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An appeals court on Monday upheld the bulk of Apple’s patent victory against Samsung Electronics in 2012, but overturned part of the decision and said that a lower court should reduce the total amount that Samsung would have to pay.本周一,一家上诉法院维持了苹果(Apple)2012年在三星电子(Samsung Electronics)专利侵权案中获得的大部分胜诉裁决,但推翻了其中一部分。它表示,一家下级法院应该减少三星必须付的赔偿总金额。The ed States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, which deals with patent lawsuit appeals, said that the overall aesthetic of the iPhone — a rectangular product with rounded corners, black borders and a flat, clear surface — could not be protected and part of the damages would have to be recalculated.美国联邦巡回上诉法院(ed States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit)处理涉及专利诉讼的上诉,它表示,iPhone的整体美学造型——长方形的产品、圆角、黑色边框、平整的表面——不能受到保护,苹果的部分损失必须重新计算。Apple had accused Samsung of diluting its brand by copying the overall look of its iPhones. But the court said Apple failed to prove that the iPhone aesthetic was not “functional.” In other words, giving Apple protection for the overall look and shape of a smartphone would essentially grant it a perpetual monopoly over making smartphones work better, and the three-judge panel decided not to go in that direction.苹果此前指控三星抄袭其iPhone手机的整体外观,令其品牌蒙受损失。但该法院表示,苹果未能明iPhone的美学造型不是“功能性的”。换句话说,在一部智能手机的整体外观和形状上为苹果提供保护,基本上会为其在智能手机的功能改善上提供一个永久性垄断地位,由三名法官组成的合议庭决定不这么做。“We therefore vacate the jury’s damages awards against the Samsung products that were found liable for trade dress dilution and remand for further proceedings consistent with this opinion,” the appeals court wrote in its decision.“因此,对于发现三星在产品外观上进行模仿,我们取消了陪审团在损害赔偿上的决定,并将这个案件发回,根据这个意见进行重审,”上诉法院在裁决中写到。Josh Rosenstock, an Apple spokesman, lauded the decision as having “confirmed Samsung blatantly copied Apple products.”苹果发言人乔希·罗森斯托克(Josh Rosenstock)称赞这个决定“明三星明目张胆地抄袭了苹果的产品”。“This is a victory for design and those who respect it,” he said.“这是设计的胜利,是那些尊重设计的人的胜利,”他说。Samsung did not have a comment.三星并未予以置评。In 2012, a jury unanimously decided that Samsung had violated a series of Apple patents and needed to pay more than billion in damages, an amount that was recalculated to 0 million by another jury in a separate trial in 2013. The lawsuit was prominent, pitting two of the world’s top smartphone makers against each other.2012年,陪审团一致裁定三星侵犯了苹果的一系列专利,需要付逾10亿美元的赔偿金。2013年,一个不同的陪审团参加的另一次庭审对这笔金额进行了重新计算,调整为9.3亿美元。由于原被告是全球两大智能手机制造商,该案件令世人瞩目。The two companies have gone on to duel in other legal entanglements, before calling something of a truce. Last year, in a separate case, a federal jury found that Apple and Samsung had infringed on each other’s patents in some mobile devices and awarded most of the damages to Apple. In August, however, the companies said they agreed to drop suits against each other outside the ed States.这两家公司也因其他一些法律纠纷对簿公堂,后来基本宣告休战。去年,在另一个案件中,联邦陪审团认为,苹果和三星均在一些移动设备上侵犯了对方的专利,并裁定苹果获得大部分赔偿。但在去年8月,这两家公司表示,他们同意在美国以外的地方放弃针对对方的诉讼。Separately on Monday, Carl C. Icahn, the activist investor, published an open letter to Apple. In the 2,200-word letter, he said Apple’s shares were still “dramatically undervalued,” and urged Timothy D. Cook, the chief executive, to buy back more of Apple’s stock because the company was sitting on too much cash.另外,在本周一,激进投资者卡尔·C·伊坎(Carl C. Icahn)向苹果发出了一封2200字的公开信。他在信中说苹果公司的股价依然“被严重低估”,并敦促苹果首席执行官蒂莫西·D·库克(Timothy D. Cook)回购更多苹果的股票,因为该公司目前坐拥太多现金。 /201505/376331

Engineering Students Use Sound Waves To Extinguish Fires工科男利用声波灭火Water, foam, sand, blankets, and even baking soda are well-known solutions to putting out flames. But sound waves? That has to be a first. But that is exactly what two young engineers from George Mason University are using to douse small fires.洒水、泡沫、沙土、毛毯甚至发酵粉都是常见的灭火方法,但声波灭火也许你是头回听说。Electrical and computer engineering students Viet Tran and Seth Robertson were looking for an interesting idea for their senior research project. That#39;s when they stumbled upon an experiment conducted by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA ) in 2012. 电子工程专业学生Viet Tran和Seth Roberson当时正在为他们大四毕业设计找一个炫酷的方向,随后就偶然间发现了DARPA2012年做过的这个实验。Tran and Robertson decided to challenge themselves and see if they could take the research to the next level and build a fire extinguisher that could be used commercially. As with any radical idea, they faced a lot of skepticism even from faculty members many of whom declined to serve as advisors. Tran和Roberson打算挑战自我,看看能否进一步推进这个实验,制造出一款可以创造商业价值的灭火器。这个不切实际的想法让他们面对很对质疑,甚至还有许多学院成员拒绝做他们的导师。The young engineers first tried to extinguish the fire by placing a subwoofer near a flame created using rubbing alcohol. But they soon realized that #39;music#39; is not such a good idea since it is inconsistent and unpredictable. The next option was exposing the fire to 20,000 to 30,000 hertz frequencies. However with the high frequencies, the flames only vibrated. The duo hit a home run when they reduced the frequency to about 30 to 60 hertz. Turns out that at these low frequencies, the sound vibrates the oxygen away from the flames. With no fuel to keep them going, the fire suffocates and dies.两位年轻的工程师首先尝试了用低音炮熄灭酒精火源。很快,他们认识到,用音乐来灭火并不是一个好主意,因为音乐不连贯也不规则。另一个方案是把火置于2万到3万赫兹的频率中,但是无论音频有多高,火焰都只是震颤了几下。但当他们把频率降到了30-60赫兹的时候,就开始有效果了。实验明,在低音频下,声波把氧气从火焰中震颤出去,没了燃料,火很快就减小熄灭了。Tran and Robertson are not letting naysayers stray them from their goal. They are forging ahead with their idea, this time with the full support of the University who is even helping them apply for a provisional patent. If they do succeed, there may be soon be a time when fire trucks will be extinguishing flames with some sweet music, instead of messy toxic chemicals!这时的Tran和Roberson并没有让唱反调的人阻挡他们前进的步伐,他们正在不断推进自己的想法,也获得了来自校方的全力持。校方甚至要帮助他们申请为临时专利。如果发明成功的话,救火车以后就会不用脏脏的有毒化学物品灭火了,放些甜美的音乐就能搞定一切。译文属原创,仅供学习和交流使用,未经许可,。 /201507/385821

Zisha Teapots紫砂壶Zisha teapots, also known as “Yixing teapots”, are made of purple clay specially produced in Yixing of Jiangsu Province. The first Zisha teapot could be traced back to the middle of Northern Song Dynasty, 900 years ago. As a non-glazed type, Zisha ware achieves its visual effect from its form and structure rather than the decorations of glazed, colored drawing.During the long develop-ment of Zisha art the potters have created many exquisite and unique patterns in-corporating rich aesthetic thoughts.紫砂壶又名“宜兴壶”,它是用江苏宜兴特有的紫砂泥烧制而成的一种茶具。紫砂壶创始年可追溯到北宋中期,距今有900年历史。紫砂器是一种无釉陶,它并非以釉绘画的装饰来达到陶瓷艺术中美的效果,而是通过造型结构来表达其外观美。紫砂壶艺经过长期的发展,陶工创制了不少精练别致的壶样,这些设计都蕴含着很多美学观念。The demand of stability is well met in the designing of its form. Sia-bility means more than a teapot that pours clean and steady for the visual stability also counts. To make the Zisha teapot easy to handle and sim-plify the manufacturing process,round or a symmetrical form is usually the most favored shape of the teapot.The center of gravity lies in the axis,which is also the center line of whole structure and perpendicular to the center of the bottom. Thus the visual stability largely depends on the bottom size.Moreover,the changes in shoulder and waist also contribute to the position of gravity center and overall stability.紫砂壶的造型基本上要符合稳的要求,“稳”除指使用时的稳定外,也要求视觉上具有安定感。紫砂壶为求使用及创作上的便利,多做成圆形或对称的形体,这种造型都以形体的中心线为轴,而造型的重心就落在中轴上,从造型霞心下垂的中轴线,并落在壶底的中心点,所以壶底的大小就在视觉上影响壶的稳定性。此外,壶体的肩、腹部位的变化,也影响着整体造型的重心和稳定性。Boccaro art can be described as a type that is “from but beyond life”. A good Zisha teapot is the combination of perfect form and proficient skill.Furthermore, it is crucial to select suitable patt erns, texture of decorations, and the correct tech-nique.Since Zisha art is an art of emotions, a relatively perfect work must be both convenient and have the function of cultivating, enlightening and generating the aesthetic feelings within.紫砂艺术是一种“源于生活,高于生活”的艺术创作形式。一件好的紫砂壶,除了讲究形式的完美与制作技巧的精湛,还要审视纹样的适合,装饰的取材以及制作的手法。再说壶艺本身就是感情,所以一件较完美的作品,既要方便使用,又要能够陶冶性情,启迪心灵,给人油然而生的艺术感受。 /201512/410758

Ling Xian(Mystical Laws)《灵宪》A monumental astronomic works,Ling Xian,translated as Mystical Laws is a distillation of the years of practice and theoretical research by Zhang Heng,a famous astronomer of the Eastern Han Dynasty.Dealing with such topics as the formation and structure of the heaven and earth and the cosmicevolvement as well as the nature and movement of celestial bodies,the book pro-moted the level of ancient China’s astronomical level to a new high and cast a pro-found impact on the following generations.《灵宪》是东汉著名天文学家张衡积多年的实践与理论研究写成的一部天文巨著。该书全面阐述了天地的生成、宇宙的演化、天地的结构、日月星辰的本质及其运动等诸多重大问题,将中国古代的天文学水平提升到了一个新阶段,并对后世产生了深远的影响。The astronomical achievements of Lang Xian are as follows:《灵宪》的天文学成就如下:First, Ling Xian discusses the origin and structure of the cosmos. In terms of the formation of the heaven and earth,Ling Xian believes that the heaven .the earth,and all the other things have their origins in primitive and chaotic yuanqi(vi-tality).ft further holds that,instead of staying permanently unchanged,the struc-ture of the cosmos is constantly developing. These views,basically, are similar to modern theories on the evolution of the cosmos.第一,论述了宇宙的起源和宇宙的结构。关于天地的生成问题,《灵宪》认为天地万物是从原始的浑沌未分的元气发展来的。这种天体演化思想,是从物质运动的本身来说明宇宙的形成,认为宇宙结构不是亘古不变的,而是不断发展变化的。这些观点,与现代宇宙演化学说在基本原理上是相通的。Second,based on the theory of sphere heavens,the book scientifically elabo-rates on the lunar eclipse.、。。explanation of the phenomenon,Zhang Heng wrote in the book“The moon itself is not luminescent, but rather reflecting the sunlight. The part of the moon where the sunlight fails to reach will not give out light. If the moon into the shadow of the earth,a lunar eclipse occurs.第二,在浑天说的基础上,科学地阐述了月食的原因。张衡在《灵宪》中写道:“月光生于日之所照;魄生于日之所蔽。当日则光盈,就日则光尽也。”(大意为:月亮本身是不发光的,而是太阳光照射到月亮上,月亮才折射出光,太阳光照不到的地方则出现亏缺。如果月亮进人地影,就会发生“月食”。)Third,in relation of the finity and infinity of the cosmos,Zhang Heng com-pared the heaven to an eggshell,and the earth to the egg yolk.Zhang Heng,however , did not believe the eggshell to be the boundary of the cosmos.He viewed the cosmos that people could see with the naked eye as limited while the part that could not be seen as infinite.第三,宇宙的有限性和无限性。张衡把天比作一个鸡蛋壳,把地比作蛋壳中的鸡蛋黄,但他并不认为硬壳是宇宙的边界。张衡认为,人们目之所及的宇宙世界是有限的,但在人们目之所及之外的宇宙世界则是无限的。Fourth,Zhang recorded his measurement of both the sun and the moon’s an-gular diameter,which is 1 /736 of the celestial sphere,or rather 29度21(or 29度21),an absolute difference of 20from the modern average value of 31度5(or 31度5).Considering the scientific level and observatory conditions of over 2000 years ago,the number is fairly precise.第四,张衡实测出日、月的角直径是整个周天的1/736,即29021,这与近代天文测量所得的日和月的平均角直径值3105,相比,绝对误差仅有2。由于2000多年前的科学技术水平及观测条件,这个数值可以说是相当精确的。Fifth,based on his careful observation of the celestial bodies,Zhang Heng sorted out the various star charts made by his predecessors and re-established a new chart, recording the position of over 3,000 stars.第五,张衡在认真观察天体的基础上,对前人留传下来的好几种星表作了整理、汇总,建立了恒星多达三千的新星表。The last but not the least, concerning the movement of the five planets,Zhang worte:‘The sun,the moon and the flue planets all move in-between the heaven and earth rather than on the wall of the celestial sphere. Moreover the seven ce-lestial bodies move at different speeds.’第六,关于五星的运动问题,张衡提出:日、月、五星是在天地之间运行,而非在天球壁上运行。并且,这七个天体运动的速度各不相同。Ling Xian,is one of the most outstanding astronomic works in the history of ancient Chinese astronomy,represents a milestone in the development of Chinese astronomy. Its importance in the astronomical history is not lessened at all by its mistakes and shortcomings.《灵宪》是中国古代天文学史上最杰出的天文学著作之一,也是中国天文学发展的一个里程碑。虽然其中还有一些错误和不足,但在天文学史上、的意义并不因此而逊色。 /201511/409377

Uber and Lyft have each doubled their fundraising to amass a combined .1bn from investors, underscoring how the most prominent Silicon Valley start-ups still have access to capital even as some smaller companies struggle to access money.Uber和Lyft向投资者筹集的资金分别增长了一倍,总额达到31亿美元,突显出这些最知名的硅谷初创公司是如何在一些中小企业难以筹资之际仍能获得资本的。As part of its fundraising, Uber has landed a partnership with Guangzhou Automobile Group, as the ride-hailing company continues an aggressive push into China.作为其筹资的一部分,Uber与广汽集团(Guangzhou Automobile Group)建立了合作关系,这家叫车务公司继续积极进入中国。The US company has invested heavily in China, but its future is uncertain as a set of ride-hailing laws is due to come into force there next year. Moreover, Uber’s Chinese rival, Didi Kuaidi, has had investment from a range of Chinese heavyweights including Tencent and Alibaba.Uber已在中国大举投资,但随着关于叫车务的一系列法律明年生效,它的未来面临不确定性。此外,Uber的中国竞争对手滴滴快的(Didi Kuaidi)已经获得了腾讯(Tencent)和阿里巴巴(Alibaba)等中国巨擘的投资。Under the deal, Uber will have a new and much needed partner in China. Guangzhou Auto will invest an undisclosed sum in Uber China, while Uber will promote Guangzhou Auto’s cars to its drivers and work with the company for car sales and financing.按照合作协议,广汽将成为Uber在中国亟需的新合作伙伴。广汽将投资于Uber中国(Uber China),但金额不详,而Uber将向其司机推介广汽汽车,两家公司还将在汽车销售和信贷方面进行合作。Uer China also has a partnership with Chinese search engine company Baidu, which led Uber China’s fundraising this year.Uber中国也与中国搜索引擎公司百度(Baidu)建立了合作关系,后者是Uber中国今年的主要投资方。 /201512/418597

Amazon AMZN -0.66% today unveiled Dash Buttons, an easy way for customers to order select bulk goods via an internet-connected button, and yesterday launched Home Services, an on-demand installation and handyman service. Combined, they show that the e-commerce giant has a clear understanding of how the Internet-of-things will benefit its business. And it isn’t going to be shy about capitalizing on connectivity to build its bottom line.4月1日,亚马逊发布了一键下单按钮Dash Buttons,通过这款联网的按钮,消费者可以轻松预订某种特定货品。而就在之前一天,该公司推出了家庭务平台Home Services,顾客可以按需定制安装、维修等务。这两项业务表明,作为电子商务巨头,亚马逊已清楚认识到物联网将给自身业务带来怎样的好处,并毫不犹豫地开始放手利用网络互连来创造利润。Dash Buttons are an adaptation of Amazon’s voice-controlled Dash ordering system that lets people speak to order new grocery items, and will allow Amazon Prime members to order one item with the push of an WiFi-based connected button. Amazon has 17 brands (including Bounty and Tide) on board at launch, so folks can re-order their bulk goods with a button-click.Dash Buttons按钮是亚马逊的声控下单设备Dash的一个衍生品,持用户通过语音下单,订购日杂商品,而且亚马逊Prime会员只需轻轻一按以WiFi联网的Dash Buttons,,即可订购某种商品。这款刚刚问世的产品覆盖了汰渍等17个品牌,只要按下相应的按钮,用户就可重复下单。Amazon also has advertised a developer program that allows companies to build re-ordering buttons directly into their own hardware. Listed on that page are partners such as Whirlpool (re-order laundry supplies), Brother (ink and toner), Brita (water filters) and Quirky (which is launching a line of appliances including a fancy pour-ver coffee machine). An Amazon spokesman says the first Dash-enabled devices will start showing up in the fall.此外,亚马逊已经开始大肆宣传其开发者项目。这个项目允许各厂商在自己的硬件产品里直接内置重复下单按钮。目前的合作伙伴包括惠而浦洗衣机(再订购洗衣用品)、兄弟打印机(墨水和碳粉)、Brita净水器和Quirky手冲咖啡机等产品。亚马逊一位发言人表示,首批具有此项功能的产品将在今年秋季问世。So what Amazon has is a retrofit strategy for connecting smart appliances to its e-commerce operations and a future-facing strategy for the coming flood of connected devices. And all of this is geared around making buying products from Amazon as easy as possible. The plan aly was somewhat validated by the popular Internet-of-things startup If This Then That, which in February launched a one-button app that let users assign one task to a single button. For example, one of my one-button tasks was was posting a message to Slack whenever I left my desk.也就是说,为了应对未来大量联网设备上市的浪潮,亚马逊已经调整了战略,以便将智能设备和其电商业务连接在一起。而所有这些都围绕着一个核心,那就是尽量让购物变得简单。这项计划在一定程度上已经被热门物联网创业公司If This Then That验过了: 今年2月, If This Then That推出了一款一键触发应用,功能是让用户把一项任务绑定到一个按键或按钮上。比如说,我绑定的一键任务之一是当我离开办公桌后,在企业通信工具Slack上发布提示信息。The simplicity of one-button tasks are appealing, although it could lead to a mess of packages ending up at people’s doors if Amazon doesn’t try to minimize waste on its end, by grouping shipments together when possible. People on Twitter seem mostly concerned about pets and small children playing with the Dash Buttons and ordering multiples of their Kraft Macaroni and Cheese boxes, although Amazon notes that if the button is pressed more than once, the order doesn’t go through on the second time, and you’ll get a smartphone notification about it.尽管一键下单的便捷性令人着迷,但是如果亚马逊不设法减少终端的浪费、尽可能地合并发货,这个功能或许会导致用户家门口被杂乱的包裹堆满。Twitter上的反应表明,人们最担心家里的宠物或小孩子乱动Dash Buttons,重复订购卡夫通心粉或芝士粉等商品。但亚马逊声明,多次按动下单按钮生成的订单并不会即刻通过,用户的智能手机将先收到相应的下单提示信息。Amazon also recently launched Home Services, following up on last year’s opening of a home automation e-store devoted to connected gadgets for the home — many of which require a professional installer. So now Amazon can sell these devices along with the person who can install them.另一项亚马逊刚推出的Home Services务也与它先前的业务有关。去年,亚马逊建立了家庭自动化电子商铺,旨在向家庭用户出售联网设备。而这些设备均需要由专业人士安装。现在有了Home Services,亚马逊在销售这些设备的同时,也开始向用户提供专业的安装务。It also is focusing on maintenance, via a network of service providers that it can call on for its network of suppliers or for its own planned connected home play –something I’ve previously advised companies interested in the connected home to do as a way of closing the loop. Because while data and the algorithms that will be used to detect when there is actually a problem in the home are going to be an essential ingredient, we will still need the people on the ground to fix those problems for a long time to come.这项务的另一个重点是维修,它通过一个务提供商网络来实现,务对象则包括亚马逊的供应商及其计划中的互联家庭。此前我曾建议,有意于互联家庭市场的企业可以这样做,以便形成完整的业务链。我这样说的原因在于,要想即时发现家里出了问题,数据和算法固然必不可少,但在今后很长一段时间里,仍需要有人来切实解决这些问题。So far, Amazon is impressing me with its understanding of how the Internet-of-things can affect its business. With Dash, it’s making an offensive play to ring up more sales as devices come online. With Amazon Home Services, it’s making a defensive play as other large companies try to become more vertically integrated. My only question is where does the voice-activated Amazon Echo speaker fit into all of this? Is it, like the original Dash, more of a pilot devices designed to gather usage data to build other products, or is it an integral element for home control as I’m hoping?截至目前,亚马逊对物联网将如何影响自身业务的理解让人印象深刻。随着各种设备开始联网,亚马逊可以借助Dash硬件主动出击,提升销售额。同时,在其他大公司进一步进行业务垂直整合之际,Home Services让亚马逊有了抗击打能力。对我来说,唯一的问题在于亚马逊的语音助手硬件Echo怎样和这些务项目融合在一起?它是不是和原来的购物助手Dash一样,更多地是一款引导性性产品,用于收集使用数据,以便制造其他产品?还是说,它和我希望的一样,是智能家居控制中不可或缺的一环? /201504/369353


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