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2019年10月18日 03:25:54来源:咨询社区

  • China#39;s introduction of the two-child policy this year has caused worry that the change will further aggravate a current shortage of pediatricians.我国今年推行的二孩政策引发人们对于儿科医生短缺现状将雪上加霜的担忧。The number of pediatricians in China dropped from 105,000 to around 100,000 within five years, according to China#39;s public health statistical yearbook in 2015. On average, there are only 43 doctors per 100,000 children.根据《2015年中国卫生统计年鉴》数据显示,我国儿科医生的数量在5年内从10.5万人减少至约10万人。平均10000名儿童只有43位儿科医生。Wang Baoxi, a pediatrician with the Shaanxi branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, told Xinhua that situation was even worse in smaller cities and counties. In Weinan city, which is about 70 kilometers away from Shaanxi#39;s capital Xi#39;an, they only had 17 doctors to care for 100,000 children.中国医药联合会陕西分会的儿科医生王宝西告诉新华社,这一情况在小城镇更加糟糕。在距离陕西省会西安市7公里的渭南市,每10万儿童只有17名医生负责照顾。The Lingnan branch of No. 3 hospital affiliated with Sun Yat-sen University posted a notice telling people emergency treatment services in the pediatric department were canceled due to lack of doctors.中山大学第三附属医院岭南分院发布一个通知,告诉人们由于医生不足,儿科部门的急诊务被迫取消。;Since the department was established in 2011, we have employed eight doctors. Four left in the following years,; said Shan Yutao, who works in the hospital#39;s medical management office.在医院药物管理办公室工作的单玉涛说道:“自从2011年该部门成立以来,我们曾雇用了8名医生,但是这些年下来,只剩下了4名。”The shortage of pediatricians has made it difficult for parents. Low salary, high pressure and high risk are the main causes behind people#39;s reluctance to become pediatricians, said analysts儿科医生数量的不足给家长们带来很多麻烦。分析人士称,薪酬低、压力大以及风险高是人们不愿成为儿科医生的主因。According to the National Health and Family Planning Commission, 90 million Chinese women are allowed to have a second child under the two-child policy, which took effect on Jan 1.根据国家卫生和计划生育委员会的数据显示,在1月1日全面开放两孩儿政策的影响下,9千万中国女性将被允许生第二胎。An Haiyan, an official with the Shaanxi provincial health and family planning commission, suggested that more importance be attached to pediatric departments in hospitals, and pediatricians be given subsidy for their job.陕西省卫生和计划生育委员会一名名叫安海燕的官员建议医院应该更加重视儿科,同时给予儿科医生工作津贴。 /201602/425418。
  • Like men, about half of all women play games. But men are far more likely to call themselves “gamers.”像男性一样,大约有半数的女性玩。但男性自称“玩家”(gamer)的意愿远远高于女性。That’s according to a new Pew Research Center survey that found 48 percent of women play games, just shy of the 50 percent of men who play. The gamer identity was far less attractive to women, however, with 6 percent of them adopting the label compared with 15 percent of men.皮尤研究中心(Pew Research Center)新近的一项调查发现,48%的女性玩,仅略低于男性50%的比例。然而在女性看来,“游戏玩家”这个身份的吸引力却远远更低,只有6%的女性接受这个标签,相比之下男性中的比例为15%。Video game experts said it was no surprise that women are shunning an association with gaming culture as the community of hard-core players has become increasingly identified with sexist attitudes among its fringe members.专家表示,女性回避与游戏文化产生关联并不令人奇怪,因为硬核游戏玩家的群体越来越多地被其中边缘成员的性别歧视态度所代表。“Having a label of gamer is not just about being geeky,” said Rosalind Wiseman, an author who has studied gaming attitudes among young people. “It also has spilled over unfortunately into a really negative connotation of people who are just really angry and intolerant of other people.”“被打上‘玩家’的标签不仅代表着像个‘极客’(geek),”罗莎琳·怀斯曼(Rosalind Wiseman)说。“很遗憾,这个词的涵义延伸了,带有了一种相当负面的意味,即那些十分易怒、完全不能容忍别人的人。”怀斯曼研究过年轻人对游戏的态度,并有著作出版。She added that the reputation “is really not representative of a lot of people who play games.”她补充道,这种名声“并不能真实代表很多游戏玩家”。The stigma gained currency last year with so-called GamerGate, an online campaign to discredit critics of sexism in games and gaming culture. As harassment veered into threats of violence and rape, the controversy drew news media attention, and set off debates over how bad misogyny in gaming had become.去年,随着所谓的“玩家门”(GamerGate)事件,这种负面印象广为流传。对和游戏文化中的性别歧视提出批评的人士,在“玩家门”事件中受到了攻击。随着骚扰行动转变成了涉及暴力和强奸的威胁,这场争议吸引了媒体的注意,也让外界开始讨论游戏圈仇视女性的风气已经到了多么严重的程度。Other unwritten codes about what qualifies a person for membership in the gaming community have helped to raise the bar to entry: Casual playing, for instance, doesn’t count, and you must play games that are sufficiently intricate, strategic and difficult.对于什么样的人才可以成为游戏圈的成员,还有其他一些不成文的规则。这些要求也帮助提高了入围门槛:例如,随便玩一玩是不算的,你玩的游戏必须足够复杂、有战略性,而且具备难度。Jamin Warren, founder of the game arts and culture company Kill Screen, said the reason many hard-core gamers cling to a restrictive definition of the word can be explained by “classic in-group favoritism.”艺术和文化公司“谋杀屏幕”(Kill Screen)的创始人加民·沃伦(Jamin Warren)说,许多硬核玩家执着于这个词语的狭隘定义,这可以用“典型的内群体偏向”来解释。As games have become more a part of the cultural mainstream in recent years, Mr. Warren said, “the protectiveness of the term has only heightened.”近年来,随着越来越多地成为主流文化的一部分,沃伦说,“对玩家这个词的保护欲也增强了。”Ms. Wiseman, who studied gaming habits among middle- and high school-aged people, said girls face elevated scrutiny over their gaming skills. They describe harrowing experiences in web-based multiplayer games where participants talk through headsets. When a girl’s voice chimes in, the reaction from other players often follows a certain script.怀斯曼研究了初高中学生的游戏习惯,她说,女生的游戏技能受到了更加严苛的审视。她们形容,在玩家都戴着耳机聊天的网络多人游戏中,自己有过糟糕的体验。有女生的声音加入时,其他玩家的反应通常都符合一种特定的套路。“It’s something about they’re a slut, they’re fat, they’re ugly, or they are bad at the game,” she said.“要么说她们是婊子,要么说她们胖,要么说她们丑,要么说她们游戏打得不好,”她说。As a result, girls will often mute their voices.因此,女生常常会关掉语音。Some in the gaming community have proposed a shift in the meaning of gamer to be akin to cinephile, a person with a deep knowledge and appreciation of the whole medium. Others have argued that the definition should be broad and, in particular, reflect the wide array of people who play.游戏圈里的一些人提议,让“玩家”转变成类似“影迷”(cinephile)的涵义,即对整个媒介有深入的了解和见解的人。另一些人则主张,其定义应该宽泛,尤其是要能反映“玩游戏的人”这个广泛的群体。“Marginalized groups have always engaged in gaming,” Kishonna Gray, director of the Critical Gaming Lab at Eastern Kentucky University, said in an email. “They just haven’t been acknowledged by gaming culture yet and they really aren’t catered to.”“边缘化的群体一直都热衷于,”东肯塔基大学(Eastern Kentucky University)游戏批评实验室(Critical Gaming Lab)主任基淑娜·格雷(Kishonna Gray)在电子邮件中说。“只是他们还没有得到游戏文化的承认,其需求也还无人满足。”The Pew survey, which was conducted this summer among a sample of about 2,000 adults, found that young men play games far more than other groups, with 77 percent of 18- to 29-year-old men saying they play, and 57 percent of young women.皮尤的研究是今年夏天对大约2000名成年人展开的。研究发现,玩游戏的年轻男性比例远高于其他群体,18至29岁的男性中,有77%称自己玩游戏,而年轻女性中的比例为57%。With older Americans, the pattern flips: Over the age of 50, women are more likely to play games, with 38 percent saying they play, compared with 29 percent of men.在较为年长的人中,情况则截然不同。在50岁以上的人群中,女性玩游戏的比例更高,有38%称自己玩游戏。而同年龄段的男性中只有29%。Society at large seems to remain apprehensive about the benefits of games. Forty percent of respondents to the Pew survey said people who play violent games are more likely to be violent themselves, while 26 percent said games are simply a waste of time.对于的益处,整个社会似乎仍存在担忧。在皮尤的研究中,40%的受访者表示,玩暴力游戏的人,本人有暴力倾向的可能性更高,26%的受访者认为纯粹是浪费时间。The survey did not make distinctions among players of console games, PC games, online games or mobile games.调查中没有区分游戏机游戏、电脑游戏、在线游戏和移动设备游戏的玩家。 /201512/417116。
  • Organic meat and milk differ markedly from their conventionally produced counterparts in measures of certain nutrients, a review of scientific studies reported on Tuesday.周二(2月9日),一项科学研究综述报告,有机肉类和牛奶在某些营养成分上与通过常规方式生产的同类产品间存在明显差异。In particular, levels of omega-3 fatty acids, beneficial for lowering the risk of heart disease, were 50 percent higher in the organic versions.尤其是,有机产品中有益于降低心脏病风险的ω-3脂肪酸的水平比普通产品高出50%。“The fatty acid composition is definitely better,” said Carlo Leifert, a professor of ecological agriculture at Newcastle University in England and the leader of an international team of scientists who performed the review.该综述由一国际科学家小组完成,其负责人,英格兰纽卡斯尔大学(Newcastle University)的生态农业教授卡洛·莱费特(Carlo Leifert)说:“(有机产品的)脂肪酸组成绝对更佳。”The European Commission, the executive body of the European Union, and the Sheepdrove Trust, a British charity that supports organic farming research, paid for the analysis, which cost about 0,000.该项分析耗资约60万美元,这些费用由欧盟(European Union)的执行机构欧盟委员会(European Commission)和持有机农业研究的英国慈善机构Sheepdrove Trust承担。However, the question of whether these differences are likely to translate to better health in people who eat organic meat and drink organic milk is sharply disputed.然而,上述差异是否代表着吃有机肉类、喝有机牛奶的人更为健康呢?人们对此仍有尖锐的争议。“We don’t have that answer right now,” said Richard P. Bazinet, a professor of nutritional sciences at the University of Toronto who was not involved with the research. “Based on the composition, it looks like they should be better for us.”“这个问题的我们现在还不得而知,”多伦多大学(University of Toronto)的营养科学教授理查德·P·巴齐内(Richard P. Bazinet)说,他没有参与上述研究。“但就营养组成而言,它们(有机产品)似乎更为有益。”The two new scientific papers, published in The British Journal of Nutrition, are not the result of any new experiments, but instead employ a statistical technique called meta-analysis that attempts to pull robust conclusions out of many disparate studies.这两篇新的科学论文发表在《英国营养学杂志》(The British Journal of Nutrition)上,它们并没有介绍什么新的实验结果,而是采用了一种名为荟萃分析的统计技术,试图从众多不同的研究中得出强有力的结论。They are certain to further stir a combative debate over whether organic foods are healthier. Some scientists assert that organic and conventional foods are nutritionally indistinguishable, and others find significant benefits to organic. Many people who buy organic food say they do so not for a nutritional advantage, but because of environmental concerns and to avoid pesticides.它们势必会进一步激起人们就有机食品是否更为健康展开激烈的辩论。一些科学家宣称,有机食品和常规食品的营养价值并无区别,而其他人则发现有机产品显著较好。许多人称自己购买有机食品并非是为了更高的营养价值,而是出于对环境的忧虑,以及希望能避免农药问题。The higher levels of omega-3, a type of polyunsaturated fat, arise not from the attributes usually associated with organic food — that the animals are not given antibiotics, hormones or genetically modified feed — but rather from a requirement that animals raised organically spend time outside. Organic milk and beef come from cattle that graze on grass, while most conventional milk and beef come from cows subsisting on grain.ω-3脂肪酸是一种多不饱和脂肪。有机食品中ω-3脂肪酸水平较高,并不是有机食品本身的特点(即不给予动物抗生素、激素或转基因饲料)造成的,而是因为有机养殖的动物在室外活动的时间较长。有机牛奶和牛肉产自在草地上放牧的牛,而大多数普通牛奶和牛肉则产自吃谷物的牛。“It’s not something magical about organic,” said Charles M. Benbrook, an organic industry consultant who is an author of the studies. “It’s about what the animals are being fed.”“有机食品本身并没有什么神奇之处,”研究的作者之一,有机产业顾问查尔斯·M·本布鲁克(Charles M. Benbrook)说。“关键在于动物是用什么东西饲喂的。”Most of the same changes would be observed in conventionally raised animals that also grazed for the majority of their diet, the scientists said.“For once, this is a pretty simple story,” Dr. Benbrook said.科学家们表示,如果常规饲养的动物也以吃草为主,那么在它们身上也能发现很多相同的改变。“这样一来,问题就变得简单了,“本布鲁克士说。The review of comparisons of organic and conventional milk analyzed all 196 papers the scientists found. Because studies of meat are sparser, they could not look at just one type of meat like beef or pork. Instead, they did one analysis of the 67 papers they found for all types of meat. “Only if you throw them all in one pot can you do a meta-analysis,” Dr. Leifert said.科学家们在比较有机和常规牛奶的综述中分析了他们所能找到的所有196篇论文。由于对肉类的研究较少,他们发现只审查关于某一种肉,如牛肉或猪肉的研究不现实。反之,他们对关于各种肉的67篇论文统一进行了分析。“只有把它们放在一起才能进行荟萃分析,”莱费特士解释道。Two years ago, Dr. Leifert led a similar review for fruits and vegetables that found organic produce had higher levels of some antioxidants and less pesticide residue than conventionally grown crops.两年前,莱费特士领导了一项关于水果和蔬菜的类似综述,发现与用常规方法种植的作物相比,有机农产品中某些抗氧化剂的水平较高,农药残留较少。Nutrition experts broadly agree that omega-3 fatty acids in food offer numerous health benefits. When the ed States Department of Agriculture revised its dietary guidelines in 2010, it urged people to eat more seafood, which is rich in omega-3.营养专家普遍认同,食物中的ω-3脂肪酸具有多种健康效益。美国农业部(ed States Department of Agriculture)在2010年修订其膳食指南时,呼吁人们多多食用富含ω-3脂肪酸的海产品。Omega-3 is much more prevalent in grass than in grain, which is why organic livestock and milk also contain higher levels. “Lo and behold, we altered in some fundamental ways the nutrient intake of these animals and hence the nutrient composition of the products that we derive from those animals,” Dr. Benbrook said.草料中的ω-3脂肪酸含量比谷物中高,因此有机家畜及其乳制品中也含有较高水平的ω-3脂肪酸。“你瞧,我们改变了这些动物摄入营养的基本方式,这才影响了其衍生产品的营养成分,”本布鲁克士说。The new analysis found that levels of another polyunsaturated fat, omega-6, were slightly lower in organic meat and dairy. Omega-3 and omega-6 are essential for the functioning of the human body, which can make neither. But some have argued that a skewing toward omega-6 has become unhealthy.新的分析还发现,在有机肉类和乳制品中,另一种多不饱和脂肪酸:ω-6脂肪酸的水平略低。ω-3和ω-6脂肪酸对于人体的正常功能来说都必不可少,而且人体无法自己合成它们。但也有人认为,过多摄入ω-6脂肪酸并不利于健康。Centuries ago, people ate roughly equal amounts of the two fatty acids. Today, most Americans eat more than 10 times as much omega-6, which is prevalent in certain vegetable oils and thus also fried foods, as omega-3.几个世纪以前,人们摄入的这两种脂肪酸大致等量。今天,由于某些植物油中普遍含有ω-6脂肪酸(因此油炸食品也一样),大多数美国人摄入的ω-6脂肪酸约为ω-3的10倍以上。In an email, Dr. Walter C. Willett, the chairman of the nutrition department at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, said the differences between organic and conventional beef were trivial, and the amount of saturated fat in both were high.哈佛大学公共卫生学院(Harvard School of Public Health)的营养系主任沃尔特·C·威利特(Walter C. Willett)士在一封电子邮件中写道,有机和常规牛肉之间的差异微不足道,而且两者中的饱和脂肪含量均很高。“Far greater, and beneficial, differences in fatty acids are seen if poultry and fish replace red meat,” Dr. Willett said.“如果用禽肉和鱼肉来代替红肉,你会发现更大、更有益于健康的脂肪酸差异,”威利特士如是说。A shortcoming of the recommendation to eat more fish is that if everyone followed it, the rivers, oceans and lakes would be emptied of fish. Dr. Bazinet of the University of Toronto said perhaps encouraging people to switch to organic meats and milk would be “a way to kind of get at them with the foods they’re aly eating.”不过,多吃鱼这个建议本身也有其缺点:如果每个人都遵循这个建议,那么河流、海洋和湖泊中的鱼就要被吃光了。多伦多大学的巴齐内士表示,鼓励人们改吃有机肉类和牛奶或许“只是在教人摄入本来就在吃的食物”。Dr. Bazinet said observational studies suggested that adding 200 milligrams a day of omega-3s to an average diet should yield health benefits. Switching to organic beef would add about 50 milligrams. “Eating one grass-fed beef serving per day is not going to do it,” he said.巴齐内士说,观察研究表明,在普通膳食的基础上,每天增加摄入200毫克ω-3脂肪酸可带来健康效益。而改吃有机牛肉只能多摄取到约50毫克的ω-3脂肪酸。于是他总结道:“每天吃一份草饲牛肉达不到你(补充ω-3脂肪酸)的目的。”But if combined with a couple of glasses of organic milk, “it should make a difference,” Dr. Bazinet said. “That would be the hypothesis.”但是,如果再喝上一两杯有机牛奶的话,“应该就有用了,”巴齐内士说。“假设上是如此。”Scientists are now trying to examine the health question more directly.现在科学家们正试图以更直接的方式来探讨这些健康问题。Dr. Leifert cited several studies that indicated that infants of mothers who ate organic fruits and vegetables were less likely to contract some diseases. He is also conducting experiments to see if rats fed organic foods are healthier. So far, he said, it appears that crop pesticide residue does have measurable effects on the rats’ hormones.莱费特士列举了数项研究,它们都表明,食用有机水果和蔬菜的母亲所诞下的婴儿较不容易患某些疾病。他还在进行实验,以研究饲喂有机食品的大鼠是否更健康。他说,从迄今为止的结果来看,农作物上的农药残留确实对大鼠的激素水平造成了明显的影响。“We still don’t know whether it kills you, but we do know it has an effect on hormonal balances,” he said. “It’s something that makes you think a little bit.”“虽然尚不清楚它是否会致死,但我们的确发现,它会影响激素的平衡。”他说,“这一点颇值得深思。” /201602/428192。
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