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赣州玻尿酸注射多少钱江西省俪人整形医院打瘦脸针多少钱The Nordics in charge北欧掌控A Scandinavian wave一次斯堪的纳维亚狂潮How the Nordics get so many senior international positions北欧为何拥有众多较高的国际职位WHEN it comes to international jobs, Scandinavia does well. Sweden, Denmark and Norway have only 20m people, yet their nationals often run global organisations. Jens Stoltenberg, a former Norwegian prime minister, is taking over from a former Danish prime minister, Anders Fogh Rasmussen, as NATOs boss. Thorbjorn Jagland, another former Norwegian prime minister, has just won a second term at the Council of Europe. Now attention is on the current Danish prime minister, Helle Thorning-Schmidt, who is a front-runner to succeed Belgiums Herman Van Rompuy as president of the European Council.说到国际工作,斯堪的维纳亚(在地理上是指斯堪的纳维亚半岛,包括挪威和瑞典,文化与政治上则包含丹麦)表现算是个中翘楚。尽管瑞典、丹麦和挪威仅有2千万人口,他们的公民却掌舵者全球组织。挪威前首相 Jens Stoltenberg正接棒前丹麦首相Anders Fogh Rasmussen成为北约的领袖。另一位挪威的前首相Thorbjorn Jagland则刚刚于欧洲议会选举中赢得了第二任期。现今关注的是当前丹麦首相Helle Thorning-Schmidt能否继任比利时的 Herman Van Rompuy成为欧洲理事会主席。With the European Unions foreign-policy chief and the head of the Eurogroup of finance ministers, this job should be filled at an EU summit on July 16th, after the European Parliament confirms Luxembourgs Jean-Claude Juncker as European Commission president. Ms Thorning-Schmidt has disavowed any interest, saying she hopes to lead the Social Democrats to another election win next year. But Mr Fogh Rasmussen played a similarly oblique game in , repeatedly denying any interest in NATO. Afterwards he claimed that “being a candidate” and “canvassing” were separate. Ms Thorning-Schmidts real drawback is that Denmark is not in the euro. But as a woman from the centre-left, she balances Mr Juncker. She is also married to the son of Neil Kinnock, a former British Labour leader and European commissioner.有了欧盟的外交政策首脑和众欧洲集团财政部长领导的推动下,这件工作会在欧洲议会明确来自卢森堡的Jean-Claude Juncker接任欧洲理事会主席之后,于7月16日在欧盟峰会上宣布结果。Thorning-Schmidt显然已失去任何兴趣,她表示,她希望能够带领SD党赢得明年选举的胜利。但Fogh Rasmussen在年曾玩过类似的把戏,也曾一度声称对北欧不再关心。后来他表示“成为一名候选人”和“为自己拉票”这两者是相互独立的。对Thorning-Schmidt来说真正的劣势是丹麦并不属于欧元集团。但是作为一名中左派的女士,他与Juncker旗鼓相当。她也已经同前英国工党领袖和欧盟委员Neil Kinnock的儿子成婚。Other politicians are less coy. Finlands former centre-right prime minister, Jyrki Katainen, has stepped down to seek a big international job. He is now interim economics commissioner (replacing another Finn, Olli Rehn), and he might stay on or take the Eurogroup job. Swedens foreign minister (and another former prime minister), Carl Bildt, is a possibility for the foreign-policy post, though some find him too abrasive.其他的政治家就没那么扭捏作态。芬兰前中右派首相Jyrki Katainen已为一份优渥的国际工作而辞职。如今他是临时的经济专员(替代了另一位芬兰人Olli Rehn),而且她很可能留任或是接手欧元集团的工作。瑞典的外交部长(也是另一位前首相)Carl Bildt,很可能上任外交政策的职位,尽管有人发现他行事并不谨慎。What gives the Nordics a head start? One answer is that they are unthreatening to big countries . Another is that a history of parliamentary compromise gives them the ability to cross ideological divides. It has been a long time since any Nordic country had a single-party majority government. Mr Katainens 2011-14 cabinet was a six-party patchwork. Yet there is a limit to how many Nordics the world can absorb. No matter how perfect they are, not all will win prizes.到底是什么给予了北欧这样的优势?一种解释是他们对大国并无威胁。另一种是议会的妥协给了他们跨越意识上分裂的可能性。距北欧国家建立一个多党合作的政府到现在已经有很长时间了。2011-14年Katainen的内阁曾由六党组合而成。然而对于这个世界能接受多少北欧人还是存有一定限制。无论他们有多完美,也不可能人人获胜。译者:张娣 校对:王颖 译文属译生译世 /201508/390681宁都县人民医院脱毛手术多少钱 Computing in schools校园里的计算机技术Hello world!你好世界!Training an army of tiny techies训练一微型计算机专家队伍“I CALL this a playground,” says Vinay Patel, gesturing to a score of monitors in the computer lab of Avanti House School in North London: “I tell pupils not to be scared of mistakes.” The two dozen teenagers in his classroom are among the first to follow a radically reformed technology curriculum which comes into force this month. But they are not the only ones learning new tricks. Though his background is in product design, Mr Patel has spent the summer grappling with Python and Java, two computer languages he will teach as part of the course.北伦敦阿凡提豪斯中学的电脑实验室里,维奈·帕特尔指着二十个显示器说:“我把这叫做游乐场。我告诉学生们不要害怕犯错。”一项彻底的科技课程改革将于本月开始实施,他班里的二十四个青少年学生是首批吃螃蟹的人之一。但他们不是唯一学习新技术的人。尽管帕特尔的专业背景是产品设计,他整个夏天都在努力学习Python和Java,这两种电脑语言的教学将成为课程的一部分。Information and communications technology has been on school timetables since 1990. But lately it has grown unfashionable. In 2012 the Royal Society reported that dreary instruction in word-processing and spsheet software had made lessons “demotivating and routine”. That reputation has made it difficult to attract good teachers and has dulled enthusiasm for the subject.信息与通讯技术自1990年便登上了学校的课表。但最近它的风头渐弱。2012年,英国皇家学会报告,文字处理和试算表软件的沉闷教学使得课程变得“毫无动力、平淡乏味”。这样糟糕的声誉难以吸引优秀的老师,也浇熄了学生对这门学科的热情。This year’s change replaces ICT with a new subject called “computing”, which is mandatory for children in England aged five to 16. Tiddlers will learn about algorithms and other basic concepts of computer science; older kids will learn to use at least two programming languages. Big chunks of the course can be taught without computers; boosters say it will give children lasting problem-solving skills.今年的改革是以一门名为“计算机技术”的新学科取代ICT,英国5至16岁的学生都将被强制要求学习这门新学科。小孩子们要学算法和计算机科学的其他基本概念;大一点的孩子要学习使用至少两种编程语言。大量的课程可以在没有电脑的情况下进行教学。持者认为这将使孩子们在问题解决方面终身受益。In part the overhaul aims to produce eager recruits for Britain’s growing technology firms. They cannot keep relying on a small pool of self-taught enthusiasts, reckons Bill Mitchell of S, an industry body. “Some people are so intelligent you could lock them in a room and hit them with a stick instead of sending them to school and they’ll still be successful,” he says. “But this will help children of all abilities.”在某种程度上,这次大改革的目的是为英国欣欣向荣的科技公司提供热切的新雇员。行业组织英国计算机协会的比尔·米歇尔认为这些公司不能一直依赖少部分自学成才的爱好者,他说:“有些人就是天才,就算你不送他们去上学,反而把他们锁在一个屋子里,用棍子打他们,他们还是会成功。但这次改革将会对所有的孩子都起到帮助作用。”By requiring five-year-olds to study computer science, England has leapfrogged countries such as America. The EU thinks England is a model for its neighbours; Asian governments are watching closely, reckons Rachel Swidenbank of Codecademy, an education firm.通过要求5岁的儿童学习计算机科学,英国已超越一些国家,比如说美国。欧盟认为英国是邻国的典范。蕾切尔·斯维顿班克来自一家名为Codecademy教育公司,她推测亚洲政府部门也在密切关注这一改革。Yet some debugging is needed. The government has found only about £3m to train 200,000 or so teachers. Enthusiasm varies among free schools and academies. The reform will need years of support, thinks Simon Peyton Jones of Computing at School, a charity. “It’s like a rocket at take-off. It could still explode.”然而还有一些调试时必然的。政府仅提供了三百万英镑的基金来培训200,000人左右的教师。在免费学校和院校里,人们的热情不一。来自慈善机构“学校里的计算机技术”的西蒙·佩顿·琼斯认为这场改革需要多年的持,他说:“这就像起飞时的火箭,仍有可能发生爆炸。” /201409/331946赣州绣眉团购

赣州双眼皮医院哪个好Germanys public pensions德国社会抚恤金In the wrong direction方向错误The government is reversing some of its predecessors sensible pension reforms政府正在颠覆之前明智的抚恤金改革政策AS THE country with the European Unions fastest-ageing population, Germany has repeatedly tweaked its pension system to avert a slow-motion demographic disaster. The biggest reform came during Angela Merkels first term as chancellor. Then, as now, her centre-right Christian Democrats were yoked with the centre-left Social Democrats in a “grand coalition”. In 2007 the coalition decided that the normal retirement age should gradually rise from 65 to 67.作为欧盟人口老龄化最快的国家,德国一再调整养老金体系以避免人口增长缓慢带来的人口灾难。最大的改革是在安吉拉·默克尔第一次担任总理期间。而现在,她的中右倾基社党与中左倾社民党联手组成“大联盟”。在2007年联盟决定退休标准年龄应该逐步由65提升到67岁。Mrs Merkel has since preached similar demographic and economic sanity to most of her EU partners, criticising France in particular for straying off the right path. So it comes as something of a shock that Mrs Merkel, now in her third term and running another grand coalition, is reversing course. On the campaign trail for last Septembers election, she promised to raise pensions for older mothers. The Social Democrats countered with promises to let certain workers retire at 63 instead of 65 (not to mention 67). As coalition partners, they will do both at once.默克尔自此便一直向她的大多欧盟伙伴们鼓吹类似人口和经济健康发展的体系,同时特别批评法国偏离了正确的道路。所以默克尔现如今正处于第三个任期中,又在组织另一个大联盟,并且完全颠覆了之前的道路,这多多少少让人感到震惊。在去年九月选举的竞选游说中,她承诺会提高高龄产妇的抚恤金。社民党立刻还击承诺让一些工人在63岁退休而非65岁(期间并未提到67岁)。如今作为联盟伙伴,他们想两项都立时进行。It falls to Andrea Nahles, the labour minister and a Social Democrat who likes to wave the banner of “social justice”, to push the pension package through parliament by the summer so that it can take effect on July 1st. A previous reform let women with children born after 1992 treat three of their stay-at-home maternity years as if they had worked and paid full pension contributions. The new “mother pension” will be for the 8m-9m women (and very few men) who took time off for children before 1992. They will be allowed to count two of those years, instead of just one, as working years for pension purposes.这发生在劳工部长及社民党党员安德里亚·那勒思身上。她热衷于高举“社会公正”的旗帜。她想推动国会在夏天便通过养老金方案。这样新政策就可在7月1日生效。先前的改革让子女于92年之后出生的妇女享有三年离岗休养假,只要他们曾经工作过,并缴纳了全额的抚恤金。而这项新的“母亲年金”将造福于在1992年前为了子女而离职的800万至900万妇女(和极少数男人)。她们将被允许将离职中的两年而非一年当作养老金要计算的工龄。The second part of Mrs Nahless reforms, retirement at 63, is aimed at people who have contributed to the pension system for at least 45 years. But Mrs Nahles wants to count not only years spent working or caring for children or other family members but also periods of short-term unemployment. Separately, she will also boost the pensions of people who cannot work due to disability, and spend more money to rehabilitate them.那勒思改革的第二部分是63岁退休。这是针对那些至少缴纳了45年养老金的群体。但那勒思希望不要仅仅关注工龄或离职照顾孩子或者其他家庭成员的时间,而且要把短期失业的时间也计算在内。另外,她将推动提高那些因残疾而不能工作的人的养老金,并且她将花更多钱用于帮助这些人康复。Individually, these proposals may seem noble-minded. But as a package, the plan is “short-sighted and one-sided,” thinks Axel B?rsch-Supan, a pension adviser at the Munich Centre for the Economics of Ageing. It benefits the older generation, which is aly well looked after, at the expense of younger people who will have to pay higher contributions or taxes. “The financial and psychological costs of the pension at 63 are disastrous,” Mr B?rsch-Supan says. There will no longer be any incentive to keep working longer. In some cases, people may, in effect, retire at 61, register as unemployed for two years, and then draw their full pensions.单独来看,这些提议或许看上去很高尚,但作为一个计划,却是“目光短浅并且片面”,慕尼黑人口老龄化经济学研究中心的抚恤金顾问阿克塞尔·斯克·祖潘如是认为。这个计划是让年轻人缴更多的费用或纳更多的税使已经受到了良好照顾的老年人受益。“63岁为退休年龄让年金体系在金钱和社会心理方面都难以维系。”斯克·祖潘说。因此人们也没有什么动力在这个年纪继续工作。有的人事实上在61岁就退休了,登记为失业状态,两年之后便可以领取他们的抚恤金了。Criticism of the pension changes straddles German politics. Social Democrats who were involved in previous reforms, such as Franz Müntefering, a former party boss, are against. So are members of the business-friendly wing of Mrs Merkels own party. Employers are opposed, because they face labour shortages and are trying to persuade older workers to stay in their jobs longer, not leave sooner. Even the churches are critical, on the grounds that the plan violates “generational justice”. Germanys EU partners are especially upset. Olli Rehn, the European economics commissioner, has said that the commission may even sue Germany if it goes ahead with the plans.德国政坛无论哪个派别都对这样的年金体系改革批评有加。曾参与了之前改革的社民党党员比如前任主席弗朗茨·明特费林就提出了反对。默克尔自己党派的亲商派也表示反对。雇主们反对是因为他们面临劳工短缺,因此正试图力劝老工人们留下工作尽可能久一些,而非尽早离开。甚至教会也发出了批评声,因为这个计划违反了“世代公正”。德国的欧盟伙伴尤其泄气。欧盟经济专员奥利·雷恩曾说过如果德国率先推行类似计划这些计划,那么委员会甚至可能起诉德国。It is not only the details of the measures that are disturbing but also the overall signal they send, argues Thomas Straubhaar, director of the Hamburg Institute of International Economics. Germanys “sandwich generation”—those in their 30s and 40s who must pay ever more to support their elders and will get ever less in their own old age—will sulk and might even emigrate. The pension package, he says, is testimony only to “the power of the grey hairs”, as the grand coalition cynically doles out political gifts to a few favoured groups of voters.令人烦扰的不仅仅是这些措施的细节,还有改革者所发出的整体信号,汉堡国际经济研究所主任托马斯·斯特劳伯哈尔争论到。德国的“三明治一代”在三四十岁是必须花费更多来照顾他们的老一辈,但在他们自己老了之后却只会得到的更少,这使他们感到气愤甚至会移民国外。托马斯称,抚恤金计划只是“老人掌权”的见,不无讽刺的是,这正如大联盟向其偏爱的少数选民提供政治好处一般。译者:邵夏沁 校对:王化起,周晓婷 译文属译生译世 /201510/402868于都县大腿抽脂价格多少 会昌县妇幼保健人民医院激光祛痘手术多少钱

赣州面部埋线提升填充什么价格Britains aerospace industry英国航天工业Flight plan飞行计划Can Britain remain a planemaking superpower?英国能维持飞机制造强国地位吗?THE sleek de Havilland Comet, the worlds first commercial passenger jet, was designed and built in Britain 60 years ago. It is a dozen years since the last passenger jet, a small regional airliner, was assembled in the country. This would neatly illustrate a familiar tale of industrial tailspin were the industry not in such fine fettle. Britain is currently the worlds second-largest aerospace manufacturer, with 17% of the global market, behind only America. But staying at that altitude will be tough.哈维兰彗星型客机是世界上第一架商用客机,由英国于60年前设计与制造。距最后一架客机—一架小型线飞机在该国组装已经十几年了。要不是这个产业处于如此良好的状态,这将恰好呈现一个司空见惯的工业不景气故事。英国现在是世界上第二大航空航天制造商,占据全球17%的市场,仅次于美国。但要继续站在这个高峰困难重重。Britains aerospace industry has a few obvious champions: Rolls-Royce makes engines, BAE Systems makes fighter jets and AgustaWestland turns out helicopters. But much of it is hidden and unheralded. Its muscle is in unlikely places like Western Approach, an anonymous industrial estate near Bristol, where GKN crafts wing spars for Airbus. The long, slender beams that carry engines, landing gear and wing structure are made from light but tough carbon-fibre composites. GKN got the job because of its mastery of the material and its ability to produce in volume. GKN also makes parts for Airbuss arch-rival, Boeing.英国的航空工业有几个知名的的制造商:劳斯莱斯制造引擎,BAE系统公司制造战斗机,阿古斯特韦斯特兰公司生产直升机。但大多数是隐藏起来未公开的。飞机的撑部位通常生产在看起来不太可能的地方,如布里斯托尔附近的一家不知名工业园区西进口航道(Western Approach),吉凯恩(GKN)在那儿为空中客车公司制造翼梁。这种细长梁由质轻但坚韧的碳纤维复合材料制成,负责承载引擎、起落架和机翼结构。由于对材料有着出色的掌握并拥有批量生产的制造力,吉凯恩获得了制造权。吉凯恩同时也为空中客车公司的劲敌—波音公司制造零部件。Rolls-Royces engines now provide the thrust for half the worlds new wide-bodied jets. Around a quarter of Boeings 787 Dreamliner is made in Britain, including the landing gear, fuel pumps and some seats. British firms are world-beaters in avionics, the electronics that run a modern jet.劳斯莱斯的引擎如今为世界上大约半数的新型宽体喷气机提供推力。波音的787梦幻客机有约四分之一的部件在英国制造,包括起落架、燃油泵和部分座椅等。英国公司在航空电子设备业、制造现代喷气式飞机的电子工业中举世无敌。In short, Britain specialises in the complex guts of aeroplanes. Airbus completes construction of its wings in Wales before transporting them to southern France for attaching to fuselages. Bombardier, a Canadian firm, builds the wings for its new CSeries of regional jets in Belfast. Politicians in other countries crow as completed planes roll off production lines on home turf. French participation in the Airbus consortium was contingent on jets being put together there. But the British are quietly coining it: a measly 5% of the value of an aeroplane is added with final assembly.简单地说,英国专注于飞机复杂的内部构造。空中客车公司在威尔士完成机翼制造,然后才将它们运到法国南部装到机身上去。庞巴迪公司(加拿大一家飞机生产商)在贝尔法斯特为新型C系列的线飞机制造机翼。其他国家的政客们常常自鸣得意,因为最终完整的飞机是从本国的生产线上生产出来的。法国在空中客车合作中扮演的角色仅是飞机组装之地。但是是英国在安静地创造它:最终的组装仅为飞机增加了5%的价值。Rising global demand for commercial jets means business will boom if Britain maintains its share of the market. Unfortunately, this is far from guaranteed. Companies are under-investing in research just as changes in the industry make it more vital.如果英国保持住了自己的市场份额的话,那么全球对商用飞机日益增长的需求意味着生意将会迅速兴旺起来。不幸的是,这一点远远得不到保。正当行业内变化使得研发投资尤为重要时,各公司在这一块却投资甚少。Aerospace is a conservative business, says Glynn Bellamy of KPMG. Projects often have lifespans of 25-30 years, and reliability is paramount. As a result the industry has globalised only slowly and Western incumbents have been insulated from the cold winds of competition. But several things are changing that.航天是一个保守的行业,毕马威会计事务所的格林·贝拉米说。项目通常都有25到30年的使用期限,可靠性是最重要的。这造成的结果是,这个行业的全球化进度很慢,西方的企业被竞争的寒风拒之门外。但是有些事正在改变这一状况。Some big commercial airline projects, such as the Airbus A330 and the original Boeing 777, are coming to an end, to be replaced by a new generation of narrow- and wide-bodied jets. That provides an opportunity for the big global manufacturers to look beyond their backyards for suppliers. Meanwhile the governments of emerging economies like China and India are eager to boost a high-tech, high-value industry.一些大型的商业航空项目,比如空中客车A330和最开始的波音777,正准备收尾,它们将被新一代的窄、宽体喷气式飞机所替代。这给大的国际制造商提供了一个将视线投向别处寻找供应商的机会。同时新兴经济体如中国、印度的政府也在发展高科技高价值的工业方面跃跃欲试。Technology is advancing and becoming far more costly. Andrew Churchill, who runs JJChurchill, a family firm that makes turbine blades and other high-tech kit, says capital equipment is ten times more expensive it was a decade ago. It also becomes obsolete more quickly.科技正在发展,也变得昂贵多了。安德鲁·丘吉尔运营着一家名为JJ丘吉尔的家族企业,这家公司主要制造涡轮叶片和其他高科技装备,他说资本设备比十年前整整贵了10倍。同时设备的更新换代也越来越快了。The solution to all these problems is the same: plentiful research and development to keep British companies at the cutting edge. At the biggest companies, long-term investment is taken for granted. Rolls is aly developing next-generation jet-engine technology. JJChurchill has ambitious plans to expand. But Mr Churchill says other small firms are failing to raise their game. If that continues, the industry will decline.这些问题的解决方法都是一样的:大量研究和发展来保持住英国公司的先锋地位。在大公司,长期投资被视为是理所当然的。劳斯莱斯已经在研发下一代引擎技术了。JJ丘吉尔有扩张的雄心壮志。但是丘吉尔先生说其他的一些小公司未能改进。长此以往,这个行业将走下坡路。Britain is home to 30% of Europes aerospace firms, according to Martin Wright of the Northwest Aerospace Alliance, a trade organisation. Germany has only 10% but they are over twice as big on average and invest twice as heavily.来自贸易组织——西北航空联盟的马丁·怀特说,英国是欧洲30%航空公司的所在地。德国仅有10%,但这些公司规模是英国的两倍,接收的投资也是两倍。Britains government has done a good job of nurturing aerospace, says Keith Hayward of the Royal Aeronautical Society. It has set aside cash for an Aerospace Technology Insitute and for large and small firms to invest in new technologies. ADS, an aerospace lobby group, would like to see Ramp;D tax credits increased from 10% to compare more favourably with other parts of Europe, as well as accelerated tax relief on new building to help smaller firms move and grow.英国政府在发展航空业上干得很好,来自皇家航空协会的基思·海沃德说。英国政府已经为一家航空技术机构和不同规模的公司留出了一笔资金,让它们投资发展新技术。ADS,一个航天游说团体,希望研发税能从10%提高到与欧洲其他地区相当的水平,同时也希望加快对新建筑的税收减免以帮助小型公司迁移和成长。That would help. But convincing small firms to grow is a tough task. The government can only do so much to reduce the powerful gravitational forces acting on a fragmented national industry. Like the Comet, nothing stays airborne forever.这将会有帮助。但是说小公司去发展是一项艰巨的任务。政府能做的只有减弱作用于这个离破碎的民族工业的强大地心引力。如同哈维兰彗星型客机一样,没有什么能一直停留在空中。译者:王颖 校对:周雨晴 译文属译生译世 /201510/404544 Internet use互联网的使用A tangled web错综复杂的网络Who goes online, and where谁在网上,在哪里?THE internet looks like an admans dream. Counting how many times an advert on a bus shelter has been viewed is impossible; counting clicks on a blinking banner ad is a doddle. But knowing where each click came from, and how many people are clicking, is harder than it appears.互联网对于广告人而言太神奇了。没法计算公交站亭上的广告被观看的次数,但却可以轻而易举地计数一条屏幕闪动的广告栏的点击量。可是,要弄清楚每个点击从何而来,有多少人点击过,就比看起来难多了。Firms dedicated to click-counting put code on websites that reports the times, origins and frequencies of visits, or get consumers to install it buried in browser plug-ins or mobile apps. These record web-users digital calling-cards: the internet-protocol (IP) addresses of the devices they are using. But to assume that each IP address represents a single user in its country of registration is a wild oversimplification.许多热衷点击量的公司,在网站上附加代码,用来跟踪访问的时间、来源以及频率,或者让用户安装隐藏在浏览器插件中或者是移动应用程序中的这些代码。这些代码记录网络用户的数字名片——这就是用户使用设备的互联网协议地址(IP地址)。但如果想当然假设每个IP地址就代表了在地址注册国的单个用户,那你就弱爆了。A new report published on November 4th takes a different approach. Global Web Index (GWI), a market-research firm with local partners in 32 countries, surveys 170,000 consumers a year and recently began to ask detailed questions about internet use. It puts China and India in the top three for Facebook users. Similar Web, which does IP-based analysis, does not even put China in the top ten (see maps).11月4日发表的一份新的报告则采用了不同的方法,全球网络指数机构(GWI)是一家市场调研公司,在32个国家拥有当地合作伙伴,他们一年调查了17万名消费者,并且最近开始探究互联网使用的细节问题。该机构将中国和印度放在3大facebook用户国的地位。而基于IP地址分析的Similar Web,则甚至把中国排到10名开外。One reason for the difference is that in many developing markets devices are widely shared (for tablets that is true pretty much everywhere). Conversely, more than three-quarters of respondents in the GWI report said they used more than one device. Another factor is the sp of virtual private networks (VPNs) and proxy servers, which make it possible to surf the web through a foreign server.造成如此差异的原因之一是在很多发展中市场中,设备被广泛共享(对于平板电脑则哪里都差不多)。相反,GWI的报告中,超过3/4的受访者称他们使用不止一台设备。另一个因素是虚拟专用网 (VPNs)和虚拟务器的广泛使用,使得人们能够通过海外务器浏览网页。Once restricted to the tech-literate, these are now common and easy to use. Chinese citizens who want to vault the Great Firewall to use Facebook (banned in China) can do so with a couple of clicks. Foreign fans of the B can use the same trick to watch its programmes via iPlayer, supposedly barred outside Britain. Since VPNs and proxy servers are clustered in countries with favourable rules, such as Sweden and the Netherlands, any count of visits to such sites will be skewed.技术控一旦遇到限制,这类(通过海外务器)的方式就会普遍而轻易地使用。需要翻墙使用Facebook的中国公民(Facebook在中国是禁止的),能轻点鼠标得偿所愿。需要通过IPlayer观看节目的国外B粉丝可以如法炮制,而据说这是在英国以外不允许的。因为VPNs和代理务器的分布会根据趋利避害的原则,集中在例如瑞典和荷兰这样的国家,因此任何对上述类型网站访问的计数都会产生偏差。GWIs picture, it should be said, is far from complete. It misses out Africa entirely, except for South Africa. Self-reported data also have their pitfalls: LIRNEasia, an Asia-Pacific IT think-tank, recently found that many Indonesians who reported using Facebook said they were not internet users—perhaps because they were not sure that one implies the other. And much of the world is going mobile-only, particularly in developing markets; preliminary GWI data suggest that a quarter of web visitors in Indonesia and Vietnam use only a mobile (from which VPN access is, these days, just as easy). Yet both surveys and click-counting software were conceived and optimised for desktop users. Uptake of mobiles is faster than the effort to capture demographic data from them.应该说GWI的图片还远远没有完成。因为它遗漏了除南非以外的整个非洲。自说自画的报告也存在其缺陷: 亚洲LIRNE是一个亚太区域的网络智囊库,最近发现许多被报告称正在使用FACEBOOK的印尼人称自己并非互联网用户—这也许是因为他们不能确定FACEBOOK就意味着互联网。此外,世界上许多地区仅仅能用手机通讯,由其是在发展中市场;GWI初步数据显示,在印尼和越南,1/4的人仅仅使用一部手机上网。(如今通过手机,虚拟专用网接入非常容易)。不过,人们已经为手机桌面用户量身定做了调查软件和点击率软件。统计手机信息比搞数据一个个去搞数据采集可快多了。More broadly, knowing who is online, and where, would benefit government policymakers as well as advertisers. Other figures on technology use are available from the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), a UN agency. But there are gaps here, too. It collates surveys from national census bureaus around the world, but cannot insist that they all pose the same questions.从广义上说,搞清楚谁,在哪里在线,可不仅仅有利于广告商,更有助于政府的决策者。其他技术使用指数可以从国际电信联盟(ITU)获得,ITU一个联合国机构。但问题也来了,该机构整理从世界各个国家统计机构传送的数据,但不能确认他们提出了相同的问题。Better figures would be useful, says Susan Teltscher of the ITU. They would help the agency fulfil its mission to ensure web content is available in the languages of its users. In nations where internet use is low, says Kojo Boakye of the World Wide Web Foundation, radio is regarded as the medium with the widest reach. Revised figures for web use would shift how public-service messages are distributed. And as internet use sps, regulators will have to oversee competition between service providers, fight e-crime and plan investment in web infrastructure. But such efforts rely on the numbers that now seem so muddy, points out Geoff Huston, a researcher at APNIC, the internet registry for the Asia-Pacific region.ITU的Susan Teltscher认为需要更有效的数据,这将有助于该机构完成使命,以确保网络内容在用户的语言中可见。万维网基金会的Kojo Boakye则认为,在互联网使用率低的国家,广播被看作最广泛的媒介。关于网络使用修正后的数据将改变公共务机构的信息如何发布。并且,因为互联网使用的分布,监管者将不得不监管务商之间的竞争,打击网络犯罪和进行网络基础设施投资计划。但是,亚太地区的互联网注册机构APNIC 的研究员Geoff Huston指出,这种依赖数字的努力看起来还在探索之中。The ITU estimates that 4.3 billion people around the world are yet to get online, 90% of whom are in developing countries. But until data from surveys and clicks can be combined into a single picture, the map of internet usage will be little clearer than the viewership of bus-shelter ads.国际电信联盟估计,全球43亿人无法上网,其中90%的人处于发展中国家。但只要调研数据和点击能被合并到整张图表中,互联网使用率地图会计算比候车亭广告的收视率更清楚一点。翻译:沈竹, 校对:穆毅 译文属译生译世 /201411/342407赣州哪里祛痣好赣州去川字纹哪里疗效好



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