明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年07月16日 15:28:43
Its easy to tell, even at a glance, that people and moose are pretty different.很显然,即便只是匆匆一瞥,也能轻易看出人和糜鹿是完全不同的动物。Moose, at leastmales, have big, wing shaped antlers.糜鹿,至少是雄性糜鹿拥有大型的、像翅膀一样的鹿角。People have no antlers. Moose are herbivores, eating only plants.而人是没有角的。糜鹿是食草动物,只吃植物。We eat mostly junk food.我们却几乎总吃垃圾食品。Despite their salad only diet, moose can weigh as much as 1400pounds.尽管“色拉”是糜鹿唯一的食物,它们的体重却能达到1400磅。Even the fattest humans top the scales at only around 1000 pounds.而我们人类中最胖的也只有1000磅。The list goes on.二者间的差异数不胜数。And yet, in some ways, people and moose are similar.但是在某些方面,人与糜鹿是相似的。For example, both suffer from arthritis.例如,两者都饱受关节炎的困扰。And thats interesting because how and why moose develop arthritis may be able to tell us something about the pathology of the human variety.这个问题很有趣,因为研究糜鹿患上关节炎的过程和原因,可能有助于我们发现一些人类患关节炎的病理。For example, researchers working in Michigans upper peninsula have been studying moose there for decades.例如,位于密西根湖上游半岛的研究人员已经对糜鹿进行了数十年的研究。And one thing theyve found is while arthritis in moose is partly genetic, its also triggered by the environment.他们发现糜鹿患关节炎在一定程度上是由基因引起的,同时也受到环境的影响。Specifically, the researchers have observed that moose that suffer from arthritis seem to have not had access to proper nutrition early in life.特别需要提到的是,研究人员观察的那些患关节炎的糜鹿似乎幼年都营养不良。Perhaps they were born during a drought when there werent enough berries and other plants toeat.可能是因为它们出生于旱期,没有足够的浆果和其他植被可以食用。Whatever the case, even if those moose had plenty to eat later on, their very early nutritional deficits appear to have doomed them to an adult life of aching joints.无论情况如何,即便那些糜鹿后来有足够的食物,它们幼年的营养匮乏使它们的成年生活注定与关节疼痛相伴。The take away for scientists who study arthritis, and doctors who treat it in people, is that how and what we eat, even as babies, may lay the foundation for chronic arthritis and other health problems later in life.研究关节炎的科学家和治疗关节炎的医生得出结论:我们怎么吃、吃什么可能会为后来生活中的慢性关节炎和其他健康问题埋下隐患。And thanks to the moose, those scientists are also beginning to better understand the sorts ofdiets that could lower those risks.得益于对麋鹿的研究,那些科学家也开始更好地了解能降低患关节炎风险的饮食种类。 201404/288733

Even without the guidance of organized religion, some animal sinstinctively know that its a good thing to help others.即使没有类似人类宗教的指引,有些动物仍能本能地救助处于危难中的其它动物。For example, when a bird spots a predator, instead of just flying away, it calls out in alarm andwarns everyone in the vicinity.比如,一只小鸟发现了捕食者,它就会发出叫声以警示和提醒附近其它的小动物们。When a dolphin is injured, other dolphins help it swim up to the surface and get some air.如果一只海豚受伤了,那么其他海豚也会帮助它一直游到岸边以呼吸新鲜空气。And in a lab experiment that was set up so that one rat had to sit on a platform or else his ratfriends would get an electrical shock when they tried to feed, the rats quickly learned to cooperateand take turns sitting on the platform.在类似试验中,一只老鼠必须要坐在一个平台上以防止它的朋友们试图进食时被电击,很快老鼠们就学会了如何协作,它们轮流坐在平台上以防止同伴被电击。You might think that evolution would work against this kind of altruism since, instead ofconcentrating on their own survival, animals spend time and energy helping others.因为这些动物们不仅仅只关心自己的生命,也会花费时间与精力去帮助其他动物。所以,你可能会认为进化过程会有悖于这种利他主义。But evolutionists suggest that when animals help animals who are their genetic relatives, or who are likely to return the favor later on, they are actually helping their species to survive the processof natural selection.但进化论者认为,当动物们在帮助那些遗传亲属,或可能会在稍后回报其所提供的这种帮助时,它们实际上是在帮助它们的种群能够在自然选择的过程中存活下来。Some animals will even sacrifice their own lives to insure the survival of the larger group.某些动物甚至会牺牲自己的生命以保全更大种群的存活。The worker honeybee, for example, will die defending her hive if necessary.比如说工蜂,在保护蜂巢的过程中就会不惜牺牲生命。Even acts that seem selfish may end up helping the group in the long run.甚至,某些看上去貌似自私的行为实际长远看来也有助于种群存活。For instance, whenthere isnt enough food to go around, wasps and termites will cannibalize their nest-mates.比如说,当附近没有足够的食物时,黄蜂和白蚁就会对它们同族的伙伴进行蚕食。Gruesome as this may seem, it insures the colonys survival through tough times.也许听上去很可怕,但实际上这保了艰难时期种群的存活。Although here at A Moment of Science, we dont condone human cannibalism, we still hope thatthese examples of altruism in animals will give you some food for thought.我们《科学一刻》栏目虽然不能宽恕人类自相残杀的行为,但我们希望,这些存在于动物之间的利他主义将会带给大家一些发人深省的思想。 201402/275668


  Science and technology科学技术Mining asteroids小行星采矿Going platinum小行星采矿—淘铂去Mining metals from asteroids seems a bonkers idea. But could it work?小行星采矿这想法听似疯狂,但行得通吗?CAN reality trump art? That was the question hovering over the launch on April 24th, at the Museum of Flight in Seattle, of a plan by a firm called Planetary Resources to mine metals from asteroids and bring them back to Earth.4月24日,行星资源公司在西雅图的航天物馆启动了一项计划—在小行星上采矿并将矿物带回地球。对这项计划,人们一直都在疑惑:现实能否战胜艺术?It sounds like the plot of a film by James Cameron—and, appropriately, Mr Cameron is indeed one of the companys backers.这听着就像詹姆斯卡梅隆的电影中的情节—恰好,詹姆斯卡梅隆实际上就是这家公司的赞助人之一。The team behind the firm, however, claim they are not joking.但是公司背后的团队宣称小行星采矿这事可不是在开玩笑。The companys founders are Peter Diamandis, instigator of the X Prize, awarded in 2004 to Paul Allen and Burt Rutan for the first private space flight, and Eric Anderson, another of whose companies, Space Adventures, has aly shot seven tourists into orbit.行星资源公司的创始人是X奖发起者Peter Diamandis和拥有太空探险公司的Eric Anderson。Larry Page and Eric Schmidt, respectively the chief executive and the chairman of Google, are also involved.GOOGLE的总经理Larry Page和董事长 Eric Schmidt也参与其中,So, too, is Charles Symonyi, the engineer who oversaw the creation of Microsofts Office software.曾负责监督开发微软办公软件的工程师Charles Symonyi同样是其中一分子。With a cast-list like that, it is at least polite to take them seriously.阵容如此强大,出于礼貌至少也该重视这个想法。As pies in the sky go, some asteroids do look pretty tasty.这想法虽不切实际,但有些小行星看来确实很诱人。A lot are unconsolidated piles of rubble left over from the beginning of the solar system.它们许多是由太阳系诞生时遗留下来的碎石堆成的,结构松散;Many, though, are pieces of small planets that bashed into each other over the past few billion years.但仍有很多是过去几十亿年里小行星相互碰撞产生的碎片。These, in particular, will be high on Planetary Resources shopping list because the planet-forming processes of mineral-melting and subsequent stratification into core, mantle and crust will have sorted their contents in ways that can concentrate valuable materials into exploitable ores.特别是后者将被行星资源公司优先列在其采矿清单上。因为在行星诞生时,矿物熔化之后会层化为地核、地幔、地壳;这个过程将使其中物质分门别类,令有价值的矿物浓缩成可供开采的矿石。On Earth, for example, platinum and its allied elements, though rare at the surface, are reckoned more common in the planets metal-rich core.例如在地球上,铂和铂系元素在地表上虽然罕见,但人们认为在富含金属的地核里却是较为常见的。The same was probably true of the planets shattered to make asteroids.对于那些相互碰撞后其碎片形成小行星的行星而言,情况可能同样如此。Indeed, the discovery of a layer of iridium-rich rock was the first sign geologists found of the asteroid impact that is believed to have killed the dinosaurs.实际上,地质学家们提出小行星曾撞击地球的第一个据就是发现了富含铱的岩层。人们认为恐龙就是因小行星撞击地球而灭绝的。Most asteroids dwell between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.大部分的小行星都位于火星和木星的轨道之间。But enough of them, known as near-Earth asteroids, or NEAs, come within interplanetary spitting distance of humanity for it to be worth investigating them as sources of minerals—if, of course, that can be done economically.但近地小行星也不少,它们距离地球很近,值得勘探。当然,费用要划得来才行。First catch your hare勿谋之过早The first thing is to locate a likely prospect.首先,要找到一个可能有矿藏的小行星。At the moment, about 9,000 NEAs are known, most of them courtesy of ground-based programmes looking for bodies that might one day hit Earth.目前已探明的近地小行星约有9000颗,其中大部分是地面计划在寻找可能撞击地球的天体时探测到的。That catalogue is a good start, but Planetary Resources plans to go further.从这个范围开始寻找是很好,但行星资源公司却有更远大的计划。In 2014 it intends to launch, at a cost of a few million dollars, a set of small space telescopes whose purpose will be to seek out asteroids which are easy to get to and whose orbits return them to the vicinity of Earth often enough for the accumulated spoils of a mining operation to be downloaded at frequent intervals.该公司打算在2014年耗资数百万美元发射一组小型太空望远镜,用于寻找容易到达的、能经常回到地球附近的小行星,以便常将所采矿物送回地球。That bit should not be too difficult. But the next phase will be tougher.这一步应该不会太难,但下一步就难度更大了。In just over a decade, when a set of suitable targets has been identified, the firm plans to send a second wave of spacecraft out to take a closer look at what has been found.当该公司发现了一组适合采矿的小行星时,便计划要在短短十年多一点的时间内发送第二批宇宙飞船仔细研究一下这些小行星。This is a significantly bigger challenge than getting a few telescopes into orbit.这个挑战可比向太空中发射几个望远镜要艰巨得多。It is still, though, conceivable using existing technology.不过,利用现有的技术仍是可以实现的。It is after this that the handwaving really starts.在这之后,纸上谈兵才真正开始。Broadly, there are two ways to get the goodies back to Earth.要将所采矿物运回地球大致有两种方法。The first is to attempt to mine a large NEA in its existing orbit, dropping off a payload every time it passes by.其一是在不改变其轨道的情况下于一颗较大的小行星上采矿,在这颗小行星每次接近地球时卸下所采矿物。That is the reason for the search for asteroids with appropriate orbits.这就是为何要寻找轨道合适的小行星的原因。This approach will, however, require intelligent robots which can work by themselves for years, digging and processing the desirable material.不过,此法需要能独立工作数年的智能机器人来开采并加工有价值的矿物。The other way of doing things is for the company to retrieve smaller asteroids, put them into orbit around Earth or the moon, and then dissect them at its leisure.其二是行星资源公司改变较小的小行星的运行轨道,将其安置在环绕地球或月球的轨道上,再在有空时仔细研究之。But that limits the value of the haul and risks a catastrophic impact if something goes wrong while the asteroid is being manoeuvred.但那将减少每次采矿的量,且要承担移动小行星时出现问题而带来灾难性后果的风险。Either way, the expense involved promises to be out of this world.不论哪种方法,所需费用都一定是天价。A recent feasibility study for the Keck Institute for Space Studies reckoned that the retrieval of a single 500-tonne asteroid to the moon would cost more than .5 billion.最近,克柯太空研究所进行的一项可行性分析认为,将一颗重量为500公吨的小行星移到月球附近所耗资金将超过二十五亿美元。Earlier research suggested that, to have any chance of success, an asteroid-mining venture would need to be capitalised to the tune of 0 billion.较早前的研究指出,必须投资一千亿美元才有可能实现小行星采矿。Moreover, a host of new technologies will be required, including more-powerful solar panels, electric-ion engines, extraterrestrial mining equipment and robotic refineries.而且,还需要大量新技术,包括功率更大的太阳能电池板、电子离子引擎、太空采矿设备和自动冶炼厂。All of which can, no doubt, be done if enough money and ingenuity are applied to the project.当然,若为这个项目投入足够的资金和人才,以上种种都能实现。But the real doubt over this sort of enterprise is not the supply, but the demand. Platinum, iridium and the rest are expensive precisely because they are rare.但对于这种工程浩大的项目,人们真正质疑的并非是否有人能提供这种务,而是有没有这种需求。正因为稀有,铂、铱等矿物才价格不菲。Make them common, by digging them out of the heart of a shattered planet, and they will become cheap.若这些矿物能在一个由碎片构成的行星的地核中被开采到,它们就成了普通金属,价格也会变得便宜。The most important members of the team, then, may not be the entrepreneurs and venture capitalists who put up the drive and the money, nor the engineers who build the hardware that makes it all possible, but the economists who try to work out the effect on the price of platinum when a mountain of the stuff arrives from outer space.所以,这个团队里最重要的成员可能不是推动这项事业并参与投资的企业家和风险投资人,也不是设计实现这一目的的硬件工程师;而是当大量的铂从天外而来时,那些试图算出其对铂价冲击的经济学家。 /201402/277661。


  Their finding?结果如何呢?The coots that couldnt tell when a strangers egg had been stuck into their nest laid that many fewer of their own–sneak one in, the coot lays one fewer.不能认出陌生蛋骨顶巢里的蛋越来越多,而自己的蛋越来越少。Sneak two in, the coot lays two fewer.如果多出两个陌生蛋,它们就会少生两个蛋。Coots that successfully spotted intruders knocked them out again and then laid the same number they normally would.而那些认出闯入者的鸟则会将其赶走,然后产下通常相同数量的蛋。If the number of eggs laid were independent of how many the coot sees in its nest, coots that allow a strangers egg should wind up with one egg extra.如果产蛋数量与巢里蛋的数量是独立的,那么骨顶就会算上陌生蛋,不再生蛋。But they dont.可是他们它们不会。Lyon argues that, along with egg recognition, the coots must therefore be doing some version of I see I have nine eggs here-time to stop laying now.里昂认为,骨顶是具有识别蛋的能力,它们可能在想已经有了九个蛋,可以停了。And that means coots count.那就意味着它们能数数。Other researchers arent convinced.其他研究人员并不相信这一理论。But though the debate goes on, the case for animal counting just got stronger…by the weight of one coot.虽然争论还在继续,但权因骨顶,动物会数数的事例越来越多。 201312/269092

  Books and Arts; Book Review; New fiction; A magical mystery tour;文艺;书评;新小说;魔幻神秘之旅;The Night Circus. By Erin Morgenstern.《午夜马戏团》,艾琳·根斯坦著。Magic in fiction has had a renaissance in the past decade, with the success of J.K. Rowling and Philip Pullman. In this respect Morgensterns debut, “The Night Circus”, is right on trend. The book has many of the ingredients of a conventional fairy tale: cruel parenting, blighted love and a life-and-death contest. But ordinary elements combined with flair deserve to be recognised, and “The Night Circus” is a beguiling, gripping , which is sure to be a commercial hit.近十年来,随着JK罗琳的和菲利普普尔曼的成功,小说中的魔法元素大有复兴繁荣的趋势。在此方面,艾琳根斯坦的第一部小说《午夜马戏团》正好赶上了潮流。这本书有着传统童话故事里都有的情节:严酷残忍的父母,被阻挠的感情,生死攸关的斗争,但这些普通的情节被作者运用其天赋将它们串起来时,这本小说焕然一新,值得一读。情节扣人心弦,读者读起来欲罢不能,它肯定会很很畅销。Le Cirque des Rêves, the circus of dreams, arrives without warning and opens at dusk. A celebration of the senses for its late-19th-century audience, its black-and-white tents host a tattooed contortionist, an ice garden, a wishing tree and a labyrinth with a dizzying network of chambers, such as one piled high with suitcases and another bedded with snowflakes.马戏团之梦的故事毫无征兆的开始了,开头设定在某日的一个黄昏。此书是为了向19世纪晚期的观众们献礼,黑白相间的帐篷里上演着一位有纹身的柔术师的表演,里面还有冰花园,一棵许愿树,和如迷宫般错综复杂的房间,有的用手提箱将里面堆地满满的,有的里面飘满了雪花。The circus is not just about punters fun, though. It is also the setting for a secret and strange battle between two people, Celia and Marco. Though they meet only as adults, they have long been groomed in the art of magic for an ongoing competition to perform the most elaborate, fantastical feat. But the rules are unknown and the stakes high: this is a duel to the death, a fact only gradually revealed to its two main players.马戏团并不是都是些唱唱跳跳的快乐。在书中,这也为西利亚和马尔科之间秘密和不可思议的斗争提供了背景。数年来,他们一直学习训练魔术,为了展现最为精巧和奇幻的表演而一直较着劲,但他们直到长大后才彼此相遇。游戏的规则仍然未知,设置的奖金高的诱人:这是一场生与死的决斗,事实在他们俩之间慢慢展现开来。A circus is a popular stage for colourful literary escapades that mine its transgressive space. But besides the carnival and hocus-pocus, this book also considers deeper questions about life and fate. We are introduced to a set of twins, for example, the brother can peoples pasts, the sister their future—but which ability is more powerful?马戏团为文学创作提供了一个绚丽多的舞台,上面上演了各种奇异的冒险犯罪活动。在表面的喧嚣狂欢和把戏之下,这本书也探讨了深层次的生与死的问题。例如,书中有一对双胞胎,哥哥可以看到人们的过去,而可以预见他们的未来,你认为这两种能力,哪一个能为强大呢?Here the concept of magic is hardly simple. The competitors perform “real” feats (Celia heals a stab wound instantly), yet must present them as tricks because audiences prefer illusion to truth. This tension, between the force of the material world and the will of the imagination, lies at the centre of this book. It neatly addresses a paradox at the heart of all fiction: that the best fabrication seems true; that a make-believe world can be built so intricately that ers feel its edges. Ms Morgenstern has crafted a thrilling and transporting tale. In so doing she makes it clear that of all the shapes magic may take, storytelling is often the most powerful of them all.这里,魔术的概念一点都不简单。作家们上演着“真实”的奇迹(西利亚立刻就可以治好剑伤),但是却要用一种魔术的方式呈现出来,因为读者们更喜欢接近于真实的幻象。真实世界的力量和无穷的想象力之间的较量,正是此书的核心。此书阐明了所有小说的一个悖论之处:编的最好的故事一定是看起来最真实的;作者精妙构思的虚拟世界看起来如此真实,读者们几乎可以感觉到这个世界就在身边。根斯坦创造了一个扣人心弦的故事,大受欢迎广为传播。她以她的行动明了,尽管魔术可以以很多种形式呈现出来,但其中最具影响力的一定是讲故事。 /201305/237848

  Attacking another T-Rex may seem like suicide, but a creature with such a voracious appetite has to find food by any means. 袭击另一只雷克斯霸王龙感觉像是自杀,但是对于这样一种有着巨大胃口的生物来说,寻找食物需要不择手段。Cannibalism is the rule. It’s not the exception. If you’re a carnivore and there’s meat there, you take advantage of it. 嗜食同类是一种自然法则。而不是一个例外。如果你是一只食肉动物,当你发现肉食,你当然要吃。In fact, paleontologists have found ample evidence of cannibalism in the bones of these giants. 事实上,古生物学家在雷克斯霸王龙的骨骼上发现了嗜食同类的明显痕迹。We find tooth marks on the bones of T-Rex and parts of the bones missing on the T-Rex, and clearly they were eaten by another T-Rex. There’s nothing else that could have bitten those bones in half. 我们在雷克斯霸王龙的骨骼上发现了牙齿的痕迹,在它们身上也缺失了一些骨骼,很明显,它们被同类所蚕食。其他恐龙都不可能一下就将这些骨头咬为两半。Tyrannosaurus Rex is powerful and intelligent. But it’s also slow, lumbering, and ponderous, a predator that occasionally has to scavenge to survive. However, the age of dinosaurs is all about adaptation, and for one carnivorous killer, survival means swapping size and muscle for speed, agility, and razor-sharp weaponry. 雷克斯霸王龙强大且聪明。但是它们同样迟钝笨拙,因此有时它们需要嗜食同类才能得以存活。然而,恐龙的时代就是一个适应的时代,对于另一种肉食类捕杀者来说,它们的生存则依靠较小的身材,适合高速度,高敏捷度的肌肉,以及锋利的“武器”。It’s a creature that proves that, in this prehistoric world, death can come in any size. 正是这种生物明:在史前世界,“死亡收割者”可以以任何体型出现。Deinonychus is a raptor, a birdlike predator covered in feathers. It’s 1.5 meters high, 3 meters long, and weighs 100 kilograms, tiny by dinosaur standards. Deinonychus is a hunter equipped with tools unlike any animal in the world today. Teeth, claws, speed … it has it all. 恐爪龙是一种肉食类,体型似鸟的捕猎者,身上并覆盖着羽毛,它们身高1.5米,身长3米,体重100千克,以恐龙的标准来看,它们的体型娇小。恐爪龙和当今世界任何其他捕猎者的武器都不相同。锋利的牙齿与爪子,速度等等,它们全都拥有。Deinonychus, you have an animal that has very nasty sharp teeth and lots of them. And if that weren’t enough, it has enormous inner claws on its feet, as if it just couldn’t get enough weaponry. 恐爪龙,这种动物的牙齿极为锋利,牙齿的数量也极多。如果这些还不够,那么在它脚上还有巨大的内爪,就好像它们的武器总是不够一样。Deinonychus is more than just a well-armed carnivore. It’s intelligent. This predator can stalk a meal, plan out an attack, then take down prey with deadly precision, even one of the largest plant eaters of all time, sauroposeidon. Its name means “lizard earthquake god”, and it can grow up to 19 meters in height and 50 tons in weight.恐爪龙不仅仅是一种极具防御能力的肉食类恐龙。它还充满智慧。为了猎物,它们可以潜伏,计划攻击,然后极为精准地给予猎物致命一击,即使对当时最大的食草类恐龙——波塞东龙也是一样。波塞东龙名字的意思是:“爬行的波塞冬(希腊神话中的海神,地震之神)”它们可以长到19米高,50吨重。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201403/278286


  Some of this ice age dung was found beneath the skull in the Aucilla. The dung contained plant remains that tell us what the mastodon was browsing on 13,000 years ago or more—a mixture of trees and grasses.在奥西拉市发现的头骨下面发现了一些从冰河时代遗留下来的粪便。粪便中包含着植物化石,这告诉我们,在13000多年前,乳齿象的食物便是树木和草的混合物。This suggests that ice age Florida was drier than it is today—a mix of woodlands and savanna rather than swamps. And mastodon teeth found in the Aucilla held a more important revelation. The enamel contains chemical signatures of a local soil, passed by the plants the mastodons ate. But some of the chemicals found in the Aucilla teeth could only have come from soil hundreds of miles further north. The inescapable conclusion is that these mastodons migrated, making a round trip of more than 400 miles every year. And since their dung also contains remains of summer fruits from the Aucilla region, they must have travelled north for the winter. 这能够告诉我们,冰河时代的佛罗里达比现在更加干燥,到处都是树林和草原而不是沼泽。在奥西拉发现的乳齿象的牙齿透漏出了更多的重要信息。通过他们所吃的食物,牙齿上的釉质带有一些当地土壤的化学成分。但是,一些牙齿上的化学成分都来于北方几百英里外的土壤。我们很轻易地得出一个结论:这些乳齿象每年都进行400多英里的往返迁移。由于这些粪便中含有来自奥西拉地区的夏季水果化石,因此他们一定是在冬天向北方迁徙。The question is, why? Why leave a place which as we have seen was abundant with food and a refuge from the cold? And why go north for the winter when most migrants move south? Perhaps the present climate can provide a clue. 问题是,这是为什么呢?为什么离开一个在我们看来食物充足并能抵御严寒的地方?为什么当大部分的动物向南部迁徙过冬时他们却向北部迁徙?也许现在的气候可以为我们提供一些线索。Florida has a peculiar seasonal quirk. Although the winter months are cooler, they are also drier, much drier. Between October and February, theres almost no rainfall at all.佛罗里达的气候十分特殊。尽管冬季的月份更加寒冷,但是同样也更加干燥,尤为干燥。在十月和二月之间,佛罗里达基本上没有降雨。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201309/255223



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