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来源:当当报    发布时间:2019年10月23日 07:01:11    编辑:admin         

If you say how much it curves?如果你说有多弯曲呢?And what happens to matter or light in the presence of that curvature?而且曲率发生了什么或者存在的光吗?Calculate it, make the prediction.计算它,做出预测。If the prediction doesnt come true you dont go and say ;okay,如果预测不会成真,你不要说“好吧,let me see if I can tweak the theory.; Not in this case.让我看看我是否能调整理论。“不是这种情况。You can see on his pages the kind of labor that Curtis had to endure in order to make these measurements.你可以看到在他的页面下的那种劳动力,柯蒂斯为了这些测量不得不忍受。Its page after page after page of this.这是一页又一页的这个。Some page is crossed out.一些页面被删掉了。All you need is one experiment to show that any aspect the relativity would fail and he would have to go back to the drawing board completely.所有你需要的只是一个实验,明任何方面的相对论将会失败,而他将不得不再次重新返回起点。Curtis looks at the stars and sees nothing unusual.柯蒂斯看着星星们,没有任何异常。They all appear in their normal places which can only mean one thing:它们都出现在正常的地方而这仅仅意味着一件事:Einstein is wrong.爱因斯坦是错误的。But Campbell is unwilling to risk his reputation on improvised equipment.但坎贝尔是不愿意在简易设备上赌上自己的声誉。Nobody wants to reveal an answer until everything has been double checked.直到一切都被仔细复查后仍然没有人愿意透露一个。注:听力文本来源于普特201205/182739。

Hawaii has some of the most spectacular shield volcanoes that are very similar to volcanoes we see on Venus.夏威夷有着最令人叹为观止的火山,和我们在金星上看到的类似。The huge gently sloped volcanoes of Hawaii maybe impressive, On Venus there are at least 150 ranging from this size to ten times larger.夏威夷巨大的呈倾斜度的火山也许令人印象深刻,而在金星上至少有150倍大小。But the observed visitors may noticed that Venus is missing something.但是,观察者们可能注意到金星少了什么东西。The whole impact craters situation on Venus is really very puzzling.整个金星上的陨石坑情况真的很让人迷惑。With Magellan images we see really small number impact craters and such a small numbers about a thousand, because we know the radar which impact craters can actually date to surface too. 我们看到麦哲伦图像真的很小数量的陨石坑,因为我们知道雷达表面的陨石坑实际上已经追溯到表面。Some are between 300 million and 1 billion years old. 表面有些已经有3亿年间或者 10亿年的历史了。Some time in the recent geological past it seems the entire surface of Venus was remodeled.在最近一段时间似乎金星的地质过去曾经整个表面被改建过。注:听力文本来源于普特201203/175231。

Business Business under Japans new government Are nukes back?商业 日本新政府背后的交易 重启核电站?The nuclear industry may get a reprieve核工业可能被判缓刑ELECTION victory celebrations in Japan are usually sober affairs: no booze, the obligatory ;Banzai!;, and the endearing habit of holding aloft a fresh sea bream, which is a good-luck charm and a tasty ingredient for soup to ladle out to supporters.日本人庆祝大选胜利向来淡定:不必酒宴相庆, 只需大呼;万岁!;,这被视为好运的呼声,以及令人喜爱的习俗:奉上一条新鲜的海鲤,烹制出美味的海鲤汤,供持者们伏惟尚飨。Not so on the Tokyo Stock Exchange.东京券交易所也不例外。Jubilation at the landslide win of Shinzo Abes Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) on December 16th raised share prices to the rafters.12月16日自民党主席安倍晋三以压倒性的胜利赢得选举,股价以涨幅收盘。The markets were celebrating a slide in the yen, which may make ailing Japanese exporters such as Sharp, an electronics firm, more competitive.市场则以日元贬值来庆祝这场胜利,这样可以让病态的日本出口企业,如电子公司夏普,更具竞争力。Sotto voce, there was also joy that Japans ;nuclear village; appears to be back in business.嘘!这同样对日本 ;核村庄;回归经营状态是个喜讯。During earlier decades in power, LDP governments backed nuclear energy to the hilt, brushing aside worries about safety.自民党政府在早期几十年的执政期间,就曾置民众对完全问题的担心于不顾,不遗余力地持核能。In the two days after the election the shares of Tokyo Electric (TEPCO), the owner of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi nuclear power plant, surged by 56%.大选过后的两天时间里,拥有福岛第一核电站的东京电力(TEPCO),其股价飙涨了56%。Investors bet that the new government would allow Japans reactors, almost all of which have been idle since being struck by an earthquake in 2011, to restart.投资者们打赌说新政府会重启因受2011年地震打击而闲置的日本核反应堆。That may be wishful thinking.这恐怕有些痴心妄想了。Mr Abe may want to steer clear of the sensitive nuclear issue until upper-house elections in mid-2013.在2013年中期举行上议院选举之前,安倍首相可能不愿谈及原子能这样的敏感话题。If so, a time frame agreed with TEPCOs 77 banks for restarting the first of its seven Kashiwazaki-Kariwa reactors in Niigata prefecture may be missed.若真是这样,与东京电力77家达成的关于重启位于新泻县七个柏崎刈羽核反应堆中一个的时间期限可能错过。TEPCO says each stalled reactor costs it 100 billion yen (.2 billion) in lost profit each year.东京电力公司表示,每一个停顿反应堆造成每年损失100亿日元(约合12亿美元)利润。Furthermore, the nuclear industry now has an independent watchdog, the Nuclear Regulation Authority, which is showing teeth.此外,核工业现在已经有独立的监管部门,呲牙相向的原子能规制委员会。Its investigators have so far issued seismic warnings against two nuclear power plants, which may lead to their permanent mothballing.迄今为止,其调查人员已经对两个核电站发布了地震预警,这可能导致这两个核电站永久封存。By law, even an LDP government should be unable to boss the watchdog around.根据法律,即使自民党政府亦无权指挥监管部门围着政府转。Yet a share-price rally may still be warranted.然而股价反弹可能仍然言之过早。TEPCOs share price is barely a tenth of what it was before the disaster.东京电力的股价只不过是灾难前的十分之一。That reflects a genuine fear that the company may go bust.这也反映出对该公司可能破产确实存在担忧。Surely, investors mutter, the LDP remains chummy enough with Japans nuclear utilities not to let any of them collapse into bankruptcy?确实,投资者们揣度的是,自民党与日本原子能事业亲密无间的关系就不会放任他们中的任何一家公司倒闭吗? /201212/216884。

How Full Is That Glass?杯有多满?How does the shape of a glass affect how much you drink? A scientist set out to examine just this, and the results are rather astounding.水杯的形状是怎样影响喝水量的呢?一位科学家打算调查一下,调查结果相当令人惊讶。Whatever the age of the subjects, they consistently poured more juice into short, wide tumbler-type glasses than into tall, slender glasses. But they perceived the opposite that they were pouring more into tall, slender glasses.不管被试者年龄如何,他们都一致地往宽的平底型杯里倒的橘汁比往高细杯里倒的多。但是他们自己所感知的却刚好相反。他们认为往高细杯里倒的更多。Psychologist Jean Piaget claimed that children overestimate the volume of vertical dimensions, but that as their brains mature, they develop the capacity to more accurately compare vertical and horizontal dimensions.心理学家珍·皮亚杰声称孩子们会高估垂直方向的容器容量,但是当他们大脑成熟时他们就会具备准确区分垂直向和水平向容量的能力。The results of this study do support Piagets idea to a certain extent in that the differential between the amount of juice adults poured into the two different glasses was less than the difference in what teenagers poured.该研究结果在某种程度上持了皮亚杰的观点——成人倒往不同杯子里相差的橘汁少于青少年倒往不同杯子里相差的橘汁。While adults poured about twenty percent more liquid into short, wide glasses, teenagers poured a whopping seventy-five percent more into short, wide glasses. Adults do seem to be better at comparing the volumes of different shapes, but they still overemphasize the volume of vertical shapes.成人往矮宽杯里多倒20%的橘汁时青少年却要多倒高达70%的橘汁。成人看起来确实更善于区分不同形状容器的容积,但他们仍然会高估垂直容器的容量。Even experienced bartenders, though to a lesser degree than the rest of us, still pour a little bit more into short, wide tumbler glasses than into taller, more slender glasses.即使是经验丰富的调酒师,虽然比我们普通人强,但倒往宽的平底型杯里的酒也比倒往高细杯里的多。Who cares? If what youre pouring is medicine or if youre watching your weight, you might care. The teenagers in this study were at a camp where they were learning about portion control and dieting in order that they might lose weight. And yep the kids with the short, wide juice glasses were consuming significantly more calories than they realized.谁在乎呢?如果你倒的是药或你很在意你的体重,也许你会在乎。参加此次研究的青少年是在一个营地上,在那里他们学会了节食减肥。而且拿着矮宽橘汁杯的孩子消耗的热量比他们意识到的多。 /201211/210116。

Obituary;Fred Halliday;讣告;弗瑞德·韩礼德;Fred Halliday, demystifier of the Middle East, died on April 26th, aged 64中东的解密者——弗瑞德·韩礼德,4月26日逝世,享年64岁A crush of 500 listeners waited apprehensively as, ill and moving slowly, Fred Halliday came up to speak about Iran. The occasion, in February , was the 30th anniversary of Ayatollah Khomeinis takeover. The place was the London School of Economics, where for 24 years Mr Halliday was professor of international politics, concentrating on the Middle East.当病中的弗瑞德·韩礼德慢慢地走上讲台作关于伊朗的演讲时,等待中挤作一团的500名听众都有些担心。这是年二月的一天,阿亚图拉·霍梅尼掌权30周年的纪念日。地点是在伦敦经济学院——过去的24年里,韩礼德先生在这里任国际政治系的教授,他的研究专注于中东问题。Yet for close on 90 minutes he held his audience spellbound. He told them that social conflict, not religious fervour, had provoked the Iranian revolution; that conflict persisted, and the regime was not likely to crack. He spoke with learning, humour and passion. At the end, his audience rose to applaud as for a piano virtuoso.在近九十分钟的演讲里,听众们听得如痴如醉。他讲到,激起伊朗革命的,是社会冲突,而不是宗教狂热;这样的冲突仍在持续,而政权不像要垮台。他的演讲充满了学识、幽默和。演讲结束时,观众们像对待钢琴大师般齐身站起,为他鼓掌。As an interpreter of the Middle East, Mr Hallidays talents overflowed. He spoke Arabic and Persian, as well as French, German, Spanish and Russian. He knew the history and cultures of the countries he wrote about. More than anything, he knew people. His London students, once back home in Cairo, Baghdad or Tehran, rose to high positions in government and business. His contacts were a foreign correspondents envy, as well as a boon to the LSEs fund-raisers.作为中东的解说人,韩礼德先生才华横溢。他会讲阿拉伯语、波斯语、法语、德语、西班牙语和俄语。他熟知他写到的国家的历史文化。更重要的是,他认识很多人。他在伦敦的学生,一旦回到开罗、巴格达或者德黑兰,都能在政界和商界位居高职。他的关系网使驻外记者们嫉妒,然而也是伦敦经济学院募捐者们的一大幸事。His learning came not only from books but from bars and cafés. He travelled, listened and argued. He had a thesaurus of political jokes, collected over years, at the expense of Baathists, Islamists, nationalists, imperialists, Palestinians, Israelis, everyone. He could be superbly rude to peddlers of cliché and to plausible-sounding simplifiers. With a tilt of the head and an ironic smile he could give a friendly tease or a devastating “Come off it.” Students adored him.他的学识不仅来自于书本,也来自于酒吧和咖啡馆。通过云游四海,耳听八方,舌战群儒,他有了满腹的政治笑话,其对象包括叙利亚社会党人、伊斯兰教主义者、民族主义者、帝国主义者、巴勒斯坦人、以色列人等几乎所有人。对待陈词滥调的兜售者以及似乎言之可信的简化论者,他能表现出一种精绝伦的粗鲁态度。带着嘲讽的微笑歪一歪脑袋,他可能友好的戏弄他们或者来一句极具杀伤力的“您就歇歇吧”。学生们都很喜欢他。Middle Eastern studies suffered, in his view, from three faults. One was “mappism”. Behind handy diplomatic counters marked on maps “Iran”, “Iraq” or “Saudi Arabia” he saw poorly understood societies that were complex and shifting. He had no patience, secondly, with efforts, particularly in the ed States, to illuminate the region from the armchair with mathematical models and theorising (“all this meta-stuff”). He thought, thirdly, that the cold war had led everyone, Middle Easterners included, to exaggerate the influence of outsiders. The regions problems, he insisted, lay in the region more than in Moscow, Washington or the colonial past. Such views are now commonplace. They were not when Mr Halliday began.在他看来,中东问题的研究困难重重,有三方面的原因。一是“地图主义”。在作为好用的外交棋子而被标在地图上的“伊朗”、“伊拉克”或“沙特阿拉伯”的背后,他看到的是未被充分了解的复杂、多变的社会。其次,他无法忍受(尤其是在美国)在扶手椅上努力地用数学模型和理论来阐述该地区(所有这些形而上的东西)注[1]。然后是他认为冷战使得包括中东人在内的所有人夸大了局外人的影响力。他坚持认为,中东的问题更多是在自己,而不是莫斯科、华盛顿或者殖民主义的过去。这样的观点现在已经是老生常谈了,可在韩礼德先生提出来那会儿,却是新鲜的事情。In a world of doctrines and positions, he was impossible to box. A stickler for meanings, he liked to be called not internationalist, but cosmopolitan. His mother was an Irish Catholic, his father an English Methodist-Quaker. He grew up in Ireland close to the border with the north. He was schooled in that least national of faiths, Catholicism, and tempted by the priesthood for a while. But at Oxford University he was drawn to a different universal message, that of Karl Marx. Instead of taking a fellowship, he joined the New Left Review.在一个充满教条和立场的世界里,他很难进行驳斥。作为一个在意义上一丝不苟的人,他希望自己被称作世界主义者,而不是国际主义者。他的母亲是爱尔兰人,一个罗马天主教徒;他的父亲是英国人,一个卫理公会和贵格会教徒。他在爱尔兰靠近北部边境的地方长大。他接受的是受民族主义影响最小的天主教的信仰教育,并且曾被牧师这一行当所吸引。然而在牛津大学,他的兴趣转向了一个不同的普世理论——马克思主义。他没有领取什么学术奖金,而是加入了《新左派》。Explaining bin Laden诠释本·拉登He stayed until 1983. He marched against the Vietnam war, summered at a student work camp in Cuba and trekked with Dhofari guerrillas, who were fighting the British-trained soldiers of the Sultan of Oman. At another time, a brainy left-winger interested in foreign affairs might well have entered the Labour Party and become foreign secretary or secretary of defence. Mr Halliday chose a stonier path.他于1983年退出《新左派》。他参加过反对越战的游行,曾在古巴的一个学生作业营地避暑,曾与佐法尔的游击队员一起长途跋涉(这些游击队员当时正与阿曼地区受过英国人训练的苏丹士兵交锋)。在另一些时候,一位对外交事务感兴趣的足智多谋的左派分子或许会加入工党,成为外相或国防大臣。而韩礼德先生选择了一条更为崎岖的道路。In the early 1980s he began a winding journey away from the radical left. It was not a prodigals return to neoconservatism, from one simplicity to another. He looked for a less dogmatic politics that combined liberal values, respect for human rights and social equity. He hoped the space for such a social-democratic outlook existed in regions he knew best, beyond Europe and the ed States. He was too shrewd to believe that it must exist. He was nevertheless withering with anyone who claimed that the persistence of autocratic and theocratic attitudes meant that it could not exist. As with God and Marx before, he thought of political values as universal.十九世纪八十年代早期,他开始了一次曲折的旅程,离开了激进的左派。这并不是浪子回头般的回到新保守主义,从一个简单的主义换到另一个。他是在寻求一种教条主义更少的、结合了自由主义价值观的、尊重人权和社会公平的政治。他希望这一社会民主主义的愿景能够存在于欧洲和美国之外他最了解的地区。他到是不至于愚蠢到相信那一定会存在。然而,他鄙视任何声称独裁和神权政治的留存即意味着该政治理念不可能存活的人。就像先前对于上帝和马克思一样,他认为政治观点也具有普世价值。He also favoured outside intervention to rid people of oppressors. A Soviet-backed regime was preferable to the Taliban in Afghanistan, and he blamed the ed States for creating a seedbed for Islamist terror there. “Bin Laden”, he said, “is the illegitimate child of Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher.” He was for removing Saddam Hussein, though he thought the occupiers recklessly ill prepared. To the enemies this earned him on the left, he retorted: “The future of humanity does not lie in the back streets of Fallujah.”他同样持以外部干预的方式使被压迫的人民摆脱暴君的统治。对付阿富汗的塔利班组织,一个有苏维埃持的政权更可取;他也谴责美国在阿富汗制造了伊斯兰恐怖主义的温床。“本·拉登”,他说,“是罗纳德·里根和玛格丽特·撒切尔的私生子”。他站在推翻萨达姆·侯赛因的一方,然而他认为占领军的准备糟糕鲁莽。他的反对者指出他又回到了左派阵营,他则反驳道:“人道主义的未来不是位于费卢杰的偏僻街道里。”Mr Halliday published more than 20 books. Ranging wide, he was not always right or consistent. He probably underplayed the force of faith in politics. Yet he had a nose for looming trouble, as his choice of travel spots in the 1970s attests: Cyprus, Yemen, Iran, Afghanistan. He grasped the social instabilities of the Middle East, and sensed that they would burst out in new ways once the cold war ended. Diplomats and politicians, including Tony Blair, were glad of his advice.韩礼德先生出版了二十多本书。范围广泛,他并不是一贯正确或者始终前后一致。他或许没有充分表达出政治中信仰的力量,然而他对麻烦的迫近却很有远见,这从他七十年代在旅游地点的选择上就能看出:塞浦路斯、也门、伊朗和阿富汗。他预见到了中东的社会动荡,意识到了一旦冷战结束,他们可能会以新的形势爆发。外交官和政客们(包括托尼·布莱尔)都很乐意听到他的建议。Looking for a tidy th in Mr Hallidays views may be mistaken. His achievement was to be a personal bridge. He introduced Westerners to Middle Easterners who were neither hostile nor exotic, but hoped for the same things and treasured the same values as they did.若想在韩礼德先生的观点中找到一条清晰的脉络,那你就错了。他的成就是成为了一座个人桥梁。他将西方人介绍给既不排外也不崇洋的中东人,但却和他们有着同样的希望,珍视着同样的价值观。 /201210/204111。