense works together to form the Great Wall extending from Lintao ( modern Minxian County, Gansu Province) in the west to the Liaodong Peninsula in the east to protect the Northern agricultural areas.蒙恬又北渡黄河,利用地势,修缮、增补旧秦、赵、燕长城,并将其连接起来,筑成西起临洮(今甘肃岷县)、东迄辽东的万里长城,用来保护北方农业区域。Tens of thousands of families were migrated to Hetao subsequently, which played a positive role in land reclamation and frontier defence.接着,秦又徙民几万家于河套。这对于边地的开垦和边防的加强起到了积极作用。Besides the building of public projects, the emperor ordered a string of palaces built. For the construction of the Epang Palace alone, 700 000 peasants were conscripted ,while the building of his mausoleum took over 30 years to complete.秦始皇下令建造了许多宫殿,仅阿旁宫一处就征用了70万人,而始皇陵的建造更是花了30年的时间才完成。In order to continue his reign after his death, he also ordered the construction of the Terra-Cotta Army in the east of his mausoleum.为了能在死后继续统治,秦始皇还下令在其陵墓以东修建兵马俑。All of these activities required enormous levies of manpower and resources, not to mention repressive measures.秦始皇的这一列系举措不但征用了大量的人力、物力,还以各种强制手段作为保障。Endless labor, heavy taxation and harsh laws in the later years of the First Emperor’s reign started to provoke widesp social discontent.频繁的徭役,沉重的赋税,加之残酷的刑罚令民众大为不满。 /201511/410879

“Sving til venstre.” Jurgen issued instructions in his pleasingly Nordic voice, firm but encouraging. From behind the wheel, David nodded his head, and turned the car to the left. We were only a mile outside Edinburgh, but thanks to David, my Norwegian-American boyfriend, and Jurgen, the Norwegian speaker on David’s GPS, I aly felt deep into Viking territory.“Sving til venstre.”(挪威语“左转”——译注)于尔根(Jurgen)用他悦耳的北欧嗓音发出一句指示。握着方向盘的戴维点了点头,将车向左转。我们离开爱丁堡才一英里,但因为有戴维——我的挪威裔美国男友,还有于尔根——戴维的GPS里那个说挪威语的男人,我感觉自己已经深入到维京腹地。Scotland is perhaps not the most obvious place to look for traces of Nordic culture. But in the months leading up to the nation’s vote on independence from England last September, there was talk of it everywhere. Although it had been six centuries since any part of Scotland was in Norse hands, many nationalists were suggesting that Viking heritage formed part of the separate identity that lay behind an independence bid, which, although it failed at the polls, has grown stronger since the referendum.一般人大概不会想来到苏格兰寻找北欧文化的痕迹。但在去年9月独立公投前的几个月里,举国上下都在谈论这个话题。斯堪的纳维亚人占领苏格兰的历史,最近的也要追溯到六个世纪前,然而许多民族主义者提出,维京文化的血脉是苏格兰身份认同的一部分,进而成为独立的依据,公投以失败告终,但这种认同在公投后却变得越来越强烈。And it wasn’t all historic either: The Scottish Nationalist Party assured voters that Scotland’s similarities to its Scandinavian neighbors — its small size, its environmental awareness and its Norwegian-style oil reserves — would guarantee prosperity. And perhaps even justify membership in the Nordic Council, an intergovernmental body that fosters political, economic and cultural cooperation among the five Nordic nations and three autonomous regions.历史并非唯一因素:苏格兰民族党(Scottish National Party)还希望选民们放心,苏格兰和斯堪的纳维亚邻国的相似之处——较小的规模,环保意识以及挪威式的石油储备——足以保障它的繁荣。甚至有资格进入北欧理事会(Nordic Council),这个跨政府组织的职责是促进五个北欧国家和三个自治领的政治、经济和文化合作。As a recent transplant to Denmark, I was still trying to figure out Scandinavian identity myself, so this claim intrigued me. What did it take, besides a penchant for bicycles, brooding television series and salted licorice, to become Nordic? To find out, David and I would start in the capital, then drive as far into Scotland’s formerly Viking lands as we could.作为一个丹麦新移民,我还在努力寻找自己的斯堪的纳维亚认同,因此这样的主张对我很是吸引。要想成为北欧人,除了热爱自行车、郁郁寡欢的电视剧和咸甘草糖,还需要做什么?为了寻找,戴维和我将从首府开始,驱车一直深入当年维京人的土地,走得越远越好。We began at the National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh. The first Viking invasions into the British Isles were recorded in the late eighth century; monks’ chronicles make frequent, terrified references to northerly marauders who raped and pillaged their way through the Highlands. But at the museum, the image of those rampaging Norsemen was changing: Not only were they not all raiding, bloodthirsty warriors, but they also weren’t even all men. Tools, jewelry and a reconstructed burial site on display all testified to the gentler side of Viking life, and proved that the Norse (male and female) set down roots in Scotland, engaging in agriculture, trade and family life. “Relations with local people,” the optimistic text on one case, “weren’t always hostile.”我们的起点是在爱丁堡的苏格兰国立物馆(National Museum of Scotland)。据史料记载,维京人最早入侵不列颠群岛是在八世纪末;心惊胆战的修士们时常在编年史中提起这些北方强盗,他们一路奸淫掳掠,杀向苏格兰高地。然而在物馆里,北欧人的残暴形象正在发生改变:他们并非全都是嗜血尚武的匪徒,甚至不全是男人。馆中展出的工具、珠宝和一座重建的墓葬都在明,维京生活也有祥和的一面,还表明斯堪的纳维亚(的男人和女人)曾在苏格兰扎根,开展农耕、贸易和家庭生活。“和当地人的关系并非总是敌对的,”在某个陈列柜上可以看到这样充满正能量的文字。On that day last August, they were rather the opposite. Near a barbershop full of men whose lumberjack beards marked them as either Scandinavian or Brooklynite, we found Timberyard. With its rough wooden floors and jars of fermenting vegetables on display, the restaurant would have fit as easily onto a lonely, windswept expanse of the Stockholm peninsula as it did in the Scottish capital. The food, too, was identifiably Nordic, from the chewy sourdough served with house-made butter and lovage salt that started the meal, to the foraged woodruff tea that ended it. In between came delicate dishes strewn with local herbs and flowers: nearly raw scallops shaved thin and adorned with wild garlic petals; mackerel grilled so that the char cut through the fish’s oiliness, served with yogurt and juicy nasturtium leaves.而在8月底的那一天,我看到的根本是敌对的反面。一间理发店里满是蓄着伐木工大胡子的男人,这说明他们要么来自斯堪的纳维亚,要么是布鲁克林人士。在理发店的附近,我们找到了林场餐厅(Timberyard)。粗犷的木地板,一罐罐正在发酵的蔬菜,让人很容易把这里想象成风声鹤唳、满目寂寥的斯德哥尔半岛,而不是苏格兰首府。至于菜式,从餐前嚼劲十足的酸面包配自制黄油和欧当归盐,到餐后的野生车叶草茶,都是明显的北欧风味。中间是洒满当地花草调味料的精致菜肴:几乎全生的扇贝薄片,装点着野葱花瓣;鲭鱼的表面炙烤成焦黑,瓦解了鱼肉的肥腻,再佐以酸奶和多汁的旱金莲叶。“It’s hard not to be influenced by it,” Ben Radford, the chef, said of the northerly elements in what he calls his “modern Scottish” cuisine. “Culturally, we’re very similar. And we’re working with the same ingredients, letting them shine through, so that each flavor is apparent, crisp and clean.”“很难不被影响,”本·拉德福德(Ben Radford)大厨这样评价本餐厅的北方元素,他称之为“现代苏格兰”菜。“文化上我们很相近。我们用一样的食材,让它们发挥自己的本色,这样一来,每一道调味都是鲜明、清脆、干净的。”In Glasgow, two recent graduates take the affinity even further. Through their consulting firm Lateral North, Graham Hogg and Alex Hobday help towns in the upper reaches of Scotland develop their Nordic potential as transportation and green energy hubs. “We have the same climate, the same landscape, even the same dark sense of humor, so we can take the Nordic countries as a model for economic development,” Mr. Hogg said. “We’re trying to get people to think of Scotland not as the end of Europe, but as the gateway to the North.”在格拉斯哥,两个刚刚大学毕业的年轻人将这种文化亲缘又往前推进了一步。格雷恩·霍格(Graham Hogg)和阿历克斯·霍布戴(Alex Hobday)创办的咨询公司Lateral North正在帮助苏格兰北部地区的城镇开发自己的北欧潜能——成为一个运输和绿色能源枢纽。“我们有一样的气候,一样的地貌,连黑色幽默都一样,”霍格说。“我们希望大家不要把苏格兰当作欧洲的尽头,它应该是北欧的入口。”It was time to head toward that gate. There are a number of Viking-related spots in the Western Highlands. But Mr. Hogg had said we would find the most striking examples of Scandinavian-style Scotland in Orkney and Shetland, so we fired up the GPS and headed north. “Rett frem,” Jurgen said, directing us straight ahead with what I interpreted as approval.那么,该去门口瞧瞧了。在西高地有一些维京文化相关的去处。但是霍格说,要在苏格兰寻找最强烈的斯堪的纳维亚风,得去奥克尼(Orkeny)和设得兰(Shetland),于是我们打开GPS向北行进。“Rett frem,”于尔根指示我们向正前方行驶,在我看来这是在认可我们的决定。Several hours later, Norway appeared on the horizon. In truth, it wasn’t really Norway, just a series of Nordic-style houses — pointy, clean-lined and painted in bright, saturated colors that stood out against the churning North Sea — that wouldn’t have been out of place in Bergen. We had reached John O’Groats, the purportedly northernmost (there is some contention) point of mainland Scotland. It consists of little more than a few souvenir shops and a parking lot big enough for all those tour buses to turn around in.几个小时后,挪威出现在地平线上。事实上并不是挪威,只是一些北欧风格的房子——尖顶、线条清晰、粉刷了明亮、鲜艳的颜色,跟涌动着的北海形成巨大反差——这一派景色,放到卑尔根也没人会觉得有什么异样。我们抵达了约翰欧格罗兹村,号称苏格兰大陆最北端(尚存争议)。除了几爿纪念品商店和一片大小够旅游大巴掉个头的停车场,这里什么都没有。But Natural Retreats, a hotel development company, has made the place much more appealing by taking a Gothic-style inn and adding several Nordic-style wooden houses onto the side. Each building is called a toft, a Norse-derived word for farmhouse or homestead. The tofts are painted different colors and contain apartments, which comprise the accommodations. The rooms are spare and tasteful, with the streaming light and clean lines that are the hallmarks of Scandinavian design. “It’s quite straightforward,” said Adam Gough, Natural Retreats’ head of technical services, when asked about Nordic style. “There is a lot of history and strong links with Scandinavia.”然而,从事酒店开发的自然疗养(Natural Retreats)公司给这里增添了不少吸引力,他们建了一座哥特式旅馆,在旁边又加了几座北欧式木屋。这些小屋叫做toft,一个自北欧的“农舍”或“家宅”变化而来的词。所有toft都刷了不同的颜色,里面有提供食宿务的公寓。这些房间既宽敞又有品味,良好的采光和清晰的线条彰显着斯堪的纳维亚设计的特质。“很直截了当,”自然疗养公司技术务主管亚当·高夫(Adam Gough)这样评价北欧风格。“有很悠久的历史,跟斯堪的纳维亚有着紧密的联系。”But neither Scandi chic, nor the newer, kinder version of the Vikings had made it to the nearby town of Wick, which gets its name from the Old Norse word for bay. Asked why the hotel where she worked was called the Norseman, the receptionist admitted that she wasn’t sure. “Because they came here raping and rampaging through the hills?” she asked. “You know, doing Viking things.”然而,无论是斯堪的纳维亚流还是更新潮、柔和的维京风,都没有影响到附近的威克(Wick),这个地名取自古诺尔斯语“海湾”一词。在一个叫Norseman(北人)的酒店,我们问前台为什么叫这么个名字,她说她也不太清楚。“因为他们曾经到这些山里来奸淫掳掠?”她说。“就是维京人常干的那些事。”It wasn’t hard to see why she persisted in that image. Wick, which Robert Louis Stevenson once referred to as “the meanest of mean towns,” has little in the way of tourist attractions except for a ruined castle that was probably built in the 12th century, presumably by the Norse earl, Harald Maddadson. One of the oldest and best preserved in Scotland, the castle’s tower still reaches four stories up, and its defensive ditches and perilous cliffs keep it cut off from the mainland. It is a stirring place, desolate and imposing, and not at all hard to imagine as the kind of stronghold from which one might have set out marauding.不难看出为什么她会保持这种印象。在曾被罗伯特·路易斯·史蒂文森(Robert Louis Stevenson)称为“世上最破的破镇子”的威克,唯一值得游客驻足的是一座古堡废墟,可能是在12世纪由诺尔斯伯爵哈拉尔德·马达逊(Harald Maddadson)所建。这是苏格兰最古老、保存最完好的城堡之一,至今仍有四层楼高,防御壕沟和险峻的峭壁将城堡和大陆隔开。这是个让人心潮澎湃的地方,荒凉而威严,不难想象它作为劫掠者的据点的样子。Did people in this part of Scotland feel Viking? As we stood on the ferry to the Orkney Islands, watching mainland Britain disappear, we pondered the question. “What I can’t tell,” David said, “is whether they actually identify with their Nordic past, or if it’s just a marketing ploy.” We had our first answer of a sort after landing at St. Margaret’s Hope, a pretty, stone-clad town that was a welcoming entry to Orkney’s main island. Rebooting Jurgen after his stay in the ship’s hold, we drove to Highland Park distillery in the market town of Kirkwall, the Orcadian capital. The northernmost whiskey distillery in Britain (there would be many claims to the northernmost on this trip), Highland Park makes a line of high-end Scotch whiskies named after Vikings real and imagined: Eibar, Thor, Loki.生活在这一带的苏格兰人,会觉得自己是维京人吗?当我们站在前往奥克尼岛的渡轮上,望着渐渐消失的不列颠大陆,心里想着的就是这个问题。“我说不好的是,”戴维说,“他们究竟是真的对自己的北欧历史有认同,还是只是一个营销伎俩。”在圣玛格丽茨霍普登陆后,我们算是找到了第一个,作为奥克尼主岛的入口,这个满是石壁房屋的漂亮小镇十分招人喜欢。我们重新启动了刚从船上下来的于尔根,向集市城镇、奥克尼群岛首府柯克沃尔的“高原骑士”酒厂(Highland Park)进发。那是不列颠最北的威士忌酒厂(我们此行会经过很多号称“最北”的地方),出品顶级的苏格兰威士忌,皆以真实或虚构的维京人物为名:Eibar、Thor、Loki。 /201512/414127

Ming Dynasty明朝General概况The Ming Dynasty (1368—1644) followed the Yuan Dynasty and preceded the Qing Dynasty in China.明朝(1368——1644)上乘元朝下启清朝。The dynasty was founded by the Zhu family.这个朝代由朱家创立。Among the populace there were strong feelings against the rule of “the foreigners”,which finally led to a peasant revolt that pushed the Yuan dynasty back to the Mongolian steppes and established the Ming Dynasty in 1368.当时的民众心中对于“外国人”有很强的抵制情绪,这最终造成了农民起义,将元朝击退到蒙古大草原并于1368年建立了明朝。This dynasty started out as a time of renewed cultural blossom: arts, especially the porcelain industry, reached an unprecedented height;这个朝代以一个新的文化繁盛期开始,艺术,尤其是陶瓷工业额达到了前所未有的高度;Chinese merchants explored all of the Indian Ocean, reaching Africa with the voyages of Zheng He.中国商人跟随郑和的船队探索了整个印度洋,一直到达了非洲。A vast navy was built, including 4 masted ships displacing 1500 tons; there was a standing army of 1 million troops.明朝建立了一直庞大的海军,其中包括4艘排水量为1500吨的有桅船只;同时还拥有1000000人马的常备军。Over 100000 tons of iron per year were produced in North China.中国北方每年有超过100000吨的铁被生产出来。Many books were printed using movable type.许多书籍通过活字印刷术得以印刻。Some would argue that Early Ming China was the most advanced nation on Earth.有些人认为早期的明朝是地球上最发达的国度。 /201512/412241

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