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2019年10月18日 00:44:20|来源:国际在线|编辑:网上问答
Business Opening a business in Brazil Why make it simple?商业 在巴西做生意 何等简单Setting up shop has just got easier. But not much开店变得简单。却没有很多BRAZIL is not an easy place to start a business.巴西并不是开店的好地方。The World Bank ranks it 120th out of 183 countries-worse than Burkina Faso or Nigeria.世界将其在183个国家中列为第120位——比布基纳法索及尼日利亚还糟糕。Take one small example. Until recently, you needed at least two partners to form a limited-liability company.试举一例,至今,仍需三人才能成立一家有限责任公司。Sole traders had to find a ;1% sócio;-an employee, friend or family member willing to lend his name to the articles of association, or a shell company set up solely to hold a tiny share.一人投资者必须寻求一名;1% 合作伙伴;——雇员、朋友或家庭成员同意将他们的姓名列入公司章程或令其占有极少股份而成立的空壳公司中。Things may have just got a little easier. A new law, which supposedly came into effect on January 9th, allows a lone business-owner to set up an Empresa Individual de Responsabilidade Limitada (Eireli for short): a single-holder limited-liability firm.要求可能放宽了些。据说一部新法将于1月生效,其中允许一人设立有限责任公司(简称Eireli)。The main requirement is capital of 62,200 reais (,250).主要的规定是资产额为62,200雷亚尔(35,250美元)。This is a big deal. Alas, it may not happen as planned.此举意义重大,唉,或许会事与愿违。In December the federal body that oversees state business registries told them to turn away firms trying to register Eirelis, as well as foreigners without permanent right of residence.12月监管公司注册的联邦机构回避关于试图注册一人有限责任公司,以及不具有永久居留身份的外国人所提出的申请。No reason was given.对此并未公布相关的理由。Later, lawyers were briefed that the laws aim was to let Brazilian sole traders protect their personal goods against lawsuits or bankruptcy—not to make life easier for big business or foreigners.随后,律师被简要告知律师事务所意在保护巴西个体经营者免受诉讼或破产之灾——并不是保障大公司或外国投资者。Since the restrictions have no basis in the law, challenges are inevitable.由于这些限制在法律上没有渊源,因此不可避免地存在质疑。Husam Abboud of Establish Brazil, a company-formation specialist, is thinking of Brazilian-style direct action: simply trying to register an Eireli for a firm or a foreigner, and seeing what happens.来自Establish Brazil的Husam Abboud ,是一位公司设立的专家,其指出巴西风格的直接效果:只是试图为公司或外国人注册一人有限公司,之后坐观成败。;We wont be trying just once, but many times,; he says cheerfully. ;In Brazil, it always depends whos on the desk on the day.;;我们并非仅尝试一次,而是多次,; 他语带兴奋地称;在巴西,总是彼时处在台上的人左右决定。;A few speedy locals have aly set up Eirelis.一些敏锐的本国人已开始设立Eirelis。;It was quick and easy, because I didnt have to hunt for a partner,; says Taise Litholdo, an architect.;这样简单快捷,而无需寻找合伙人,;建筑师 Taise Litholdo说到。Sebastiao Lino da Silva, an accountant in Sao Paulo, is helping a medical-research firm, which recently lost a partner, to convert into an Eireli.圣保罗的会计师Sebastiao Lino da Silva正协助一家失去合伙人的医药研发公司转为一人有限公司。The remaining owner would otherwise have to find a new partner or close.该公司目前的所有人希望寻找新的合伙人或以类似的模式延续公司。Joao Marcelo Pacheco of Pinheiro Neto Advogados, one of Brazils largest law firms, says that some wealthy clients will use Eirelis to make their lives simpler.来自巴西最大律所之一Joao Marcelo Pacheco的Pinheiro Neto Advogados称,某些重要客户打算运用Eirelis以令生意更顺遂。All this amounts to a tweak, not a revolution.所有这些构成扭转,而非改革。By January 18th only 14 Eirelis had been registered with Sao Paulos board of trade, Brazils biggest.直至1月18日仅有14家Eirelis成功在巴西最大的圣保罗商业局得以注册。;The truth is Eirelis are not really suitable for most small businesses,; says Mr Abboud. Few hot-dog vendors and hairdressers have enough spare cash to satisfy the capital requirement, he points out.Abboud称;事实上Eirelis并非适用所有小型企业;,并指出一些卖热的商人和美发师手头上就有满足资本限额的闲钱。That is an argument for scrapping the capital requirement.放弃资本限额引起一番争论。The Socialist Peoples Party, an opposition group, has asked the Supreme Court to rule it unconstitutional for discriminating against micro-traders.反对党——巴西社会人民党已请求最高法院规范歧视微型贸易者的违宪行为。Even if foreigners are allowed to set up Eirelis, breaking into Brazil will remain tough.即使外国投资者被允许设立Eirelis,他们融入巴西仍成问题。The biggest hurdle—finding a permanent resident willing to hold power of attorney for foreign owners—will remain.最大的阻碍——寻找一位永久居留者愿意作为外国所有人的代理人——始终存在。Establish Brazil and its rivals will do this for foreign clients, but only until a local manager has been appointed, or an expatriate has arrived on a permanent business visa.Establish Brazil及其对手将以同样方式对待其外国客户,但仅需指定一位本地管理人或一位取得永久居留的移民。The snag is that acting for a foreign firm leaves agents vulnerable to Brazils capricious tax authorities and labour courts, which tend to ignore limited liability and pursue individual owners.代理外国公司的中介因容易被巴西反复无常的税收机构及劳动法庭追查而受到牵绊,他们更倾向个人所有者而非有限责任。;They want to be able to freeze someones bank account if problems arise,; explains Stephen OSullivan of Mattos Filho Advogados, another big Sao Paulo law firm. ;And if theyre the only people in the country, theyll go after the local managers, or even the lawyers.;;发生问题时他们希望冻结某人的账户,;另一家律所Mattos Filho Advogados的Stephen OSullivan称;若这个国家仅剩下他们,则他们将追寻本地管理人,甚至本地律师。;Unsurprisingly, Mattos Filho is willing to fulfil this role only for old and valued clients.不出意外,Mattos Filho 期待在务已有的尊贵客户的同时能够为更多的公司扮演同样的角色。Eirelis may eventually make it easier to set up shop in Brazil. But only a little.在巴西做生意可能因Eirelis 而变得简单。但仅仅是一点点。 /201211/210684The Arab uprising阿拉伯世界的起义Hope springs eternal希望永不泯灭The Arab Uprising: The Unfinished Revolutions of the New Middle East.By Marc Lynch.阿拉伯世界的起义:未完结的新中东革命。马克?里奇著。THE Arab spring has, inevitably, spawned a gaggle of instant books.轰轰烈烈的阿拉伯之春不可避免导致了大量实时书籍的涌现。But it was much easier to make sense of the region’s upheavals a year ago, in the first flush of excitement, than it is today.但是现在解释这场大动乱爆发的合理之处,与一年前革命之火熊熊点燃之时相比困难多了。With Egypt languishing under military rule, Libya groping for national unity,现在,埃及在军事统治下日趋衰弱,利比亚在黑暗中摸索国家统一的道路,Syria’s body-count rising and only Tunisia witnessing a relatively smooth political transition, is there still a single unifying narrative?叙利亚起义堆积了累累白骨,也仅仅只有突尼斯处于相对平稳的政治过渡期。在这种情形之下,阐述这场革命是否还是和当初的口吻相一致呢?Marc Lynch, an American scholar and blogger with ties to the Obama administration, believes there is.马克?里奇认为是这样的。他是一位美国学者并且为奥巴马政府撰写客。Although alive to the setbacks of the past year, he remains hopeful.虽然认识到过去一年挫折重重,他仍然对阿拉伯世界的起义保持着乐观的态度。In “The Arab Uprising”, he argues that the old status quo in the Middle East has been shattered for good, and that the rest of us had better get used to this brave but baffling new world.在《阿拉伯世界的起义》一书中,他认为中东世界陈腐现状的大洗牌是一件好事,余下的人们应接受这个充满勇气又令人困惑的新世界。To explain today’s events, he goes back to the 1950s, when the revolution of Gamal Abdel Nasser in Egypt set Arab pulses racing.为了解释本次事件,马克?里奇回顾了上世纪50年代由迦玛尔?阿卜杜尔?纳赛尔领导的埃及革命,此次革命曾掀起阿拉伯世界如火如荼的革命浪潮。But that first Arab spring died in 1967, in Israel’s humiliating defeat of the Arab armies in the six-day war—a useful warning for today’s revolutionaries that success is not preordained.然而,首次的阿拉伯之春于1967年阿拉伯联军被以色列耻辱性的击败而宣告结束。这次“六日战争”对于今天的革命者们无疑是一个有益的警醒:胜利绝非上天注定。Today’s Arab societies have some of the same objectives—to achieve dignity and freedom, to break with Western tutelage—but their populations are bigger,今天在阿拉伯社会同样存在着一些相同的期望,那就是要争取尊严和自由、摆脱西方世界的管制。但是较之当初,他们已拥有了更加庞大的人口基础,they are ier to challenge autocratic rulers and, thanks to satellite television, Facebook and Twitter, they are more intimately connected with one another and with the world.更加乐意于向独裁统治者发出挑战。而卫星电视,facebook和twitter等现代信息传播工具也使他们能够与彼此、与世界保持更紧密的联系。Mr Lynch, who made his name with his 2006 book, “Voices of the New Arab Public”, understands what makes Arab opinion tick.2006年出版的《新阿拉伯民众的呼声》一书使马克?里奇名声大噪,他明白是什么导致了阿拉伯人民的想法。His new book sets out, clearly and forthrightly, to dispel Western (and especially American) illusions about the nature of change in the Arab world.此次新书的出版,清楚而直截了当地打破了西方(尤其是美国)对于阿拉伯世界变革的本质所抱有的错误幻想。He does not accept, for instance, that the successes of the Islamists in recent elections in Tunisia, Egypt and Morocco are cause for alarm.举例来说,在近期突尼斯、埃及和洛哥的选举中伊斯兰教主义者大获胜利,但里奇并不认为这值得担忧。It is inevitable, he contends, that groups like the Muslim Brotherhood will benefit from an opening-up of political space, and their democratic pretensions should be put to the test.他称,类似穆斯林兄弟会的组织从开放的政治角逐中获得优势,这是不可避免地;他们的民主主张也应该受到检验。Mr Lynch also thinks the uprisings, by empowering Arab publics, have made the Palestinian issue more important. He supported military intervention in Libya, but opposes it in Syria.他同时认为,由阿拉伯民众发起的起义也使解决巴基斯坦问题变得更为紧迫。他此前持在利比亚的军事干涉活动,但此次反对对叙利亚进行军事干涉。His account is especially useful when it comes to the regional fallout. He sees Turkey and Qatar, which have embraced the new mood, as winners; Israel and Iran as sullen spectators.特别在涉及到地区影响的问题时,他的解释尤为合理。对于接受了新潮流的土耳其和卡塔尔,他将其视为赢家;而以色列和伊朗则是阴郁的旁观者。As for America, Mr Lynch thinks Barack Obama has got some big things right: the president has understood,至于美国,里奇认为奥巴马在一些重大问题上站对了位置:in particular, as his critics frequently have not, that these are home-grown uprisings, neither needing nor welcoming American leadership.即他认识到这是阿拉伯世界内部的动乱,既不需要也不欢迎美国的领导,而奥巴马的批评者们屡屡忽视这一点。But Mr Lynch faults Mr Obama for his failure to advance Israeli-Palestinian peace, to criticise more firmly the suppression of Bahrain’s uprising or to develop a more effective public diplomacy.但里奇同时也指责奥巴马没能成功推动巴以和平进程,并更加坚决地批评了对巴林地区动乱的镇压或是开展更有效的公共外交。Is Mr Lynch right in declaring the old status quo beyond recall? This may be too rosy.是否像里奇认为的那样,阿拉伯世界陈腐的面貌经一去不返 ?这样说未免过于乐观了。But of all the books on the extraordinary events of the past 15 months, this is one of the most illuminating and, for policymakers, the most challenging.但是在所有介绍过去1年零3个月 阿拉伯世界变革的书里面,这本书是最富于启发的,对于政策制定者来说也是最富有挑战意味的。201205/182226

Science and technology.科技。Insect acrobatics.昆虫的绝活。Flipping roaches.非常。How cockroaches vanish.是怎么消失不见的?ANYONE who has tried to swat a cockroach will know those insects strange ability, in the heat of pursuit, to disappear. Robert Full and his colleagues at the University of California, Berkeley, have now worked out how they do this-and taught a miniature robot to copy the feat.只要打过的都知道它们特殊的本领——往往在追赶最激烈的时候突然消失不见了。加州大学伯克利分校的Robert Full和他的同事现在已明白它们是怎么做到的,并用一个微型机器人模拟了这个过程。Dr Full had been using high-speed photography to study how cockroaches employ their antennae to sense and cross gaps. When the researchers made the gaps wider, they saw the animals flipping back underneath the ledge at the edge of the gap, rather than jumping across the empty space. As they report in the Public Library of Science, cockroaches running towards a gap suddenly grip the edge with the hooklike claws on their rear legs and swing 180° to land firmly underneath the ledge, upside down. They can pull off this stunt in a fifth of a second-so fast that the animals bodies are subject to between three and five times the force of gravity, and also so fast that the movement is invisible to the human eye.Full士运用了高速摄影技术来研究是如何使触须去感知和穿过缝隙。当研究者把缝隙扩宽,发现直接在缝隙边缘翻转下去,而不是跳过缝隙,正如《科学公共图书馆》所报道的那样,先迅速冲向缝隙,然后用后腿上的钩状爪子抓住边缘,顺势摆动180°,头朝下牢牢抓住平板底部。它们能在0.2秒内完成这项绝技,这么快的速度的身体要承受3到5倍的重力加速度,也正是由于这么快的移动速度才让人类难以发现。Dr Full and his colleagues have since identified similar behaviour in other animals with hooklike toes that are good at escaping pursuit: geckos, for example. They have also teamed up with members of Berkeleys robotics laboratory to program a small six-legged robot that has strips of Velcro attached to its rear legs to do the same trick. Such a robot could be fitted with a camera and used as a surveillance device. Some people, though, might prefer it to be fitted with a miniature machinegun and used as a UCPV (unmanned cockroach pursuit vehicle).Full士和同事后来又发现了其他具有类似特性的生物,它们同样具有钩状的脚趾并擅长逃离追杀,比如壁虎。他们也与伯克利分校机器人实验室合作,设计了一只小型六脚机器人,然后把魔术贴粘在机器人的后腿上,最后成功完成了类似动作。这种机器人可以用来装配相机作为监视装置,尽管如此,一些人更希望它装配微型机变成自动捕杀器。201208/195020

The reform of the Kyat, Myanmars currency, is considered a pretty big step in opening up the country to foreign investment. And this man right here, president Thein Sein, has steered his country out of decades of isolation and onto the fast lane of reforms since he took power just last year. 缅甸货币,缅元的改革被认为朝着面向外资开放本国市场,迈出了极大的一步。并且,自他去年掌权开始,吴登盛总统打破了长久的闭关锁国并将国家带向了改革的快车道。Now, its generally accepted that one US dollar will get you about 800 Kyat, come April 1st, this may weaken to about 820 Kyat. But right now 800 Kyat to the dollar is not actually the official government rate. This straight line that you can see here is the epitome of government control, the official rate is one dollar to 6.41 Kyat and its held this rate, as you can see, for the past 10 years. Interestingly, the government itself drafts its own budget using the unofficial and a much weaker rate of 800 Kyat to the dollar. 目前,大家普遍认为,自4月1日,一美元将兑换大约800缅元,而且缅元可以还将继续疲弱至一美元可兑换820左右缅元。但是这800缅元兑一美元却不是官方的实际汇率。从这种单一汇率情况,你能看出政府控制的缩影,官方汇率是一美元兑换6.41缅元,并且政府将这一汇率控制了整整10年。有趣的是,政府自己在计算预算时用的是非官方的1美元兑换800缅元的疲软汇率。Now what does currency reform mean for foreign investors, in particular, well, for one, exporters who was forced to use the official rate. Well it will make it much cheaper for them to do business in Myanmar. The official rate, as it turns out, is 120 times stronger than the unofficial one. So foreign exporters get to use the weaker rate, that could boost their profits pretty tremendously. 那么现在的货币改革对于外国投资者而言,特别是对于,那些被强制采纳政府官方汇率的出口商,意味着什么呢?当然,这一货币改革使这些出口商在缅甸的业务成本大大降低。官方汇率,大家可以看到,可是比非官方汇率强硬120倍呢。因此习惯了疲弱汇率的外国出口商,利润将会极大地提高。Also, specifically, Myanmars textile industry could gain from a weaker currency, but if more foreign companies dive in, that could also drive the value of the Kyat stronger, that could actually backfire, making prices too expensive and Myanmars textiles less competitive. 而且,特别是,缅甸的纺织业将会从疲弱的货币获益,但是随着更多的外国公司挤入缅甸市场,这又将会驱动缅元价值更加强硬,这会产生是切实的反效果:使价格过高,而使缅甸的纺织业缺少竞争力。Interestingly, in Myanmar, it is used to be that the visitors were forced to change money at the government rate immediately upon arriving in the country, but to get a better rate they would then have to go the capitals back alleys to change money. As April 1st, the value of the Kyat should be about the same from those back alleys and to the world market.有趣的是,过去到缅甸的游客一经抵达该国,会被强制以政府官方汇率兑换缅元,不过为了得到更高的汇率,这些游客那时会不得不去首都的隐蔽小巷中进行私下兑换。从4月1日起,缅元的价格将依据世界市场价格,与这些在小巷里的交易价格相同。201209/200495

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