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2019年09月18日 04:00:17|来源:国际在线|编辑:飞度典范
Hi, everyone, I#39;m Jade, what we#39;re talking about today is writing a conclusion for an IELTS exam or a CAE exam.大家好,我是Jade,今天我要教你们在雅思考试或者CAE考试的作文中写一个结尾部分。So I#39;m going to give you two ways to write conclusions so that when you get to the end,我会教给你们两种写结尾的方法,这样当你们文章写到最后的时候,you don#39;t just sort of put a full stop that doesn#39;t really say anything extra, that doesn#39;t feel like a conclusion.就不会只写个句号,什么额外的内容也不写了,那样看上去根本不像个结尾。Because when you write a conclusion, a good conclusion has a different tone, there#39;s something that feels finished about it.因为当你们写结尾时,一个好的结尾有一种不一样的语气,会让人觉得这篇文章真的结束了。And more generally, your conclusion should be your last chance to impress, to show that examiner all that English that you know and how fluent you are when you#39;re writing in English.而且,通常结尾应该是你们最后一次能惊艳考官的机会,能够向他展示那些你们懂得的英语知识,以及你们在用英语写作时有多么流利。And you should leave the er with an additional thought in the end, ideally, when you#39;re writing a conclusion.理想地来说,你们在写结尾的时候,应该在文章最后给读者留有想象空间。So let#39;s look at a typical IELTS kind of question.;Some people think that parents should teach their children to be good members of society.我们来看一道典型的雅思作文题吧。“有些人认为家长应该教育他们的孩子成为优秀的社会成员。However, others believe school is the best place to learn this.;然而,其他人则认为学校才是学习这个的最佳场所。”And then the IELTS question would say: ;Share your experience, and give reasons for your answers.;然后雅思作文的题干会写着:“请结合自身经历写下你的看法,并给出理由。”So let#39;s imagine that you#39;ve aly written your essay.So, how do you begin your conclusion?我们假设你们已经写了这篇作文了。那么,结尾要如何下笔呢?The... the first way I#39;m going to tell you, I#39;m going to call it the ;As I have discussed; conclusion.我要告诉你们的第一个方法,我称它为;As I have discussed;式结尾。And there are three parts to writing this conclusion.这种结尾有三个部分。And I#39;m giving you the structure so that you can see how you can put a conclusion together just by putting different pieces in there.我会把整个结构给你们,这样你们就知道如何通过仅仅把不同的部分放进去就能拼凑出一个结尾。And now, this is... this is great for an IELTS essay.这个方法对雅思考试的作文来说非常适用。It#39;s not a super imaginative kind of conclusion that would be great at university, but for IELTS, it#39;s... it#39;s good for IELTS.虽然这不是非常适合于大学作文的那种极具想象力的结尾,但是对雅思考试来说......它很适合雅思考试。So, here are the three parts for this conclusion: ;As I have discussed;.下面是这种结尾的三个部分:第一部分是;As I have discussed;。Then: ;However; sentence with ;I; or, you know, using your subjectivity, basically.然后是带;I;,或者任何主观性词汇的;However;句子。And then making a moral or social observation in the first conditional.So let#39;s have a look.最后一部分是用第一条件句做一个道德观察评价或社会观察评价。那我们来具体看看吧。So, ;As I have discussed;, what we#39;re doing is we#39;re just taking that phrase, basically, and this shows the tone... this establishes the tone of conclusion: ;As I have discussed;.在第一部分,基本上我们要做的就是把;As I have discussed;这个短语用上,它能带来一种结尾的语气:;As I have discussed;。You#39;re basically saying: ;Well, I aly told you all of this, but now I#39;m summarizing.;这样你们的主要意思就是:“我已经把这所有的内容都跟你讲过了,不过现在我是在总结。”;As I have discussed, there are advantages and disadvantages to the question.;As I have discussed, there are advantages and disadvantages to the question.(正如我已经说过的,这个问题既有好处也有坏处。)I#39;ve shown both sides of the argument.;I#39;ve shown both sides of the argument.; (我已经把两方面的论据都写过了。)You could just learn that, you could learn that whole phrase to begin a conclusion.你们可以直接把那个学下来,可以学着用那整个短语作为结尾的开头。What do you follow it with?You follow it with a ;However; sentence.接下来写什么呢?在第一部分之后你们要写一个;However;句子。So, there may be advantages and disadvantages, but there#39;s a catch.也就是说,也许既有好处也有坏处,但是你们要抓住其中一点进行描述。;However, I think parents should be responsible for teaching children to be good members of society.;比如;However, I think parents should be responsible for teaching children to be good members of society.;(但是,我认为家长应该负责教孩子成为优秀的社会成员。)So this is you saying: ;Yeah, I see both sides, this is good about it, that#39;s good about the other side.意思就是:“是,我知道有两方面,这是这方面的好处,那是另一方面的好处。But, you know, for me and in my opinion...;, because now we#39;re using your subjectivity by saying: ;I think;.但是,你要知道,对我来说,在我看来......”因为说了;I think;,我们现在就要讲你们的主观看法了。You can... you can finally make your position clear, make your position known.你们终于可以表明自己的立场,让别人知道你们的看法了。Maybe in the rest of the essay, this is discursive... this is a discursive essay, you#39;ve been showing both sides of the argument.这是一篇论述文,在这篇作文的其他部分,你们也许已经阐述过两方面的论据了。But if you write your essay in a way where you don#39;t use: ;I think;, ;I believe; in the rest of the essay before, it can be quite powerful just to use ;I think; once at the end in your conclusion.但是如果你们写作文的时候,在结尾之前的其他部分没有用过;I think;, ;I believe;的话,只在结尾最后用一次;I think;,可能会使结尾显得非常有力。So, again: ;However, I think parents should be responsible for teaching children to be good members of society.;所以我们再看一次先前的例子:;However, I think parents should be responsible for teaching children to be good members of society.;(但是,我认为家长应该负责教孩子成为优秀的社会成员。)That bit#39;s done, what do we do next?Well, sometimes people like to end essays by giving a grand statement about morals and the world, so you can also do this in your IELTS exam.这部分写完了,下一步做什么呢?有时候人们喜欢用一个关于道德和世界的宏大陈述来结束文章,你们在做雅思试题的时候也可以这么做。And this is what I#39;m talking about when I say: ;Make a moral or social observation; to do with the question, of course, not just the general one.而这也是我说“做一个道德观察评价或社会观察评价”时要表达的意思,当然啦,你们要做的是与题干相关的观察评价,不是笼统的。So here#39;s an example: ;If children are taught to be good members of society, the world will be a better place.;给你们举个例子:;If children are taught to be good members of society, the world will be a better place.;(如果孩子们被教成了优秀的社会成员,世界会变得更好。)So, it#39;s in the first conditional, because we#39;ve got ;if;, then we#39;ve got the past simple, followed by a clause with ;will;.这个句子用的是第一条件句,因为句子里有;if;,还有后接;will;从句的一般过去时。You can use that conditional structure in your essay, in your conclusion, I think that#39;s good because you#39;re showing the examiner you know how to write conditionals.你们在自己作文的结尾部分可以用这个条件句结构,我觉得这很不错,因为这能让考官看到你们会写条件句。So, because these essays are marked on your style, but also your grammar when you#39;re writing English, displaying a range of structures,因为这些作文的评分不仅以你们的写作风格为标准,还要看你们用英语写作、展示一系列结构时的语法,it#39;s good to write this moral... moral or social observation in the conditional.所以用条件句写道德观察评价或社会观察评价是个不错的方法。So, that was the first way you can write a conclusion.When we come back, I#39;m going to show you the second way you can write a conclusion for IELTS or CAE.以上是你们写结尾时能用的第一种方法。下面我会跟你们讲雅思或CAE考试的作文中能用来写结尾的第二种方法。Let#39;s have a look at the second way to write a conclusion for your IELTS or a similar discursive essay.现在我们来看看雅思作文或类似的论述文中,你们能用来写结尾的第二种方法。So, in this conclusion, we have a different structure to follow.在这种结尾中,我们要遵循的结构跟上一个不太一样。First of all, you can make a subjective opinion statement, what do I mean by ;subjective;?首先,你们可以写一个主观性观点的陈述句,“主观性”是什么意思?That basically means using ;I;.主要就是用;I;来陈述观点的意思。As I mentioned, you should not really use: ;I think;, ;I think;, ;I think; all the way through your essay, but it#39;s okay to use it just in the conclusion for impact.我之前已经说过了,你们不能整篇作文从头到尾一直用;I think;,但是为了效果只在结尾部分用是可以的。Then you include the sentence or statement with: ;The most important reason is;, blah, blah, blah.然后你们要在这个句子或陈述句中写上;The most important reason is...;(最重要的原因是......)And then, again, you make a moral or social observation.接下来,你们还是要写一个道德或社会观察评价。And this time, if you want, you can use a second conditional, and I#39;ll show you.So, let#39;s have a look.这一次,如果你们想的话,可以用一个第二条件句,我会告诉你们怎么写的。那我们来看看吧。A subjective opinion statement: ;I think parents should teach their children to be good members of society.;首先写一个主观性观点陈述句:;I think parents should teach their children to be good members of society.;(我认为家长应该教他们的孩子成为优秀的社会成员。)So we#39;re just taking... we#39;re taking... you know, there are two sides to this question.这个题目有两个方面,所以我们只是选了......There#39;s: ;Parents should teach their children to be good members of society;, and there#39;s: ;School should teach their children to be good members of society;,一方面是:“家长应该教他们的孩子成为优秀的社会成员”;另一方面是:“学校应该教孩子成为优秀的社会成员”,so now you just show us what you think.所以现在你们要告诉我们你们的看法。;I think parents should teach their children to be good members of society.;比如;I think parents should teach their children to be good members of society.;(我觉得家长应该教他们的孩子成为优秀的社会成员)。That bit#39;s done.Now we need to do the statement with the most important reason.这部分搞定。现在我们要为这个陈述句写下最重要的原因。So you#39;ve aly given your reasons for this in the main body of your essay.你们在作文的正文部分已经给出过这个观点的好几个原因了。Now you just elaborate and tell us a little bit more about which reason you think is the most persuasive reason or the most important reason.现在你们只要详细描述一下,再稍微多写一点你们认为哪个是最有说力的原因或者最重要的原因。For example: ;The most important reason is because parents can share their life experience with their children.;比如: ;The most important reason is because parents can share their life experience with their children.;(最重要的原因是家长可以和他们的孩子分享自己的人生经验)。There, I#39;m implying that maybe school teachers can#39;t do this.This bit#39;s done.在这个句子中,我的隐含义是也许学校老师无法做到这一点。这部分也做完了。And then, again, a moral or social observation.接下来,依然还是要写一个道德或社会观察评价。We#39;re using the second conditional this time, and we use the second conditional to talk about imagined situation, so that means hypothetical situations.这一次我们要用第二条件句,我们要用第二条件句来谈论想象的状况,也就是假想情景的意思。And it#39;s different because we are using ;would;, and we#39;re using the bare infinitive of the verb, and in the first clause we#39;re using past simple.这个的不同之处在于我们会用;would;和动词不带to的不定式,在第一个从句里还要用一般过去时。So let#39;s... let#39;s that last one: ;If schools were to teach this; -teach children how to be good members of society- ;the role of the family would be destroyed.;我们来读一下这最后一句:;If schools were to teach this;(如果学校要教这个的话)——教孩子们如何成为优秀的社会成员——;the role of the family would be destroyed.;(家庭的作用就会被破坏)。So that#39;s quite moral, quite a strong opinion to leave your essay with.这在作文结尾是个相当有寓意的、相当强烈的观点。And it does establish that: ;I#39;m finished now. My very important essay is complete.;而且它确实给人一种“我现在写完了,我的非常重要的作文结束了。”的感觉。So, there are two ways of writing your conclusions for IELTS, CAE, or a similar discursive essay.总结一下,雅思、CAE考试中的作文或者一个类似的论述文的结尾有两种写法。There are many more imaginative ways to write essays, this is not a fixed rule.还有很多更具想象力的写作文的方法,规则不是一成不变的。What can you take from this? You can take some phrases, you can start to think about the structure of your conclusion that you#39;re writing.今天的课上有什么能用的?你们可以把一些短语拿去用,你们可以开始思考自己要写的结尾的结构。And hopefully when you get there in your exam, you won#39;t get stuck in your conclusion, and you won#39;t just rewrite the answer,但愿你们去参加考试的时候,不会被困在结尾部分不知道该怎么做,不用重新作答,you#39;ll have something a little bit different to say, also something that displays a little bit of clever grammar, like a second conditional in your essay.希望你们会有一些不同的内容可以写,还有能稍稍展示出高明的语法的内容,比如在作文里写一个第二条件句。So... yep, if you did like this lesson, please subscribe here on my engvid channel.所以......没错,如果你们喜欢我的课程,请在这里点击订阅我的engvid频道。Also you can do a quiz on this, so you can take this lesson a little bit further, do a little bit of extra work on it.你们还可以做一个关于这堂课的小测验,这样你们就能进一步巩固今天的内容,稍微做一些与这相关的额外练习。Plus you can subscribe on my personal channel, because I#39;ve got two channels.另外,你们也可以订阅我的个人频道,因为我有两个频道。So, yep, I really do wish you luck on those exams, but I#39;m going now.我衷心希望你们在这些考试中能取得好成绩,不过我现在要跟你们说再见啦。 Article/201707/516706TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想 Article/201608/4618384(4):对话-装搭配英语口语900句文本下载 /200708/16687

Henry II, his wife Eleanor and their children Richard and John were the most astonishing of all the family firms to have run the enterprise of Britain.亨利二世与妻子埃莉诺 儿子理查和约翰 在所有统治英国的王族中 若论惊世骇俗 无出其右They did so with a furious energy that either entranced or appalled their subjects.臣民对他们那种疯狂的劲头 态度截然相反 崇敬有之 畏惧亦有之Like many family firms,they had a capacity for both creation and self-destruction.与很多王族相同的是 他们既能建功立业 也能自我毁灭What their intelligence built, their passions destroyed.卓绝的成就 终究毁于狂热的They were called the Angevins,name after the french-speaking province of Anjou.人们称其为安茹王朝 此名取自法语区的安茹At the height of their power,they were masters of all that counted in christendom.在其权力巅峰时期 他们统治了所有基督教国家Their England was the linchpin of an empire that stretched from the Scottish borders to the Pyrenees.庞大的帝国以英格兰为根基 从苏格兰边境延伸到庇里牛斯山Much bigger than France itself.比法国本土面积大很多Not since the Romans, and never again,has England been quite so European.自罗马时代后 英格兰再也没有 与欧洲大陆有过如此亲密接触The dynasty had its roots in the civil war that was being fought between two cousins, Stephen and Matilda,安茹王朝在内战中站稳了脚跟 战斗双方的斯蒂芬和玛蒂尔达是表亲the grandchildren of William the Conqueror.同为征者威廉的孙辈Stephen seized the crown, but that wasn#39;t the end of it,for if Matilda couldn#39;t beat him with an army,斯蒂芬夺取了王位 但这不是最终结果 尽管玛蒂尔达无法用武力击败他she could beat him with a wedding,a wedding that would found a dynasty and reduce Stephen#39;s ambitions to dust.但她可以用一场婚礼战而胜之 这场婚礼建立了一个王朝 令斯蒂芬的野心灰飞烟灭 /201609/464059

If you plan to walk out a survival situation,若你准备走出生存困境count on one thing:nature will throw everything at you,and block your part at every term.铭记一件事情 大自然总会阻碍着你 尽其所能挡住你前行的路To move on,sometimes you#39;ll have to take risks.若要前行 有些时候不得不冒险When on the lining,really,I got a bit lucky then.吊在绳上的时候 说真的 我真是有点儿凭运气了But you#39;ll need more than a bit of luck.但是你需要的不仅仅只是丁点儿运气Do everything you can to improve your chances of finding your way out and back to civilization.尽己所能增加找到出路 回归文明的机会So hard to just keep following the trails there.只是循循踪迹就这么困难The world#39;s hottest desert -- the Sahara.And it#39;s immense-- nearly the size of the USA.世界最热的沙漠 撒哈拉沙漠 广阔无垠-- 面积相当于整个美国With no land marks to guide you.It#39;s easy to lose your way.没有地标可循 很容易迷路But apply of you basic navigation tricks and you should stay on cools.但是运用基本的导航技巧 就不会走错路One way can check my direction, you just use my knife and the sand.有一个办法 可以检验我的方向 只要利用我的小刀 和沙子And then the shadow that it casts.And if I just stick this into the ground,and put a pebble where the sun casts a shadow.和它投下的阴影 就可以了 我只要把这玩意儿土里 然后拿一块小石头 放在阴影投下的地方See that, just And if I then leave this for just 15 minutes and so.瞧那 就是它 然后我放之不管15分钟左右The shadow now has moved around to there.Just there, it gives me two points.现在影子已经 移动到了那里 就那儿 这样 我就得到了两个点And if I mark that like this that#39;s gonna be my east-west line, which means north-south is like that,which means northwest is like that.然后像这样 标记下 那么它就是我的东西方向线 也就是说 南北方向是那么着的 也就是说西北方在那边Travel northwest and risk your safety at the endless mountains.向西北方向行进 在无边无垠的群山冒险前行 Article/201605/445269

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