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2019年09月22日 17:03:50来源:医互动

'Joe the Plumber' - Unexpected Star of US Presidential Debate美国总统选举辩论让水暖工成明星 One of the unexpected stars of Wednesday night's U.S. presidential debate turned out to be someone who was not even on the stage in New York. A man called "Joe the Plumber" was mentioned a total of 23 times by the candidates, who each tried to use him to make their arguments. Who "Joe the Plumber" is and what role he might play in the remaining 19 days of the presidential race. 美国经济疲软,金融危机扩散,这些问题目前是美国朝野最热门的话题,更是总统竞选争论的焦点。不过,人们都注意到,随着大选日的临近,特别是在民主党总统候选人奥巴马与共和党总统候选人麦凯恩举行的最后一场电视辩论中,双方为了阐明自己的经济政策,竟然把“水暖工乔”("Joe the Plumber)这个名字先后提了23次。“水暖工乔”究竟是谁?他将在投票前的19天里扮演什么角色?Sam Joe Wurzelbacher unknowingly stepped into the election spotlight when he met Senator Obama as the Democratic nominee campaigned Sunday in Toledo, Ohio. The bald, brawny plumber asked Obama about his plan to increase taxes for people who earn more than 0,000 a year.  山姆.乔.沃泽尔巴赫(Sam Joe Wurzelbacher)上星期天在俄亥俄州特雷多市碰到了在当地竞选的民主党总统候选人奥巴马,这次偶遇让乔成了名人。这位肌肉发达的光头水暖工询问了奥巴马的税收计划。奥巴马主张增加高收入阶层的所得税。Wurzelbacher explained that he wants to buy the small plumbing business where he works, and said he was worried that would put him into the upper tax bracket of Obama's plan.  沃泽尔巴赫说,他想买下他供职的小型水暖公司。但是他担心这样一来,他会变成奥巴马要加税的高收入阶层。Obama acknowledged that that might be the case and said he did not want to punish the plumber with higher taxes, but said "... I think that when we sp the wealth around, it is good for everybody." The exchange was captured on , and was aired on the conservative Fox News cable network, who interviewed the plumber. 奥巴马承认情况可能会是这样。他说,他不想用高税收惩罚这位水暖工。但是他说,“我认为当我们把财富分散的时候,所有人都有好处。”这段谈话被录像拍摄下来,并被保守派的福克斯电视台播放。福克斯还采访了这位水暖工。Early in Wednesday's debate, Senator John McCain brought up Wurzelbacher, and repeatedly used him as an example to attack Obama's plan, which Senator McCain said would tax the wealthiest Americans, calling it "class warfare." McCain looked straight at the camera and spoke to Joe. 10月19日举行的最后一场总统竞选辩论开始不久后,麦凯恩参议员就提到了沃泽尔巴赫,并多次用他做例子攻击奥巴马的计划。麦凯恩说,这个计划将增加最富裕美国人的税收。他说,这是“阶级斗争”。麦凯恩盯着摄像机对乔说:"Joe, I want to tell you, I will not only help you buy that business that you worked your whole life for and I will keep your taxes low and I will provide available and affordable health care for you and your employees," he said. "And I will not stand for a tax increase on small business income."  “乔,我来告诉你。我不仅会帮助你买下你为之奋斗一生的企业,我还会帮你保持低税收,我还会为你和你的雇员提供现成的和廉价的医疗保险。我坚决反对增加小企业税收。”Obama defended his tax plan, saying he had explained to Joe at the rally that 98 percent of small businesses make less than 0,000 a year.  奥巴马捍卫了他的税收计划。他说,他在竞选集会上向乔解释说,美国98%的小企业一年挣不到25万美元。"What I essentially said to him was, five years ago, when you were not in a position to buy your business, you needed a tax cut then," he said. "And what I want to do is to make sure that the plumber, the nurse, the firefighter, the teacher, the young entrepreneur who does not yet have money, I want to give them a tax break now. And that requires us to make some important choices." 他说:“我实际上已经告诉了乔,五年前,当你没有能力买这家公司的时候,你需要减税。我想做的是帮助所有没有太多钱的水暖工、护士、消防队员、教师、年轻的创业者,让他们获得减税。这样做需要我们做一些重要的选择。”Both candidates then continued to direct their answers to "Joe the Plumber" throughout much of the debate, using him as a symbol of an ordinary American as they outlined their health care plans and detailed how they might effect Joe.  两位候选人在随后的辩论中继续多次对水暖工乔直接喊话。他们还用乔作为典型美国人,解释他们各自的医疗保险计划会怎么样影响普通美国百姓。The 34-year-old single father was watching the debate at home in his living room, and said he was surprised to hear his name mentioned so many times. As the debate continued, his phone began ringing, with journalists trying to contact him. 这位34岁的单亲爸爸当时正坐在客厅里看辩论。他说,他对自己的名字被提到这么多次感到吃惊。辩论仍在进行的时候,他的电话开始响了起来,一些记者希望采访他。In one interview, he would not say who he is planning to vote for, but had this commentary after the debate. 在其中的一次采访中,沃泽尔巴赫没说想把票投给谁,但是他这样评价两位候选人的表现。"I think McCain did much better this time, he really got out his points," said Wurzelbacher. "So, I was pleased with that. I mean Obama, you cannot take away that he is just a very, he is a damned good speaker. But McCain came across with some solid points and I was real happy about that. He came across with his tax cuts, which I think are ultimately very good." 他说:“我认为麦凯恩这次表现的更好。他表达了自己的观点。所以,我感到很高兴。奥巴马,你不能否认他是个很好的演说家。但是,麦凯恩说出一些很有力的观点,我对此感到高兴。他的减税计划,我认为非常好。”Wurzelbacher said he is skeptical of Obama.  沃泽尔巴赫说,他对奥巴马还是有点怀疑。"Obama, I mean he sits there and says he wants to help the middle class, but you know I am middle class," he said. "You have seen my house. You know I do not have any bells and whistles [fancy things] in here really. And you know, my truck is a couple of years old and I am going to have it for the, you know, next 10 years, probably. So, you know, I do not see him helping me out." 他说:“奥巴马坐在那里说他要帮助中产阶级。我就是中产阶级。你看到了我的房子。我没有太多奢侈品。我的卡车已经买了两年了,我可能还得再开10年。所以,我不认为奥巴马会帮我的忙。”On Thursday, Wurzelbacher held news conferences in front of a crowd of reporters gathered in his suburban Toledo, Ohio driveway. He said all the media attention made him feel like "Britney Spears with a headache." He said the McCain campaign had asked him to attend a weekend rally, but he aly had plans to travel to New York.  星期四,家住特雷多郊区的沃泽尔巴赫在他的停车坪上举行了一个记者会。他说,媒体对他的关注让他觉得自己像是个得了头痛病的流行歌星。他说,麦凯恩竞选班底已经邀请他参加本周末的一次集会,但他事先已经计划去纽约旅行。On the campaign trail, McCain's vice presidential candidate Sarah Palin also talked about "Joe and Jane the Plumber" to attack Obama's tax plan, a sign that Joe may be invoked many times in the last days of the campaign. 麦凯恩的副总统候选人萨拉.佩林在攻击奥巴马税收计划的时候也提到了水暖工乔。很显然,乔的名字在未来三个星期的选举中还将被多次提到。200810/53099。

  • Climate change气候变化Good news at last?终于来了好消息?The climate may not be as sensitive to carbon dioxide as previously believed气候对二氧化碳的敏感性可能低于先前的预期CLIMATE science is famously complicated, but one useful number to keep in mind is ;climate sensitivity;. This measures the amount of warming that can eventually be expected to follow a doubling in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, in its most recent summary of the science behind its predictions, published in 2007, estimated that, in present conditions, a doubling of CO2 would cause warming of about 3deg;C, with uncertainty of about a degree and a half in either direction. But it also says there is a small probability that the true number is much higher. Some recent studies have suggested that it could be as high as 10deg;C.气候科学的复杂程度众所周知,但把一个指标记在脑中非常好用,那就是;气候敏感性;。该指标表示预计大气中二氧化碳浓度翻倍所能引致的升温量。政府间气候变化专门委员会(IPCC)在其最近一次关于其预测背后的科学性的概要中(发布于2007年)估计,在如今的情况下,二氧化碳浓度翻倍将造成3deg;C左右的升温,上下误差在1.5度左右。但该概要也声称,真实数据有少许可能还要高得多。一些近期的研究也猜测气温上升可能达到10deg;C之高。If that were true, disaster beckons. But a paper published in this weekrsquo;s Science, by Andreas Schmittner of Oregon State University, suggests it is not. In Dr Schmittnerrsquo;s analysis, the climate is less sensitive to carbon dioxide than was feared.如果这种猜测属实,灾难说来就来了(直译:灾难朝我们挥手)。但美国俄勒冈州立大学的安德烈亚斯-施密特纳在本周《科学》杂志上刊登的一篇报告认为,情况并非如此。在施密特纳士的分析中,气候对于二氧化碳的敏感性要低于先前的担忧。Existing studies of climate sensitivity mostly rely on data gathered from weather stations, which go back to roughly 1850. Dr Schmittner takes a different approach. His data come from the peak of the most recent ice age, between 19,000 and 23,000 years ago. His group is not the first to use such data (ice cores, fossils, marine sediments and the like) to probe the climatersquo;s sensitivity to carbon dioxide. But their paper is the most thorough. Previous attempts had considered only small regions of the globe. He has compiled enough information to make a credible stab at recreating the climate of the entire planet.现有的关于气候敏感性的研究主要基于气象站收集的数据,可以追溯到公元1850年左右。施密特纳士采用了另外一种方法。他的数据来源于最近一次冰河时期的顶峰(介于一万九千到两万三千年前之间)。他的团队不是第一个使用这些数据(冰芯,化石,海洋沉积物诸如此类)来探测气候对二氧化碳的敏感性的团队。但他们的报告是最全面彻底的。过去的研究只考虑了全球的小部分地区。而他汇编了足够的信息,可以确凿地尝试一下重建整个地球的气候模型。The result offers that rarest of things in climate science;a bit of good news. The grouprsquo;s most likely figure for climate sensitivity is 2.3deg;C, which is more than half a degree lower than the consensus figure, with a 66% probability that it lies between 1.7deg; and 2.6deg;C. More importantly, these results suggest an upper limit for climate sensitivity of around 3.2deg;C.研究的结果给出了气候科学中最为罕见之物;;一丁点好消息。该研究组给出最有可能的气候敏感性数字是2.3deg;C,比公认的数据低了半度多,并且该数字有66%的几率位于1.7deg;C到2.6deg;C之间。更重要的是,研究结果指出,气候敏感性的上限在3.2deg;C左右。Before you take the SUV out for a celebratory spin, though, it is worth bearing in mind that this is only one study, and, like all such, it has its flaws. The computer model used is of only middling sophistication, Dr Schmittner admits. That may be one reason for the narrow range of his teamrsquo;s results. And although the studyrsquo;s geographical coverage is the most comprehensive so far for work of this type, there are still blank areas;notably in Australia, Central Asia, South America and the northern Pacific Ocean. Moreover, some sceptics complain about the way ancient data of this type were used to construct a different but related piece of climate science: the so-called hockey-stick model, which suggests that temperatures have risen suddenly since the beginning of the industrial revolution. It will be interesting to see if such sceptics are willing to be equally sceptical about ancient data when they support their point of view.但是在你把SUV开出去兜风以作庆祝之前,要记住这只是一项研究而已,并且;;就如同所有这类研究一样;;研究自身也有缺陷。施密特纳士承认,该研究采用的电脑模型的复杂程度一般。这可能也是他的团队实验结果范围较窄的一个原因。而且,尽管这项研究的地理覆盖范围是迄今为止同类中最大的,它仍有空白区域;;尤其指澳洲,中亚,南美和北太平洋地区。此外,一些怀疑论者对这些远古数据被用来构建一个不同的但是相关的气候学分:所谓的;曲棍球棒模型;(认为气温自从工业革命以后就突然上升)满腹牢骚。看看当远古数据持这些怀疑论者的观点时,这些人是否还愿意以同等的怀疑态度对待,这一定会非常有趣。sensitive adj. 敏感的estimate v. 估计, 判断beckon v. 示意,召唤sensitivity n.敏感consensus n. 一致; 舆论comprehensive adj.全面的163510。
  • America's debt美国债务Shame on them真丢人!The Republicans are playing a cynical political game with hugely high economic stakes 共和党人见利忘义,不顾巨大经济风险,玩弄政治游戏Jul 7th 2011 | from The Economist print edition IN THREE weeks, if there is no political deal, the American government will go into default. Not, one must pray, on its sovereign debt. But the country will have to stop paying someone: perhaps pensioners, or government suppliers, or soldiers. That would be damaging enough at a time of economic fragility. And the longer such a default went on, the greater the risk of provoking a genuine bond crisis would become.倘若在三个月内没有政治交易,美国政府将出现违约(无力偿还债务)。但希望违约的不是主权债券。无论如何,美国将不得不停止向一些人付:也许是退休人员,或是政府供应商们,抑或军人们。在经济脆弱不堪的时候,那将具有足够的破坏性。并且,像这样的的违约状态持续越久,引发实际债务危机的风险越大。There is no good economic reason why this should be happening. America’s net indebtedness is a perfectly affordable 65% of GDP, and throughout the past three years of recession and tepid recovery investors have been more than happy to go on lending to the federal government. The current problems, rather, are political. Under America’s elaborate separation of powers, Congress must authorise any extension of the debt ceiling, which now stands at .3 trillion. Back in May the government bumped up against that limit, but various accounting dodges have been used to keep funds flowing. It is now reckoned that these wheezes will be exhausted by August 2nd. 没有一个合理的经济理由可以来解释为什么会这样。美国的净负债额占国内生总值的65%, 是完全可以负担得起的,加之过去三年来的衰退和缓慢的恢复,投资者们已十分乐意继续把钱借给联邦政府。当前的问题,更确切地说,应该是政治问题。在美国煞费苦心的权力分割之下,任何债务上限的提高必须经过国会批准(现在的债务限额处于14.3万亿美元的高位)。5月份美国政府债务剧增,颇有冲破上限之势。但各种账目伎俩使资金得以自由流转。现在估计到8月2日,黔驴将要技穷。201107/144403。
  • They appreciate all the recognition they receive. The best way to see Norway is from the air. Sightseeing flights are available from all the major cities,enabling visitors to see the attractions of the country at their most spectacular. Fjords were originally glacially carved valleys. But as the ice melted,these 1 were filled by rising sea water,creating these dramatic landscapes. The Hardanger fjord is the second longest in Norway and with its glacier at the top,the most picturesque. Only from this height can you truly appreciate the enormous scale of the fjord and glacier. This vast natural formation is one of many in Norway but it's a rare sight you'll never forget. The glacier at Hardanger is actually formed of 3 separate glaciers which together measure 220 square kilometers. In the last few years,walking on glaciers has become extremely popular amongst locals and tourists alike. A simple tour to the glacier Bodalsbreen in the area around stream lasts about 5 hours and begins with an hour hiking through the Josterdalsbreen National Park. The Bodalsbreen is part of this national park. The ice-cold crystal-clear water melted from the glacier form 2 that flow into the valley. This is Norway's wilderness at its best. The glacial valleys create some extraordinary sights. It's the first time this tourist has attempted to walk on ice. Special knowledge isn't necessary. All he needs is the right outdoor gear---the most important thing for any trip onto the ice. 注释: ① glacier n. 1. 冰河, 冰川 ②Josterdalsbreen National Park: Jostedalsbreen国家公园是挪威在国家公园,包括欧洲大陆,Jostedalsbreen上最大的冰川。公园始建于1991年10月25日的皇家法令,然后在1998年,它已扩大到西北。现在该公园占地1,310平方千米,占地约800平方公里的园区的冰川。 课后题目: 学习完后,你能告诉我文章中空缺的单词吗?201109/155569。
  • Green-collar jobs The workplace is turning more eco-friendly, creating new occupationsHave some coffee? Yes!After 34 years working in Toledo Ohio’s automotive industry, John Morris was laid off, and left to fend for himself in a bleak job market. ‘Being that I was in automotive, it just was not then out there.’ But to his surprise, his skills on the assembly line actually came in handy, landing him a job as a safety engineer at Xunlight, a start-up company that makes solar energy panels. ‘I'm a green-collar worker now. It was very exciting for me, to be able to start on the ground floor of a new type of development.’ Our modules are light-weight and flexible...The company’s president and CEO Xunming Deng believes Toledo is a good place to grow his company, in part because of the availability of skilled factory workers like John Morris. ‘There are some venture capitalists that say that we gotta move to California to grow a successful startup. But there are other venture capitalists, they come over and say, they said Xunming, this is the wonderful place because you have all these highly trained workers available to help out, they are just right there!’ Before Xunlight, Toledo was aly home to First Solar, the nation’s largest solar panel maker. But it’s not just Toledo, green-collar jobs are sprouting up across the country. And with the proper incentives, analysts say the industry could generate 3,000,000 new jobs over the next two decades. ‘It could leak overseas, unless the ed States, I think it's particularly the Federal level, is really aggressive about providing Federal supports.’ George Sterzinger with a renewable energy policy project fears the US could miss out on this emerging market. "One of the things that people have to realize is that it is a potential, it’s only a potential…" Toledo’s mayor Carty Finkbiener has seen the potential, he singles out solar energy as one of the lone bright spots in Ohio, a state that has lost close to a quarter of its manufacturing jobs in the last decade. "We regain some of the lost quality of life, some of the lost jobs, the economic vigor." For John Morris, the future is going green. "It's a business that I hope, I don't have to worry about tomorrow will I be out of the job and there’s a good future for us." But advocates for green-collar jobs says Congress is the key, despite the success stories, tax credits for alternative energies were not renewed in 2007. Analysts say those tax credits are facing an uphill battle this year. Jim Acosta, CNN, New York.Notes:Come in handy: Used casually when someone comments that something unexpected could prove useful.01/60397。
  • Paulson, Bernanke Defend Financial Rescue Strategy美财经官员在国会为救市措施辩护 In testimony to Congress, the U.S. treasury chief and central bank chairman have strongly defended their management of the 0 billion financial and credit market rescue program. The officials faced tough questions from lawmakers about how government money is being used. 美国财政部部长和美联储主席在国会作时为他们对7000亿美元金融和信贷救市项目的管理工作进行积极辩护。议员们针对这笔政府资金的使用情况向这两位官员提出了尖锐的问题。U.S. Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson and Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke have faced criticism the original intent of the financial rescue program as approved by Congress in September has shifted. 美国财政部部长保尔森和美联储主席伯南克面对批评的声音,因为有人说国会9月份批准的金融救市项目的初衷已经被改变了。Mr. Paulson revealed last week that billions of dollars approved by Congress is now going to prop up capital liquidity and lending capabilities of banks and other institutions, rather than to purchase troubled assets they hold. 伯南克上周透露,国会批准的这笔资金现在将被用来增加和其它机构的资本流动性和贷款能力,而不是用来购买这些机构手中的不良资产。Under questioning before the House Financial Services Committee, Paulson said negative developments in U.S. and global market conditions since Congress approved the rescue program outstripped the effectiveness of initial 0 billion amount approved by Congress, forcing the change in direction. 保尔森在受到众议院金融务委员会的质询时说,自从国会批准救市计划以来,首批拨出的3500亿美元资金已经不足以解决美国和全球市场形势进一步恶化所造成问题,这迫使政府改变救市资金的使用方法。"It is clear that an effective mortgage asset purchase program would require a massive commitment of TARP [Troubled Asset Relief Program] funds," he said. "In September, before economic conditions worsened, 0 billion in troubled asset purchases would have had a significant impact. But half of that sum in a worse economy simply is not enough fire power." 他说:“显然,要想让按揭资产购买项目发挥作用,就必须向不良资产救助项目中投入大量资金。今年9月,在经济情况进一步恶化之前,把这7000亿美元用在不良资产救助项目上是可以发挥巨大作用的。不过,在经济进一步恶化后,只用3500亿美元救市可谓杯水车薪。”Paulson said actions so far had strengthened the financial system, prevented further harm to the U.S. economy, and preserved for President-elect Barack Obama the flexibility he will need to deal with future challenges. Committee chairman Democratic Representative Barney Frank said lawmakers are unhappy with how banks and institutions have used money from the government program, and their failure to significantly expand lending to home owners. 金融务委员会主席、民主党众议员弗兰克说,和其它机构使用政府资金的方法,以及它们没有大幅增加对房屋所有人贷款规模的做法都令议员们感到不满。"The fundamental policy issue is our disappointment that funds are not being used out of the 0 billion to supplement mortgage foreclosure reduction," he said. 他说:“七千亿美元救市计划中的资金没有被用来减少房屋抵押权被收回的现象。我们对此感到失望。这是最根本的政策问题。”Lawmakers have pointed to media reports that banks have used money from the government assistance program to purchase other banks, and pay investor dividends and bonuses to executives.  议员们还指出,有媒体报导说,一些用政府救市项目中的资金来并购其它,或者用这些钱来给投资者分红、给高层发奖金。Representatives of some major institutions told Congress last week that executive compensation will be sharply reduced in light of economic conditions, and defended their efforts to expand lending. Ranking panel Republican Spencer Bachus said Paulson deserves credit for recognizing the need to shift strategy. 金融务委员会首席共和党议员巴克斯说,保尔森意识到需要改变战略,这是值得称赞的。"[If] conditions on the ground change, then you must be agile and adjust, and I hope we all understand that," he said. 他说:“如果具体情况变了,那么你就必须灵活地调整策略,我希望我们都能明白这一点。”In their testimony, Bernanke and Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Chairman Sheila Bair said while capital injections reduced pressure on and provided some stability to banks, credit conditions remain unsatisfactory. 美联储主席伯南克和联邦存款保险公司主席贝尔在作时说,虽然资本注入减少了的压力,并给带来了一些稳定,但是信贷市场的环境仍然不容乐观。"Overall credit conditions are still far from normal, with risk sps remaining very elevated and banks reporting that they continued to tighten lending standards through October," Bernanke said. 伯南克说:“从总体上看,信贷环境还远没有恢复正常。信用风险差价依然过高,则说它们在10月份继续收紧信贷标准。”"The financial system is now more stable and interest rate sps have narrowed substantially, however credit remains tight and a serious threat to the economic outlook," said Bair. 贝尔说:“金融系统现在稳定一些了,利差已经大幅缩减,但是信贷依然紧张,这是对经济前景的一个严重威胁。”Bair pointed to continuing increases in the number of U.S. home foreclosures, saying that government efforts are "falling behind the curve." In his testimony, Treasury Secretary Paulson said the Bush administration remains opposed to using funds from the government rescue program to help the three major U.S. automakers avoid collapse. 财政部长保尔森在作时说,布什政府依然反对使用政府救市项目中的资金来帮助美国三大汽车制造公司免于倒闭。House and Senate lawmakers are considering a billion plan to help auto manufacturers. 美国众议院和参议院的议员们正在考虑是否动用250亿美元帮助这些汽车制造公司。200811/56571。
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