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来源:120门户    发布时间:2019年10月21日 06:51:39    编辑:admin         

You#39;re a smart, attractive person, so you wouldn#39;t be surprised if one of your friends got the hots for you and then started acting all kinds of crazy.你聪明,充满吸引力,所以如果你的一个朋友迷上了你,然后为你做出一系列疯狂的举动就不会令人奇怪了。Your love-struck friend will wonder if you feel the same way, and will probably dream up subtle tests to find out. They could save themselves some effort by quickly surveying the scientific literature, though, because they will almost certainly be following one of seven well-trodden paths.迷上你的那位朋友不知道你和他(她)的想法是否一样,因此就想出一些绝妙的测试来验。他(她)如果快速地翻阅一下科技文献其实可以给自己省下不少功夫,因为以下这7条测试方法是很多人都会尝试的。In a classic study led by Leslie Baxter at Lewis and Clark College in Portland, Oregon, and William Wilmot at the University of Montana, Missoula, a team of researchers interviewed 90 undergraduate students about their relationships with people of the opposite sex.来自奥勒冈州波特兰刘易斯克拉克学院的莱斯利?巴克斯特(Leslie Baxter)与密苏里市蒙大拿大学教授威廉?威尔莫特(William Wilmot)联合进行了一项研究,他们访问了90名大学生,旨在了解他们与异性的关系。The interviewees admitted to a total of 158 ;calculated acquisition strategies; or secret tests that they hoped would reveal how a fancied friend felt about them. Many of the tests were pretty similar, so Baxter and Wilmot were able to boil them down to just seven categories. Read on to see how infuriating, and downright calculating, friends can become in the pursuit of a relationship upgrade.被访问者采用了158条“蓄意获取策略”,也就是秘密测试,他们希望通过这些测试来探知自己喜欢的朋友是怎么看待自己的。大多数的测试都很相似,因此巴克斯特和威尔莫特把这些测试分成7类。接下来让我们来看一看异性朋友为了追求一段恋情是如何让人抓狂又工于心计的。1. Endurance1. 忍耐度This is most common type of test. In this category, the love-struck friend does their best to test the other person#39;s feelings by fishing for compliments or demanding help 每 especially if it comes at a cost to the other.这是最常见的一类测试,在这类的测试中,陷入情网的那个人竭尽所能地恭维对方或者向对方寻求帮助,特别是涉及需要对方付出代价的事情。A classic endurance gambit is the self-put-down. As one respondent recalled: ;He was really getting down on himself, saying he wasn#39;t a very capable or nice person. He said it to get me to compliment him and verbalise how much I thought of him.;一个经典的忍耐力测试开场就是放低自己的姿态。一个被测试者回忆说:“他把自己位置放得很低,说他能力不强,人也不好,他这样说就是想让我夸奖他,听听我是怎么看他的。”Another type of endurance test is called forced choice, in which your friend wants to see if you will drop everything for them. ;She came to where I work out and said that she was really depressed but didn#39;t want to bother me,; said one man in his interview. ;She really wanted to see if I would stop what I was doing and show my concern, indicating how much I care for her.;另外一种忍耐度测试叫做强迫选择测试,在这项测试里,你的朋友想知道你会不会为了他们放弃所有事情。一个男性受访者说:“她来到我锻炼的地方,告诉我她很沮丧不过她不想打扰我。她非常想知道我是否能停下我手头的事情关心她。”Finally, enamoured friends will behave like spoiled brats, pushing their friend#39;s buttons to see how much mistreatment they will put up with without complaining, will you still like them even when they#39;re being a pain?最后,迷恋你的朋友会表现得像个被宠坏了的乳臭未干的孩子,看看他们的迷恋对象在深受对方折磨的情况下还会不会毫无怨言地忍受——如果你的朋友是这样,你还会喜欢他们吗?2. Triangulation2. 三角测量法The second most popular type of test was dubbed the triangle, because it relies on the age-old saying ;three#39;s a crowd;.第二流行的测试方法就是三角测量,这个测试来源于老辈人口中的“三人不欢”。Some people engineer ;fidelity checks;, especially if the relationship has aly strayed beyond the platonic. One of the interviewees wanted to test if her boyfriend was as keen as she was. ;I would intentionally leave him alone with my room-mate and then ask him when I returned #39;What have the two of you been up to?#39; If he acted uncomfortable, I would know that he wasn#39;t faithful or at least that he was thinking about being unfaithful to me.;一些人愿意做“忠诚度测试”,特别是两者之间关系已经不再是纯粹的柏拉图式的关系。因为受访者想知道自己的男朋友是不是如同她爱他一样喜欢她。“我有时候故意把他和我的室友单独留在一起,我回去的时候问他他们两人在一起的时候做了些什么。如果他表现不自然,我就知道他不诚实,至少他想对我不忠诚。”Others employ jealousy tests: ;I tested her limits by going out with other women and making sure that she found out about it. I wanted to know what kind of relationship commitment she wanted,; said one man.另外一些人采用嫉妒测试。“我和其她女人出去,并确保她知道,这样就能测试她的极限。我想知道她想要什么样的爱情承诺”,一位男性受访者表示。3. Hint, hint3. 暗示测试Then there are the indirect suggestion tests: joking about serious feelings, hinting or getting increasingly intimate with bodily contact. ;When we were just becoming romantic, he kept getting more and more bold with his touching, first his arm around my shoulder, then moving in real close, etc. He was waiting to see if I would tell him when to stop as a sign of how much I liked him,; said one interviewee.接下来还有间接暗示测试,也就是对于一段认真的感情开玩笑,通过身体接触给予暗示使感情升温。“我们逐渐变得浪漫的时候,他对我的身体接触也越来越大胆。首先,他的胳膊搭在我的肩头,然后手慢慢移过来,他等着我喊停,通过他与我的距离判断我有多爱他。”一位受访者说道。4. Miss me?4. 想我吗?Distance is supposed to make the heart grow fonder, and indeed physical separation is a common test. One respondent admitted: ;To see if our relationship was really strong I tested it by going overseas for a few months.;距离产生美,因此与相爱之人分开也是一项常见测试。一位受访人认为他测试他俩关系是否巩固的方法就是出国,和对方分离几个月。If you have felt like you didn#39;t want to be the first to call, you could be using another separation test called initiation induction. ;When I returned from Switzerland, he didn#39;t call me even though he knew exactly when I was returning. He wanted to see if I still felt the same way about him by calling him first,; one woman recalls.如果你不想成为先打电话的那个人,你可以采取另外一个分离测试,这项测试叫做初始感应。一位女士回忆说:“当我从瑞典回国的时候,他并没有给我打电话,虽然他清楚知道我回来的时间。他想知道我是否能和他想法一样并首先打电话。”5. Heart to heart5. 心对心交流The directness test is really the opposite of a secret strategy. Far more popular with men than women, it involves either asking a person straight out how they feel, or speaking openly about yourself in the hope your love interest will too.直接测试与秘密测试刚好相反。男性采用这种测试方法的频率远远高于女性。这样的测试方法包括直接问别人他们的感觉或者开诚布公地和自己有感觉的那位交谈。;I was having trouble getting him to open up to me about his family and his background,; one woman said, ;so I started talking about my folks and sisters, hoping that he would reciprocate and tell me about himself as a sign that he trusted me and wanted me to know more about him.;一位女性表示:“想和我那位开放地聊聊他的家庭和背景非常困难,所以我首先和他介绍一下我的家庭和,希望他能和我交换意见,与我聊他的情况,以此让他相信我,也想让我多了解他。”6. Inside information6. 内部信息Ever tried to find out from someone#39;s friends whether they might have a crush on you? Then you have employed what Baxter and Wilmot aptly call asking third party tests. It might sound like playground behaviour, but grown-ups do it too.你是否想知道别人的朋友是否喜欢你?那你可以试试巴克斯特和威尔莫特所定义的第三方测试。这听起来也许像是小朋友的游戏行为,但是大人们也这样做。 /201406/304622。

If there#39;s any truth in the old saw that London#39;s streets are paved with gold, it#39;s probably because they#39;ve been gilded by cash stripped from the pockets of tourists.据美国有线电视新闻(CNN)报道,古谚语中说伦敦路上铺满黄金,如果这句话有点真实性的话,那就是游客兜里的钱镀上的。It won#39;t surprise anyone who#39;s seen their budget evaporate seconds after exiting their over-priced hotel, but the English metropolis has been named the world#39;s priciest city break destination.从伦敦的价格过于昂贵的酒店一出来,你会发现自己的预算一溜烟就没了。因而如果这个英国大都市被命名为世界上最昂贵的城市旅行目的地,大家都不会感到惊讶。Review site TripAdvisor compared prices in 48 leading tourist destinations to conclude that London has overtaken Oslo as the world capital of the inadvertent splurge.网站“到到网”在对48个主要旅游目的地的物价进行比对后表示,伦敦已经超越奥斯陆成为世界上挥霍无度的中心。According to the site#39;s annual TripIndex Cities study, seven of the world#39;s 10 most expensive destinations are in Europe.该网站一年一度的《旅游指数城市研究》显示,在世界上十大最昂贵目的地中,有七个在欧洲。Asia fields the majority of the list#39;s most affordable cities for a holiday.列表中最经济的旅游目的城市多在亚洲。The list says an evening out and overnight stay in a four-star hotel in London will relieve visitors of 3 -- more than three times the cost of the same break in Hanoi, which is named as best value.列表显示,在伦敦的4星级酒店住一晚,就要花费523美元(约合人民币3128元),是同等条件下住在河内花销的3倍多。河内被认为是性价比最高的城市。Travelers to Paris should be warned against working up too much of thirst while pounding its boulevards -- the city is identified as the priciest place for pre-dinner cocktails.到巴黎旅行的游客要注意在沿着林荫大道走的时候,别让自己太渴。餐前鸡尾酒在巴黎的价格是世界最贵。Two dry martinis there set drinkers back an average .两杯干马提尼酒就能花费游客52美元。Even then the cocktails will probably be watered down by the salty tears of whoever#39;s footing the bill.即使这样,鸡尾酒还可能搀着泪。TripAdvisor#39;s research reveals Stockholm is the costliest place for an evening meal.到到网的研究表明斯德哥尔的晚饭最昂贵。For the same money in Hanoi visitors can can pay for a four-star hotel, cab fare, cocktails, dinner for two and still have enough change to call Sweden and gloat.在河内,花这样一顿晚饭的钱,游客都可以住在4星级酒店,乘上计程车,喝着鸡尾酒,吃上两顿晚饭,甚至还能省下足够的钱打电话去瑞典,嘲笑在那旅游的朋友们。New York tops the list for expensive hotels for the second year running, with a night in a four-star hotel costing an average of 5 -- four times the price of the same deal in Bangkok.纽约连续第二年被评为世界上酒店最昂贵的城市,在这里住一晚4星级酒店就要花费平均365美元——是同等条件下,在曼谷花费的4倍。While Oslo may have lost out to London in the overall list, the Norwegian city still rules when it comes to taxi fares.There, a three-kilometer (1.9 mile) journey will set customers back .即使奥斯陆在总榜单上输给了伦敦,但是挪威的城市仍旧是计程车花费最昂贵的地方。在那里,计程车走3公里,就要花费57美元。In Jakarta, the cheapest city, the same journey can be made for less than .在物价最低的城市雅加达,同样的路程只花费不到3美元。Here#39;s TripAdvisor#39;s top 10 of most expensive cities: London, Paris, New York, Stockholm, Oslo, Zurich, Copenhagen, Helsinki, Toronto, Sydney.以下就是到到网评选的十个最昂贵的城市:伦敦、巴黎、纽约、斯德哥尔、奥斯陆、苏黎世、哥本哈根、赫尔辛基、多伦多和悉尼。Here are the site#39;s best value destinations: Hanoi, Jakarta, Sharm el Sheikh, Bangkok, Sofia, Cape Town, Mumbai, Kuala Lumpur, Prague, Budapest.以下就是该网站评选的性价比最高的目的地:河内、雅加达、沙姆沙伊赫、曼谷、索菲亚、开普敦、孟买、吉隆坡、布拉格和布达佩斯。 /201406/306786。

Looking for some effective ways to transform your body? There are a few great exercises that will help you to reach your fitness goal. These exercises are easy but effective in strengthening your body along with burning unwanted calories. However, sticking to these exercises is not enough to transform your body, you should also eat healthy and get enough sleep regularly. Don’t waste your precious time doing other workouts, here are seven exercises that will help you transform your body in no time. 还在寻找一些有效的方式来塑造身形?几种很好的运动将帮你实现健身目标,它们简单易行,却能有效地强健身体并燃烧掉多余的卡路里。然而,只坚持做这些运动来塑造身形是不够的,你还需要拥有健康的饮食和规律充足睡眠。别将宝贵的时间浪费在其他运动上了,下面的7种方式能帮你塑造身形。 /201405/294387。

It’s a perilous moment, lifting a soup dumpling from its basket, hoping it won’t tear and spill its beautiful guts. This one’s skin is delicate but does not break, at least not yet, not under the tongs’ little teeth. The dumpling lands in the spoon intact, plump but not sagging, buoyant as a ball gown. Take a bite, gently, from the top; watch the steam flee; sip the broth inside, just enough to taste; then down it whole.把灌汤小笼包夹起来的一刻真是让人提心吊胆,只希望不要把皮弄破溅出里面美味的汤汁。这个小笼包的皮很娇嫩,但是不会破,至少夹子的小齿没把它夹破。它完好无损地落在勺子上,丰盈饱满,毫不松垮,像舞会礼一样挺括。从顶上轻轻咬一口,看着热气冒出来;啜饮里面的肉汤,肉汤的量刚好够你品味,然后整个吃下。At the Bao, which opened in the East Village in July, the soup dumplings, or xiao long bao, are near perfect. (The calls this achievement “kung fu,” using the term in its original sense, as mastery acquired through practice and discipline.) Other specimens in town tend to the thick, to prevent leaks; here the dough is ultrathin, less armor than envelope for the broth — pork-stock jelly, which melts into soup as the dumplings steam — and the ball of minced pork at the center, loose and yielding, as if itself in midmelt. I did wish the soup were more flagrantly meaty, but this far from Shanghai, I’m just grateful.小笼包餐馆(The Bao)今年7月在东村开业。这里的灌汤小笼包几近完美(菜单上说这需要功夫,不是指武术,而是指熟练的技艺是通过练习和磨练而成)。肉汤是猪肉高汤冻在蒸包子的过程中融化成的。本市的其他小笼包为了防止肉汁漏出,包子皮大多较厚;而这里的包子皮非常薄,像是用来盛放而非保护肉汤的。小笼包里面的碎猪肉馅松散柔软,像是也快要融化了。我确实希望肉汤能更浓郁一些,但是这里离上海那么远,我已经知足了。The Bao is an outpost of Kung Fu Xiao Long Bao, which the owner, Hong Bao, opened two and a half years ago in Flushing, Queens. She oversees the dim sum at both locations, but beyond the classic varieties of soup dumpling — pork and notably briny pork and crab — the restaurants diverge. East Village innovations include xiao long bao jacked up on chile, anticipating the bravado of the young and the drunk, and others spiked with wasabi, a gesture toward the neighborhood’s Japanese expats.小笼包餐馆是老板洪宝(音译)两年半前在皇后区法拉盛开的功夫小笼包餐馆(Kung Fu Xiao Long Bao)的分店。两家店的点心制作都由她监管,但是除了各种经典汤包——猪肉汤包以及著名的猪肉蟹肉汤包——这两家餐馆大相径庭。东村这家店推陈出新,有放在辣椒上的小笼包,期待年轻人和酒醉之人大胆一试;还有加入芥末的汤包,算是向附近的日本侨民致意。The rest of the is greatest-hits Chinese, corralling flamethrowers from Sichuan and Hunan with old-school Cantonese and Taiwanese specialties. Much of this is delicious: a garlicky confetti of chives, with pork nubs and dark pops of salt from fermented black beans; pressed, dense tofu ruddied from steeping in five spice; pickled string beans chopped into tiny rings and bobbing in a sour rice noodle soup; strips of featherweight fried chicken, almost outnumbered by dried red chiles; noodles alchemized by an age-old calculus of soy, sesame oil and sugar; and shrimp dashed with Shaoxing (rice wine) and engulfed in barely set scrambled eggs that slip through the chopsticks. (I ate the leftovers, still slippery, out of the box when I got home.)菜单上的其他美食都是最热门的中国菜,既有辛辣的川菜和湘菜,也有经典粤菜和台湾特色小吃。大多都很美味:用细香葱、咸豆豉炒的蒜味猪肉块;卖相很好的五香豆腐干;酸豆角米粉是把酸豆角切成小圈,放入酸米粉汤里;辣子鸡的鸡肉像羽毛一样轻,里面的干红辣椒似乎比鸡肉还多;用历史悠久的酱油、芝麻油和糖混合调料拌的面条;虾仁炒蛋的虾仁中搀入了绍兴米酒,炒蛋十分嫩滑,筷子不好夹(我把剩下的打包带回家,吃的时候依然很滑)。Lamb dusted with cumin is terrific, the scent like a warm inhalation. But the meat — carefully pruned of any troubling chewy detail, battered and fried into congeniality, as if the diners were children — doesn’t really taste like lamb. Bitter melon draped in salted egg yolk remains heroically bitter, but salt-and-pepper shrimp are oddly stodgy, wreathed in hard broccoli florets. And dan dan noodles lack conviction: The chile oil is merely, instantly hot, without buildup or context, like a two-second striptease.孜然羊肉很好吃,闻起来像温暖的吸入剂。不过吃起来不像羊肉——所有难嚼的部分被小心去除,肉被拍松,煎得恰到好处,简直把食客当小孩对待。苦瓜外面裹着咸蛋黄,不过依然很苦;椒盐虾仁不知为何很硬实,周围是一圈硬硬的菜花茎。担担面不够让人信:辣椒油只有辣味,而且一入口就觉得辣,没有回味或质感,就像两秒钟的脱衣舞。Still, the Bao is an appealing retreat from St. Marks Place, with its dark wood lattice ceiling, roughened cement walls and bamboo steamer lids repurposed as décor. On one wall hangs a bright, cartoon-inspired print (by the Sichuan-born avant-garde artist Yin Jun) of a man-child, head thrown back, mouth a-shriek, teardrops leaping from squeezed-shut eyes. The soundtrack tends, mysteriously, to Aerosmith.不过,小笼包餐馆仍是圣马克街的一个迷人去处,它有着黑木格子天花板,粗糙的水泥墙,用作装饰品的竹蒸笼盖。一面墙上挂着一幅鲜艳的画作印刷品,作品以漫画为灵感,是由四川出生的先锋艺术家尹俊创作。画中的男孩头向后仰,厉声尖叫,泪水从紧闭的双眼中跳出。难以理解的是,餐馆的背景音乐是史密斯飞船乐队(Aerosmith)的。The brief section of the devoted to desserts fails to note that a number of dishes listed elsewhere would qualify, like fresh tomato soaked in sugar syrup until it tastes like watermelon; an egg yolk swimming in sweet rice wine; black sesame paste rolled in glutinous rice and submerged in an osmanthus-scented broth; and French-fry-like stubs of taro and sweet potato, tossed with sugar that is still caramelizing as the dish hits the table. Lift a piece with chopsticks, and the strands of sugar stretch and fractalize.菜单上只给甜品留了一小块地方,其实列在其他版块的几道菜也算得上甜品,比如,吃起来像西瓜的糖汁番茄;醪糟蛋黄;桂花黑芝麻汤圆;糖炸芋头红薯卷上桌时,糖还在融化成焦糖。用筷子夹起一块,能拉出糖丝。But my table only had eyes for the xiao long bao filled with dark liquid chocolate and a dab of banana recognized in the aftermath. Yes, treat us like children. This is what we want.但是我这桌只对巧克力酱小笼包感兴趣,吃完之后才意识到里面还有香蕉。是的,把我们当孩子对待。这正是我们想要的。The Bao小笼包餐馆13 St. Marks Place (Third Avenue), East Village; 212-388-9238东村圣马可广场(第三大道)13号;212-388-9238。RECOMMENDED Pork and pork-and-crab xiao long bao (soup dumplings); dry bean curd; shrimp with scrambled egg; black bean with pork and chives; sour string bean rice noodle soup; Sichuan chile-fried chicken; cumin lamb; Shanghai pan-fried noodles; taro and sweet potato with sugar; chocolate xiao long bao.推荐菜:猪肉汤包和猪肉蟹肉汤包;豆腐干;虾仁炒蛋;回锅肉;酸豆角汤米粉;辣子鸡;孜然羊肉;上海炒面;糖炸芋头红薯卷;巧克力小笼包。PRICES .95 to .95, cash only.价格:人均3.95美元至42.95美元,只收现金。OPEN Daily for lunch and dinner.营业每日午餐和晚餐。RESERVATIONS Not accepted.预定:不接受预订。WHEELCHAIR ACCESS The entrance is up several steps. The restroom has a handrail.轮椅设施:门口有几个台阶。洗手间有扶手。 /201411/341551。

Two teams of scientists published studies on Sunday showing that blood from young mice reverses aging in old mice, rejuvenating their muscles and brains. As ghoulish as the research may sound, experts said that it could lead to treatments for disorders like Alzheimer#39;s disease and heart disease.两个科学家团队周日发布的研究表明,幼龄鼠的血液能逆转老龄鼠的衰老,让它们的肌肉和大脑恢复活力。相关研究听上去可能令人毛骨悚然,专家却表示,这可能会有助于阿尔茨海默氏征和心脏病的治疗。;I am extremely excited,; said Rudolph Tanzi, a professor of neurology at Harvard Medical School, who was not involved in the research. ;These findings could be a game changer.;“我非常激动,”未参与前述研究的哈佛大学医学院(Harvard Medical School)神经学教授鲁道夫·坦齐(Rudolph Tanzi)说,“这些发现可能会带来巨变。”The research builds on centuries of speculation that the blood of young people contains substances that might rejuvenate older adults.这项研究是基于一个流传了数百年的猜测,即年轻人的血液可能含有能让老年人恢复活力的物质。In the 1950s, Clive M. McCay of Cornell University and his colleagues tested the notion by delivering the blood of young rats into old ones. To do so, they joined rats in pairs by stitching together the skin on their flanks. After this procedure, called parabiosis, blood vessels grew and joined the rats#39; circulatory systems. The blood from the young rat flowed into the old one, and vice versa.上世纪50年代,康奈尔大学(Cornell University)的克莱夫·M·麦凯(Clive M. McCay)和同事曾将幼龄鼠的血液输入老龄鼠体内,借此检验这一观念。为了做到这一点,他们将两只大鼠的侧腹皮肤缝在一起,使它们连接起来。经过被称作异种共生的这一步后,血管生长出来,两只老鼠的循环系统融合在了一起。幼龄鼠的血液流入了老龄鼠的体内,老龄鼠的血也流进了幼鼠。Later, Dr. McCay and his colleagues performed necropsies and found that the cartilage of the old rats looked more youthful than it would have otherwise. But the scientists could not say how the transformations happened. There was not enough known at the time about how the body rejuvenates itself.后来,麦凯士和同事解剖了老鼠的尸体,发现老龄鼠的软骨看起来比它未经实验的应有状态更年轻。但这些科学家无法说明这种变化是如何发生的。当时,人们对身体恢复活力的方式还没有足够的认识。It later became clear that stem cells are essential for keeping tissues vital. When tissues are damaged, stem cells move in and produce new cells to replace the dying ones. As people get older, their stem cells gradually falter.后来,人们清楚地认识到,干细胞对保持组织的活力至关重要。组织受损时,干细胞会进入,生成新细胞来取代失去活力的老细胞。随着年龄的增长,人的干细胞会逐渐衰退。In the early 2000s, scientists realized that stem cells were not dying off in aging tissues.本世纪初,科学家意识到,干细胞并没有在日渐衰老的组织中逐渐消亡。;There were plenty of stem cells there,; recalled Thomas A. Rando, a professor of neurology at Stanford University School of Medicine. ;They just don#39;t get the right signals.;“干细胞是很多的,”斯坦福大学医学院(Stanford University School of Medicine)神经学教授托马斯·A·兰多(Thomas A. Rando)回忆说,“它们只是没有接收到正确的信号而已。”Dr. Rando and his colleagues wondered what signals the old stem cells would receive if they were bathed in young blood. To find out, they revived Dr. McCay#39;s experiments.兰多士和他的同事想要知道,如果沐浴在年轻的血液之中,老的干细胞会收到什么信号。为了找到,他们重新进行了麦凯士的实验。The scientists joined old and young mice for five weeks and then examined them. The muscles of the old mice had healed about as quickly as those of the young mice, the scientists reported in 2005. In addition, the old mice had grown new liver cells at a youthful rate.科学家们将老龄鼠和幼龄鼠连接在一起,五周之后再去观察它们。他们在2005年通报称,老龄鼠的肌肉愈合速度几乎和幼龄鼠一样快。此外,老龄鼠以幼龄鼠的速度长出了新的肝细胞。The young mice, on the other hand, had effectively grown prematurely old. Their muscles had healed more slowly, and their stem cells had not turned into new cells as quickly as they had before the procedure.另一方面,幼龄鼠实实在在地未老先衰了。它们的肌肉愈合得更慢,干细胞转化成新细胞的速度也不如实验之前快。The experiment indicated that there were compounds in the blood of the young mice that could awaken old stem cells and rejuvenate aging tissue. Likewise, the blood of the old mice had compounds that dampened the resilience of the young mice.这个实验表明,幼龄鼠的血液含有一些化合物,这些化合物可能会唤醒老的干细胞,让日渐衰老的组织恢复活力。同理,老龄鼠的血液含有抑制幼龄鼠活力的化合物。Amy J. Wagers, a member of Dr. Rando#39;s team, continued to study the blood of young mice after she moved in 2004 to Harvard, where she is an associate professor. Last year, she and her colleagues demonstrated that it could rejuvenate the hearts of old mice.兰多士的团队成员埃米·J·韦杰斯(Amy J. Wagers)在2004年进入哈佛,之后继续研究幼龄鼠的血液。她现在是哈佛的副教授。去年,她和同事明,幼龄鼠的血液可以恢复老龄鼠心脏的活力。To pinpoint the molecules responsible for the change, Dr. Wagers and her colleagues screened the animals#39; blood and found that a protein called GDF11 was abundant in young mice and scarce in old ones. To see if GDF11 was crucial to the parabiosis effect, the scientists produced a supply of the protein and injected it into old mice. Even on its own, GDF11 rejuvenated their hearts.为了确定这种变化究竟与哪种分子相关,韦杰斯和同事对老鼠的血液进行了测试,发现幼龄鼠体内含有大量名为GDF11的蛋白质,而这种蛋白质在老龄鼠体内较少。为了确定GDF11是不是对异种共生效应的关键因素,科学家制造了一些这种蛋白质,并将它注入老龄鼠体内。单是GDF11就能使它们的心脏恢复活力。Dr. Wagers and her colleagues wondered whether GDF11 was responsible for the rejuvenation of other tissues. In the current issue of the journal Science, they report an experiment on skeletal muscle in mice. They found that GDF11 revived stem cells in old muscles, making old mice stronger and increasing their endurance.韦杰斯和同事想知道GDF11是否起到了使其他组织恢复活力的作用。他们在本期《科学》(Science)杂志中阐述了针对老鼠骨骼肌肉的一项实验,实验发现GDF11能使老龄鼠肌肉中的干细胞恢复活力,增强老龄鼠的体质,延长它们的寿命。At Stanford, researchers were investigating whether the blood of young mice altered the brains of old mice. In 2011, Saul Villeda, then a graduate student, and his colleagues reported that it did. When old mice received young blood, they had a burst of new neurons in the hippocampus, a region of the brain that is crucial for forming memories.斯坦福大学(Stanford)的研究人员曾对幼龄鼠的血液是否能改变老龄鼠的脑功能进行过研究。2011年,当时还是研究生的索尔·比列达(Saul Villeda)和同事表示,是肯定的。接受幼龄鼠的血液之后,老龄鼠的海马体就会大量产生新的神经元。海马体是大脑中的一个区域,对记忆的形成具有关键作用。In a study published Sunday in the journal Nature Medicine, Dr. Villeda, now a faculty fellow at the University of California, San Francisco, and his colleagues unveiled more details of what young blood does to the brains of old mice.在周日发表于《自然医学》(Nature Medicine)杂志的一篇文章中,现已成为加州大学旧金山分校(University of California, San Francisco)研究员的比列达和同事披露了更多细节,阐述了幼龄鼠的血液对老龄鼠大脑造成的影响。After parabiosis, Dr. Villeda and his colleagues found that the neurons in the hippocampus of the old mice sprouted new connections. They then moved beyond parabiosis by removing the cells and platelets from the blood of young mice and injecting the plasma that remained into old mice. That injection caused the old mice to perform far better on memory tests.比列达和同事发现,异种共生过程之后,老龄鼠海马体中的神经元长出了新的联结。然后,除了异种共生之外,他们还移除了幼龄鼠血液中的细胞和血小板,再把剩下的血浆注入老龄鼠体内。这种注射大幅改善了老龄鼠在记忆测试中的表现。Dr. Wagers#39;s team has been investigating a specific region of the brain involved in perceiving smells.韦杰斯的团队一直在对大脑中与嗅觉相关的一个特殊区域进行研究。In a second study in Science, the team reports that parabiosis spurred the growth of blood vessels in the brain. The new blood supply led to the growth of neurons and gave older mice a sharper sense of smell.他们的团队在《科学》刊载的另一篇文章中指出,异种共生能刺激脑血管的生长。新的血液能促进神经元的生长,让老龄鼠具有更灵敏的嗅觉。After linking the GDF11 protein to the rejuvenation of skeletal muscle and the heart, Dr. Wagers and her colleagues studied whether the protein was also responsible for the changes in the brain. They injected GDF11 alone into the mice and found that it spurred the growth of blood vessels and neurons in the brain, although the change was not as large as that from parabiosis.将GDF11蛋白质与骨骼肌肉和心脏的复苏联系起来以后,韦杰斯和同事还对这种蛋白质是否与脑部变化有关进行了研究。他们对老鼠注射了单一的GDF11,然后发现它促进了脑部血管和神经元的生长,虽然相关变化并不像异种共生那么明显。;There#39;s no conflict between the two groups, which is heartening,; said Dr. Richard M. Ransohoff, director of the Neuroinflammation Research Center at the Cleveland Clinic.克利夫兰医学中心神经炎症研究中心(Neuroinflammation Research Center at the Cleveland Clinic)负责人理查德·M·兰索霍夫士(Dr. Richard M. Ransohoff)称,“两个团队的发现没有冲突,这很令人振奋。”Dr. Ransohoff and others hope the experiments on mice will lead to studies on people to see if the human version of GDF11, or other molecules in the blood of young people, has a similar effect on older adults.兰索霍夫和其他一些人都希望,以小鼠为对象的实验能够衍生以人为对象的研究,以探明人类版的GDF11或年轻人血液中的其他分子能否对老年人产生类似影响。;We can turn back the clock instead of slowing the clock down,; said Dr. Toren Finkel, director of the Center for Molecular Medicine at the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. ;That#39;s a nice thought if it pans out.;“我们可以让时间倒流,不只是让它放慢脚步,”美国国家心脏、肺和血液研究所(National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute)分子医学研究中心负责人托伦·芬克尔士(Dr. Toren Finkel)说。“如果能成功,这将是个不错的想法。” /201409/326654。