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2019年11月20日 22:02:19 | 作者:管网 | 来源:新华社

In a memo to employees after announcing that Verizon Communications would buy his company for .4 billion, Tim Armstrong, AOL’s chief executive, offered a rhapsodic hymn on a single subject: mobile.在宣布威瑞森电信(Verizon Communications)将以44亿美元(约合273亿元人民币)收购其公司以后,美国在线(AOL)的首席执行官蒂姆·阿姆斯特朗(Tim Armstrong)在写给员工的备忘录中,对一个主题表达了热情的赞美:移动业务。The future of nearly all media, and consequently the future of nearly all advertising, he said, is about our phones. “If there is one key to our journey to building the largest digital media platform in the world, it is mobile,” he wrote, by way of explaining why AOL, a company known for its news and entertainment sites and its dial-up subscribers, was merging with a cellphone carrier.他说,几乎所有媒体的未来,进而包括几乎所有广告的未来,都与我们的电话有关。“如果说我们在通往打造世界最大的数字媒体平台的道路上有一个关键因素,那就是移动业务,”他写道,这也解释了为何以新闻和网站以及拨号上网业务著称的AOL,会与一家移动电话运营商合并。Mr. Armstrong ended his memo, which was otherwise puffed with jargon indecipherable to many outside the world of advertising and media, with a clear message that could double as the catchphrase of his entire industry: “Let’s mobilize.”阿姆斯特朗的备忘录里充斥着行话,对许多广告和媒体行业以外的人而言难以理解,但他在末尾传达了一条清晰的讯息,这条讯息也可以作为他所在的整个行业的口号:“让我们移动起来。”His words — and the deal with Verizon he just helped engineer — are just the latest corporate reaction to a staggering shift in the way people across the globe get their news and entertainment. Over the last couple of years, we have collectively decided to use our phones to reach the Internet more than we ever used our computers to do. And like a horde of aggrieved vultures that has just seen its carrion spirited away to some other part of the savanna, the tech and media business is equally panicked and excited about the vast possibilities for making money from the shift.世界各地的人们获得新闻和内容的方式正在发生剧烈转变,他的话——以及他参与策划的与威瑞森的交易——只是企业对这种转变做出应对的最新一例。过去几年,我们集体决定用手机上网,所用的时间比我们以往任何时候用电脑上网的时间都多。就像一群忿忿不平的秃鹫,目睹属于自己的腐肉被转移到稀树草原的另一个地方,科技和媒体行业面对从这种转变中获利的广阔可能性,是又惊又喜的。At the moment, except for Google and Facebook — which together control more than 55 percent of the .6 billion worldwide mobile ad market, according to eMarketer — few companies have managed to navigate the transition from desktop computers to phones. The shift has shaken up just about everything for everyone, such as Internet portals like AOL and Yahoo; carriers like Verizon and ATamp;T; and eCommerce ventures like Amazon. Some industries — music and newspapers among them — were just figuring out the switch from physical media like CDs and print to the web. But the switch from the web to our phones is happening even faster than the transition away from physical media, and in many ways it is more profound.目前,除了谷歌(Google)和Facebook——据eMarketer的统计,这两家公司控制着价值426亿美元的世界移动广告市场的55%——只有少数几家公司能很好地掌控这种从台式电脑到手机的转变。这种转变几乎改变了所有人的一切,例如AOL和雅虎(Yahoo)等互联网门户网站、威瑞森和ATamp;T等运营商,以及亚马逊(Amazon)等电商企业。有些行业——其中包括音乐和报纸——还在摸索从光盘和印刷等实体媒介向网络的转变。然而,网络朝手机的转移发生得更快,而且在许多方面也更加深刻。As Benedict Evans, an analyst at the venture capital firm Andreessen Horowitz, is fond of pointing out in a presentation he calls “mobile is eating the world,” the smartphone industry is now shipping nearly three times as many devices as the personal computer industry did at its peak. Smartphones have led to more consumption of media than we had ever thought possible; we spend just about half the time we’re not sleeping glued to some kind of screen.风险投资公司安德森-霍洛维茨(Andreessen Horowitz)的分析师贝内迪克特·埃文斯(Benedict Evans)在被他称为“移动业务正在吞噬世界”(mobile is eating the world)的演讲中热情地指出,智能手机行业目前的设备出货量几乎是个人电脑行业巅峰时期出货量的三倍。由于智能手机,人们对媒体的消费超出了我们以往的想象,我们把非睡眠时间中的大约一半都用在了盯着某种屏幕上。Phones bring novel technical and user-interface challenges, some of which account for Verizon’s interest in AOL: How do you display an interesting ad on a tiny screen? On an interface fragmented by apps, how do you figure out who users are — and how to serve them with the best ads — as they switch from games to mobile web browsers to social platforms like Facebook, Twitter and Snapchat?手机在科技和用户界面方面带来了新的挑战,其中有些解释了为何威瑞森会对AOL有兴趣:你如何在一个小屏幕上展示一个有趣的广告?在一个被各种应用搞得离破碎的界面上,你的用户正在从游戏切换到移动网页浏览器,再切换到Facebook、Twitter和Snapchat等社交平台,这时如何认清你的用户是什么样的人——以及如何为他们提供最好的广告?The rise of smartphones may also bring about something deeper — what could be an existential question for the advertising industry, the business that funds most of modern media.智能手机的兴起或许还会产生更深远的影响——这对于广告行业可能是个关乎生死的问题,而该行业是大多数现代媒体的资金来源。“The question I came to when I started working on ads is, ‘Are ads even relevant now? Do they even make sense on mobile?’” Andrew Bosworth, who heads Facebook’s advertising engineering division, told me in a recent interview.Facebook广告工程部门负责人安德鲁·斯沃思(Andrew Bosworth)在近期的采访中告诉我,“当我开始着手处理广告时,我所遇到的问题就是‘现在的广告有用吗?它们在移动设备上还有意义吗?’”After all, phones give us perfect information about everything wherever we are, so why would we ever fall for ads, he wondered? “I step off a train in New York City now, I do not want for an ability to find anything. I have information about everything,” Mr. Bosworth said. “So if all information is indexable and searchable, then what purpose does an ad serve?”他感到不解的是,毕竟无论我们在哪,手机都会为我们提供各种信息,为何我们会相信广告呢?“我在纽约下了火车,我不想寻找什么。我拥有一切信息,”斯沃思说。“因此,如果所有信息都是可索引、可搜索的,那广告有什么用呢?”In that world, Mr. Bosworth said, advertising is valuable only if it provides direct meaning to customers — if, when you pull out your phone in New York City and check Facebook, the phone knows that you’re looking for food and presents you with an ad for a restaurant that cuts through the clutter of all your potential choices, instead giving you a recommendation that is tailored specifically for you.斯沃思表示,在那个世界中,广告只有对用户具有直接意义时下才是有价值的,当你在纽约拿出手机,查看Facebook的时候,手机知道你在寻找食物,并为你呈现一则餐厅广告,使其在各种潜在的选择中脱颖而出,而不是为你提供量身定制的建议。In other words, in a world in which we all carry phones and can get accurate information at any time, ads have less leeway to cajole us into doing something we might otherwise not have done.换句话说,我们如今都有手机,而且任何时候都能获得准确的信息,广告已经不太可能吸引我们做一些我们可能不会去做的事情。“It’s expensive to get an ad in front of the right person,” Mr. Bosworth said. “If someone spends money to get an ad in front of you that’s not right for you, they’re punished for it.”“向正确的受众投送广告是一件成本高昂的事情,”斯沃思说。“如果有人花钱向你投送广告,而你不是这种广告的受众,他们会因此受到惩罚。”Instead, ads now consult vast databases of personal information, and they rely on sophisticated pricing mechanisms, merely to suggest one option out of many thousands that may appeal to us.广告现在会诉诸大量个人信息,依靠复杂的定价机制,然后从数千个可能会吸引我们的选择中选出一个,提供给我们。People in the ad-tech industry said that in buying AOL, Verizon’s immediate goal may be to marry its data about customers to AOL’s capacity to serve ads to increase this sort of relevancy.广告技术领域的人表示,从收购AOL来看,威瑞信目前的目标可能是将其客户数据与AOL的能力结合起来,提供广告,增加这种相关性。“I think AOL was a little on their back foot on mobile,” said Ari Paparo, chief executive of an ad technology company called Beeswax. He added that the most successful companies with mobile ads tended to be those that knew a lot about their customers — that explains why Google and Facebook, which have close to perfect insight into what we do online, are such powerhouses.“我认为AOL在移动业务方面有些处于不利境地,”技术公司Beeswax首席执行官阿里·帕帕罗(Ari Paparo)说。他还表示,在移动广告业务上最为成功的公司,往往是那些对用户非常了解的公司,这就解释了为何谷歌(Google)和Facebook会如此强大,它们对我们的网上活动有着几近完美的洞察。With Verizon, AOL may be getting a similar trove of data. Through its cellular network and its various broadband offerings, Verizon can help AOL figure out lots of details about a user who lands in an app whose ads are powered by AOL’s ad services. Is the person male or female? How wealthy is she, and what are her broad interests?并入威瑞信后,AOL可能会获得同样珍贵的数据。威瑞信可以通过蜂窝网络和各种宽带务,在使用AOL广告务的应用中了解用户的细节信息。用户是男是女?她的财务状况如何,以及她都喜欢什么?“When you put these two sides together, it could potentially help them serve you better ads, and serve you ads in different places,” said Eric Franchi, co-founder of Undertone, an ad technology company.“把这两个方面结合起来,可能会有助于它们为你提供更好的广告,在不同的地方向你提供广告,”广告技术公司Undertone联合创始人埃里克·弗兰奇(Eric Franchi)说。Yet Verizon’s bet on AOL is hardly guaranteed to play out in the way the companies intend. This is both because of the general difficulties associated with any merger and because the industry AOL is going after is in a state of constant flux. Nobody really knows what will work in the larger business of funding media through ads on these new devices we’re carrying around.然而,威瑞信对AOL所下的赌注,不见得一定能得到如愿以偿的结果。这是因为任何收购交易都存在的一些难点,也因为AOL所从事的领域处于不断变化的状态。从更大范围来看,用我们随身携带的新设备上的广告来供养媒体的方式能够奏效,没人能给出。“If you’re a media company and you see that more than 50 percent of all mobile ads are going to Facebook and Google, you need to really recheck your assumptions about how you’re going to compete,” Mr. Paparo said. “To that extent, I think this is an effort to be competitive — to have some ability to just compete.”“如果你是一家媒体公司,看到超过50%的移动广告都投放于Facebook和谷歌,那你真该好好想想自己对如何竞争的认识是不是出了问题,”帕帕罗说。“从这个意义来说,我认为这是一项增强竞争力的举措——就是努力拥有一些能够参与竞争的能力。 /201505/374880

Classic of Mountains and Seas《山海经》Shan Hai Jing(Classic of Mountains and Seas)was an important geo-graphical literature on geography in ancient China. The currently availa-ble version includes 18 volumes,among which 5 volumes are Shan Jing(Classic of Mountains),8 volumes are Hai Jing(Classic of Seas),4 volumes are Da Huang Jing(Classic of Big Land)and 1 Volume Is Hainei Jing(Classic of Mainland).It is said that Shan Hai Jing was written by Yu,one of the forefathers of ancient Chi-na,but the saying is quite doubtful.《山海经》是中国古代的重要地理文献。现在的版本有十八卷,包括《山经》五卷、《海经》八卷、《大荒经》四卷、《海内经》一卷。传说是禹所作,不太可信。In this book, Shah Jing and Hai Jing form their own specific systems accord-ingly,while they were finished in different periods,Share ,Zing contains the descrip-tion of famous mountains and great rivers,propagation and minerals on the main-land. It is estimated that this part of the book was finished in the early or mid peri-od the Warring States Period. Hai Jing contains a great deal of alien legends,fairy tales home and abroad,and was written in the Qin Dynasty ( 221 一206 ) or atthe beginning of the Western Han Dynasty.《山海经》的《山经》和《海经》各成体系,成书的时代也不一样。《山经》涉及巫术较多,记载了海内名山大川、动植物产、祯祥怪异等内容。写作年代一般推测为战国初期或中期。《海经》则是方士用书,记载海内外怪异传闻,还有大量神话传说,写作时代是秦(前221一前206)或西汉初年。Shan Hai Jing,containing rich legends and fairy tales,is very valuable for historical study,especially helpful for research on primitive society in China,and the primitive surname,tribes,and knowledge and understanding of the universe,nature and social development.《山海经》中有丰富的神话传说资料,具有重要的史学价值,这有助于研究中国的原始社会和上古的姓氏、部族,及上古人对宇宙、自然和社会历史的认识状况。According to the records in Shan Hai Jing,the Yellow Emperors is the heavenly emperor of the west. He was the great grandfather of Zhuan Xu(a legendary ancient emperor),the grandfa-then of Guan. He was also the ancestor of many tribes inside and outside China. Di Jun has no re-cords in other books and is not listed among San Huang Wu Di(Three Emperors and Five Gods),and is the only heavenly emperor in Shan Hai Jing.In this book, he was the inventor of farming,craft, vehicle,boat, musical in-struments,singing and dancing. Together with Xi(the legendary goddess),he gave birth to 10 suns and 12 moons,which relate to the astronomy and the calen-dar. There are still many legends about the water-control of the Great Yu,battle between the Great Yu and Gong Gonq .and so on.根据《山海经》的记载,黄帝是西方的天帝。他不仅是撷项的曾祖、稣的祖父,还是中国境内和四裔许多部族共同的祖先,这对研究中国民族史有着重要价值。帝俊在其他书中没有记载,也没有列人三皇五帝之中,他是《山海经》中独有的天帝。《山海经》把农、工、车、舟、琴瑟、歌舞的发明权都归于他,还说他和羲和生了十个太阳,又生了十二月,这又和天文历法有了关系。《山海经》中还有关于大禹治水、禹攻共工等神话传说。 /201512/410683

You can credit Apple Pay with dramatically raising the visibility of mobile payments technology over the past four months. Even the U.S. government now accepts it, for admission to national parks and such.过去四个月里,移动付技术获得的关注度显著提升,这笔功劳很大程度要记在苹果公司的Apple Pay上。就连美国政府现在也接受了它,允许人们用它购买国家公园的门票什么的。Google isn’t just watching: it just signed some formidable partners to build its own share more quickly. ATamp;T, T-Mobile and Verizon will all preload Google’s app on certain mobile handsets. They’ve also decided to let Google take control of Softcard, the alliance they created to control their mobile payment destiny.谷歌不仅仅是在观望:该公司刚刚和几个强大的合作伙伴签约,企图迅速构筑自己的市场份额。ATamp;T、T-Mobile和Verizon等运营商都将在特定机型上预装谷歌的付应用。他们还决定让谷歌控制他们为掌控移动付命运而创建的Softcard联盟。Plus, you shouldn’t discount the potential influence of the world’s biggest smartphone maker, Samsung. Last week, it bought LoopPay, a technology that doesn’t require massive upgrades of point-of-sale technology.另外,我们也不应忽视全球最大手机制造商三星公司的潜在影响力。就在上周,三星刚刚收购了LoopPay公司,后者的技术并不需要POS机技术的重大升级。Nor should you overlook PayPal, which processedapproximately billion in mobile payments during 2014. That was 20% of its total.PayPal也不容忽视。2014年,PayPal通过移动付处理了将近460亿美元的交易额,占其总交易额的20%。Why all this fuss? The answer lies in the success of the Starbuck mobile app, which supports at least 7 million mobile transactions per week.各大公司为何纷纷涌向移动付?与星巴克移动应用的成功有关,该应用每周至少要处理700万次移动交易。An impressive digital payment vehicle? Certainly. But that understates the app’s powerful influence as a marketing tool. It’s aly used liberally to distribute third-party software, digital music, and promotional offers. A valuable marketing channel that is mostly underexploited today.移动付是一个优秀的数字付载体吗?当然。但这种说法低估了它作为一种营销工具的强大影响力。它已经被广泛用于推广第三方软件、数字音乐和促销活动。这是一个极具价值,但目前还没有得到充分开发的营销渠道。“Access to loyalty rewards from brands is the most wanted features from consumers, and it’s the one least integrated in mobile payments today,” notes Forrester Research analyst Thomas Husson, in a recent blog about this topic.福雷斯特研究公司分析师托马斯o哈森最近在一篇讨论这个话题的客中写道:“获得各大品牌的忠诚度奖励,是消费者最想要的功能,它也是这些移动付最大的缺陷之一。”Indeed, approximately 57% of U.S. adult smartphone users want access to loyalty programs and rewards through mobile wallets, according to his firm’s ongoing Consumer Technographics surveys.实际上,根据福雷斯特公司正在进行的消费科技调查,大约57%的美国成年人智能手机用户想通过智能钱包参加某个品牌的忠诚度奖励计划。Three other tidbits to consider:另外还有三点需要注意:o Don’t forget price comparison information. It was only slightly behind loyalty programs as a desired feature for mobile wallets.o 不要忘了价格比较功能。在消费者看来,比价信息的重要性只是略低于忠诚度计划,也是消费者非常需要的移动钱包功能之一。o Consumers may be slow to trust. They’re more likely to consider mobile wallets from banks and credit card processors than from technology companies or retailers. PayPal stands out as an exception.o 要让消费者信任移动钱包可能需要比较长的时间。他们可能更容易相信或信用卡处理商推出的移动钱包软件,而不是科技公司或零售企业提供的移动付功能。PayPal是个例外。o Dramatic three-year increase anticipated. According to Forrester’s report in early February, just 3% of consumers have used a mobile wallet in the past three months. By 2018, however, adoption should reach 15-20% of smartphone users. That’s an impressive upside.o 在未来三年内,移动钱包有望实现快速增长。根据福雷斯特公司二月初发布的报告,在过去三个月里,只有3%的消费者使用了移动钱包功能。不过到2018年,移动钱包的使用率将达到全部智能手机用户的15%到20%。这种增长速度将是非常惊人的。 /201503/362737

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