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2019年11月15日 08:25:48 | 作者:健共享 | 来源:新华社
Alibaba, the Chinese e-commerce company, has a new partner in rooting out products deemed unsafe for American consumers, but the cooperation could also bring it more headaches.中国电商企业阿里巴巴有了一个新伙伴,帮助其根除那些被认为对美国消费者不安全的产品,但相关合作也可能会给该公司带来更多令人头痛的事情。The company, which listed its shares in New York in September, is teaming up with a ed States government agency to prevent its online platforms from exporting items to America that have been recalled. The agreement is likely to have its largest effects on Alibaba’s business-to-business site, which sells goods produced by Chinese manufacturers to American importers and businesses.9月在纽约上市的阿里巴巴正在与美国一家政府机构合作,以防止其在线平台向美国出口已被召回的货物。阿里巴巴旗下企业对企业的网站可能是受相关协议影响最大的,该网站主要面向美国进口商和企业销售中国厂家生产的商品。The agency, the Consumer Product Safety Commission, said it would provide Alibaba lists of recalled items, and in turn, Alibaba said it would ensure that those products were not for sale to companies or individuals in America. Alibaba has a small business facilitating the sale of goods to American consumers.参与合作的政府机构美国消费品安全委员会(Consumer Product Safety Commission)表示,将向阿里巴巴提供被召回产品名录,而阿里巴巴则表示将确保不面向美国的企业或个人销售相关产品。阿里巴巴旗下有一家小公司专门负责促进面向美国消费者的商品销售。The commission’s chairman, Elliot F. Kaye, cited the recall last year of high-powered magnets being sold as toys in the ed States, noting that recently some companies on Alibaba’s sites had sold the magnets wholesale.该委员会主席埃利奥特·F·凯(Elliot F. Kaye)提到了去年在美国被当做玩具销售的高性能磁铁被召回一事,并指出最近,阿里巴巴网站上的部分公司在以批发的方式销售这种磁铁。Mr. Kaye said the new cooperation would help ensure that listings for dangerous items like the magnets — which were recalled because of a number of instances in which children ingested them, frequently necessitating surgery — would no longer be purposely or inadvertently imported by smaller ed States companies.凯表示,新展开的合作将有助于确保美国小企业不再进口——不管是有意还是无意——像前述磁铁那样的危险物品。前述高性能磁铁之所以被召回,是因为发生了一些事故,儿童吞下磁铁,常常需要进行手术。The cooperation serves as a test for Alibaba, which despite taking steps to clean up its e-commerce sites, retains a reputation for selling just about any product — brand, fake or occasionally dangerous.合作是对阿里巴巴的一次考验。尽管采取了诸多举措整顿旗下的电商网站,但阿里巴巴依然因为几乎什么产品都卖而声名远扬,其网站上有品牌货,也有假货,偶尔还会有危险物品。It is also a risk. If the company fails to live up to its end of the bargain, Mr. Kaye said the commission would not hesitate to pressure the company.此举也有风险。如果阿里巴巴未能信守承诺,凯表示该委员会将毫不犹豫地迫使其就范。Though Alibaba said last month that it spent about 0 million combating the sale of fake goods on its sites in 2013 and 2014, many companies complain that Alibaba can be slow to pull down listings of pirated goods. Others point out that removed listings often quickly reappear under different names.阿里巴巴上月表示,该公司在2013年和2014年投入了超过10亿元人民币,打击旗下网站上的假货交易,但还是有许多公司不满于阿里巴巴打击盗版产品时行动迟缓。还有一些公司指出,被撤下的产品往往很快又会换个名字重新出现。“We’re certainly going to hold their feet to the fire,” Mr. Kaye said on Tuesday at the Hong Kong Toys and Games Fair.“我们肯定会让他们感到有压力,”凯周二在香港玩具展(Hong Kong Toys and Games Fair)上说。Mr. Kaye said the agency would start with a list of five to 15 products at the top of the regulator’s priority list, then expand it. The commission, which first approached Alibaba about cooperation roughly two years ago, expects problematic items to be taken down in a matter of hours, he said.凯表示,消费品安全委员会首先会提供一份名单,上面会列出该机构重点强调的五到十五种产品,然后再扩充名单。他说,大概两年前,委员会首次就合作事宜找到了阿里巴巴。该委员会希望问题商品在几小时之内下架。“We’re not a very patient lot, and if it doesn’t happen pretty quickly, then they’ll be hearing from us,” he said, adding that he hoped an automated system could be worked out.“我们可不是一群有耐心的人,如果事情未能很快得到处理,他们就会了解到我们的应对措施,”他说。他还表示希望能制定一个自动化系统。The good-faith agreement raises the more complicated issue of cross-border Internet regulations. In recent years, China has pushed hard for the ed States to accept the idea that Internet companies operating in different nations follow the rules and laws of their own nations. And countries like China have demanded that ed States companies censor content or provide their governments with private user data to remain in compliance with their laws.这个用心良苦的协议提出了更复杂的跨国互联网监管问题。近年来,中国极力要求美国接受一点,即在他国运营的互联网公司遵守自己国家的法律法规。但中国等国又要求美国公司进行内容审查,或是向政府提供用户的私人数据,以遵守它们的法律。In this case, Alibaba is agreeing to respect ed States laws.在此事中,阿里巴巴同意尊重美国法律。Discussing potential concerns about setting a precedent on Internet regulation, Mr. Kaye said, “From my perspective, there’s enough known good that will result from this that if it turns out there are unfortunate side effects, we will try to work to ameliorate those.”谈到在互联网监管方面开创先例可能存在的问题,凯说,“在我看来,此举已知的好处够多了,如果出现不利的副作用,我们将努力改善。” /201501/354738In 1950, at a time when there were fewer than 10 digital computers worldwide, Bill Pfann, a 33-year-old scientist at Bell Laboratories in New Jersey, discovered a method that could be used to purify elements, such as germanium and silicon. He could not possibly have imagined then that this discovery would enable the silicon micro-chip and the rise of the computer industry, the Internet, and the emergence of the information age. Today, there are about 10 billion Internet-connected devices in the world, such as laptops and mobile phones, and at the heart of each of these devices, there is at least one such micro-chip that acts as its “engine”.1950年时,全球只有不到10台数字计算机。时年33岁的新泽西贝尔实验室科学家比尔o芬尼在这一年发现了一种提纯锗、硅等元素的方法。他当时可能想不到,这一发现促成了硅制微芯片的诞生,推动了计算机和互联网的发展,导致了信息时代的出现。如今,全球已有超过100亿台联网设备。而所有这些设备中,都至少有一块这样的微芯片充当“引擎”作用。The reason behind this relentless progress is neatly contained in a prophetic law that was announced 50 years ago this Sunday, called Moore’s Law. The micro-chip is built with tiny electrical switches made of purified silicon called transistors and the law stated that the number of transistors on a chip would double every year. In 1975, Gordon Moore revised his forecast to state that the count would double every two years. The law has held true since.50年前,一个预言式的定律巧妙地揭示了科技不断进步背后的原因,它就是尔定律。微芯片上有许多由纯净硅制成的微型电子开关,它们被称作晶体管。而尔定律认为芯片上的晶体管数量每年都会翻倍。1975年,戈登o尔修正了他的预测,认为晶体管数量会每两年翻一倍。从此以后,这一定律从未失准。Why is Moore’s Law relevant? Because this doubling of the number of transistors led to computer chips that could be packed with increasingly sophisticated circuitry that was both energy efficient and cheap. This led to the widesp adoption of computers, mobile phones, and the information technology revolution.为何尔定律经年不衰?因为晶体管数量的倍增让计算机芯片能够搭载越来越复杂的电路系统,它们不仅节能,还十分便宜。这导致了计算机、手机的普及,推动了信息技术的革命。The price of computation is about 10 million times cheaper than it was 40 years ago, and the computing power held in a smart phone outstrips the workstations that computer scientists used in their offices in the 1990s. That we have been able to so far hold true to Moore’s Law is the reason that the electronic circulation of information has been commoditized, changing the way many of us learn, bank, travel, communicate and socialize.计算机的价格比起40年前,已然便宜了一千万倍,而一部智能手机拥有的计算能力,已经超过了20世纪90年代计算机科学家使用的工作站。至今为止,尔定律依然适用,也因为如此,信息的电子流通变得商品化,改变了我们当中许多人学习、储蓄、旅行、沟通和社交的方式。Take the example of social networking using a mobile phone. It works because the cost of a transistor has dropped a million fold and computing is about 10,000 times more energy efficient since 1980, when this writer first went to engineering school. Consequently, a 0 smart phone powered by a biscuit-sized battery contains a micro-chip with a few billion transistors in it and enough computing power to digitally process an image, and then upload and share it wirelessly using powerful mathematics to encode the data. This is a consequence of Moore’s Law in action.以使用手机进行社交为例。之所以能实现这一点,是因为从1980年(当时笔者才刚进入工程学院)至今,晶体管的价格降低了几百万倍,计算的能效提高了几万倍。因此,售价200美元、由一块饼干大小的电池作为能源的智能手机中,拥有一块包含几十亿晶体管的微芯片,其计算能力足以对图片进行数字化加工,运用强大的数学运算能力编码其数据,再通过无线网络上传和分享它。这就是尔定律作用下的成果。Yet, on its 50th anniversary, there are tell-tale signs that Moore’s Law is slowing, and we are almost certain that the law will cease to hold within a decade. With further miniaturization silicon transistors will attain dimensions of the order of only a handful of atoms and the laws of physics dictate that the transistors and electronic circuits will cease to work efficiently at that point. As Moore’s Law’s slows down, innovations in other areas, such as developments in software, will pick up the slack in the short-term.然而,在它诞生50周年之际,已有迹象表明尔定律下的增长开始放缓,我们也几乎可以确定,在接下来的十年内,它恐怕将不复成立。硅晶体管继续微型化下去,将达到仅含有少量原子排列的维度,根据物理定律,这种情况下晶体管和电子电路将无法有效工作。随着尔定律下的增长放缓,其他领域的创新,如软件方面的发展,将在短期内补上这一缺口。But in the longer-term, there will be fundamental changes in the essential design of the classical computer that, remarkably, has remained unchanged since the 1950s. Designed for precise calculations, today’s computing machines do not make inferences, and qualitative decisions, or recognize patterns from large amounts of data efficiently. The next substantive leap forward will be in computers with human-like cognitive capabilities that are also energy efficient. IBM’s Watson, the computing system that won the television game show Jeopardy! in 2011, consumed about 4000 times more energy than its human competitors. This experience reinforced the need for new energy efficient computing machines that are designed differently from the sequential, calculative methodology of classical computers and are inspired, perhaps, by the way biological brains work.但从长期来看,从20世纪50年代至今未曾改变的传统计算机的基本设计,将会出现根本性的变革。如今的计算机可用来进行精确计算,但它们无法高效地从大量数据中得出推断,做出定性决策或识别模式。下一个实质性的飞越将会出现在那些拥有类人认知能力且高能效的计算机上。IBM的计算机系统沃森在2011年的智力挑战节目“Jeopardy!”上取得胜利,但它消耗的能量是与它同台对垒的人类选手的4000倍。这一经历凸显了对新型高能效计算机的需求。它们要与使用顺序计算方法的经典计算机有所区别,设计者也许将从生物大脑的运转方式中汲取灵感。A journalist recently asked me whether the continuation of Moore’s Law was indispensable. It is the beauty of the collective enterprise of human innovation that which ensures that nothing is indispensable indefinitely for technology to progress. Decades later one might look at the era of Moore’s Law as a golden period where computers came of age through a masterful display of an industry’s ability to miniaturize and create billions of flawless and identical copies of tiny circuits at factories throughout the world. But, much as a pack of migratory birds flying in V-formation rotate in at the lead position, there will, at that future time, be many other technologies that will have carried us forward in the information age.一位记者最近问我,尔定律的持续是不是不可或缺的。人类创新这项集体活动之美,就在于保了没有什么对于技术进步而言是不可或缺的。几十年后,人们或许会将尔定律的年代看作黄金时代,这个年代的计算机起初是一个行业实力的体现,后来计算机逐渐小型化,全球的工厂制造了数以亿计一模一样的完美微型电路。但就像候鸟群会以V字队列盘旋在领头者旁边一样,未来会有许多其他技术引领着我们在信息时代继续前进。 /201504/371646

Google, Amazon, Microsoft and Taboola have quietly paid the German start-up behind Adblock Plus, the world’s most popular software for blocking online advertising, to stop blocking ads on their sites.谷歌(Google)、亚马逊(Amazon)、微软(Microsoft)和Taboola悄悄地付给世界最热门在线广告屏蔽软件Adblock Plus背后的德国初创企业一笔钱,换取后者不再屏幕它们网站上的广告。The deals, which are confidential but whose existence has been confirmed by the Financial Times, demonstrate that some of the biggest participants in the 0bn online advertising market see the rise of ad-blocking as a material threat to their revenues.这些交易是保密的,但它们的存在已得到英国《金融时报》的确认。这些交易明,价值1200亿美元的在线广告市场的一些最大参与者,将广告屏蔽软件的崛起视为对其营收的切实威胁。Adblock Plus has become one of the most popular free extensions on Chrome and Firefox browsers in recent years as internet users have attempted to eliminate the interruption of advertising. Eyeo, the German company that produces the software, says it has been downloaded more than 300m times worldwide and has more than 50m monthly active users.随着互联网用户想方设法消除广告造成的干扰,Adblock Plus近年来已成为Chrome和火狐(Firefox)浏览器上最热门的免费扩展。开发这款软件的德国公司Eyeo表示,这款软件在全球已被下载逾3亿次,拥有5000万月活跃用户。However, many publishers that fund their operations through advertising worry that ad-blocking will undermine their business model. German media groups including RTL and ProSiebenSat.1 are seeking damages from Eyeo, while French publishers are reportedly considering whether to follow suit.然而,许多靠广告收入提供自身运营资金的广告发布商担心,广告屏蔽软件会损害它们的商业模式。包括RTL和ProSiebenSat.1在内的德国媒体公司正在寻求让Eyeo赔偿损失,法国广告发布商据报也在考虑是否效仿德国同行的做法。Google and Amazon declined to #173;comment.谷歌和亚马逊拒绝置评。Microsoft, whose Bing search ads have been unblocked, said: “We are committed to working with partners who share our vision for relevant, impactful brand interaction and respect the integrity of consumer choice.”微软旗下必应(Bing)搜索的广告已被解除屏蔽。微软表示:“我们致力于与这样的伙伴合作:它对有意义、有影响力的品牌互动的愿景要与我们一致,而且要充分尊重消费者的选择。”Eyeo makes money by operating a “whitelist” of certain ads that are not blocked. It says sites can join this “acceptable ads” programme only if they meet criteria such as being “transparent with us about being an ad” and “do not disrupt or distort the page content we’re trying to ”.Eyeo靠设置“白名单”、选择性不屏蔽某些广告来盈利。该公司表示,只有满足一定标准的网站才能加入这个“可接受广告”项目,比如“明确向我们表明广告的身份”以及“不干扰或扭曲我们正试图阅读的页面内容”。While the whitelisting process is free for small websites and blogs, Eyeo charges a fee to large companies “to make the initiative sustainable”. Eyeo declined to say how much it charged.尽管白名单机制对小网站和客是免费的,但“为了项目的可持续”,Eyeo对大企业收取费用。Eyeo拒绝透露收费标准。One digital media company, which asked not to be named, said Eyeo had asked for a fee equivalent to 30 per cent of the additional ad revenues that it would make from being unblocked.一家要求匿名的数字媒体公司表示,Eyeo索要的费用相当于广告被解除屏蔽后所能带来的额外广告收入的30%。In judging which ads are “acceptable” and which are not, Eyeo must t a fine line to avoid upsetting Adblock Plus users. Those who disagree with its decisions have the option of blocking all ads including those on the whitelist, or defecting to rival software such as Adblock Edge.在判断哪些广告“可接受”、哪些不可接受的过程中,Eyeo必须小心把握平衡、以免触怒Adblock Plus的用户。那些对其决定有异议的用户可选择屏蔽所有广告、包括那些在白名单上的,或选择改用其竞争对手的软件,比如Adblock Edge。After Eyeo proposed in an online forum in November that Taboola, an advertising network that sometimes serves racy content, should be whitelisted, one user wrote in response: “This is a joke, right? Taboola should be scorched from the internet for all time.”去年11月,Eyeo在一个网络论坛上提议将一个有时输出不雅内容的广告网络Taboola加入白名单后,一名用户回帖道:“这是在开玩笑,对吧?Taboola应该永远被从网上根除。”Despite the protest, Eyeo whitelisted Taboola. That decision is likely to benefit websites such as MailOnline, Business Insider and N News, which use Taboola to serve ads in the form of “sponsored content” recommendations at the bottom of their news articles.尽管用户提出了抗议,但Eyeo还是把Taboola加入了白名单。这个决定很可能会造福MailOnline、Business Insider和N News等网站,它们使用Taboola输出的广告,以“赞助内容”推荐的形式放在其新闻文章底部。Taboola declined to comment.Taboola拒绝置评。 /201502/358197

Allianz is to launch a joint venture with the Chinese search engine group Baidu and the investment group Hillhouse Capital in an attempt to set up an online insurer in China.德国保险公司安联(Allianz)将与中国搜索引擎百度(Baidu)及投资集团高瓴资本(Hillhouse Capital)共同组建一家合资公司,目的是在中国建立一家互联网保险公司。The joint venture will apply for a licence to sell insurance online throughout the country, and will target both individual customers and small and medium-sized businesses.该合资公司将申请在中国全国在线销售保险的牌照,目标客户既包括个人也包括中小企业。The trio behind the joint venture intend to offer a range of products including travel, health and internet finance insurance, according to people familiar with the situation.知情人士称,该合资公司背后的三家公司计划推出一系列产品,包括旅行险、健康险和互联网金融险。Allianz’s business in China only makes up a small share of its 122bn in overall annual revenues, but the company is hoping to tap into the rapid expansion of the local market, where premiums are expected to quadruple over the next five years.安联的在华业务仅占其1220亿欧元年度总收入的一小部分,但该公司希望从中国市场的迅猛增长中分一杯羹。未来5年里,中国市场的保费收入将增长3倍。Allianz declined to comment. The company is due to update investors on its strategy later on Tuesday at an event at its headquarters in Munich.安联拒绝置评。该公司将于周二晚些时候在其慕尼黑总部的一次活动上向投资者通报有关其战略的最新信息。The joint venture is one of the first big moves by Oliver Bate, the former McKinsey consultant who succeeded Michael Diekmann as the head of Germany’s largest insurance group in May.组建上述合资公司是这家德国最大保险公司的首席执行官奥利弗拜特(Oliver Bate)的首批重大举措之一。拜特曾在麦肯锡(McKinsey)担任咨询师,今年5月接替米夏埃尔狄克曼(Michael Diekmann)担任安联首席执行官。It highlights the pressures that insurers are under to adapt their business models to the changing habits of customers, who are increasingly purchasing insurance online, rather than through traditional channels such as insurance brokers and banks.此举突显出保险公司正面临压力,要求它们调整业务模式以适应不断变化的客户习惯。保险客户正越来越多地在网上购买保险,而不是通过保险经纪人和等传统渠道。Mr Bate said earlier this week that the move online was having a “big impact” on insurers, and argued that it was important to make Allianz more focused on customers’ changing demands in response.本周早些时候拜特表示,这种趋势正给保险公司带来“巨大影响”。他认为,安联为此应更加关注客户不断变化的需求。 /201511/412451

The Projection Semi-sphere仰仪An ancient astronomic instrument for observation,the projection semi-sphere was a creation by Guo Shoujing,an astronomer of the Yuan Dy-nasty.仰仪是中国古代的一种天文观测仪器,由元朝天文学家郭守敬设计制造。The main body of the projection sphere is a bronze semi-sphere with a diame-ter of three meters,like an upturned pot,hence its name“Yang Yi”(Upturned Sphere ).Inside the spherical surface,there are drawings of many orderly grids that are used for measuring the position of celestial bodies. Along the pot’s mouth is carved a groove,which is used to contain water to see whether the sphere is in a horizontal position. At the edge of the groove are orderly carved 24 lines,indica-ting directions. Above the reticle(network of lines)in the south direction is in-stalled a cross,which extends along the south-north direction until it reaches they center of the instrument,where a small wooden plate with a hole in the center is placed at the end of the cross,evolving around the center of the projection semi-sphere.仰仪的主体是一只直径约三米的铜质半球面,好像一口仰放着的大锅,因而得名。仰仪的内部球面上,纵横交错地刻划出一些规则网格,用来量度天体的位置。在仰仪的锅口上刻有二圈水槽,用来注水校正锅口的水平,使其保持水平设置;在水槽边缘均匀地刻划出24条线,以示方向。在正南方的刻线上安置着两根十字交叉的竿子,呈正南北方向,一直延伸到仰仪的中心,把一块凿有中心小孔的小方板装在竿子的北端,并且小方板可以绕着仰仪中心旋转。Employing projection,the instrument is simple and convenient for observation.For example,when the sun-light goes through the hole,it will project the image of the sun onto the internal spherical surface.Then the observer can the sun’s position from the grids. Par-ticularly,during a total solar eclipse,the whole process of the solar eclipse can be observed with the instrument. Moreover, both the exact position and size of the e-clipse at different times can also be measured.Therefore,the projection semi-sphere was greatly loved by astronomy lovers.仰仪是采用直接投影方法的观测仪器,非常直观、方便。例如,当太阳光透过中心小孔时,在仰仪的内部球面上就会投影出太阳的映像,观测者便可以从网格中直接读出太阳的位置了。尤其在日全食时,利用仰仪能清楚地观看日食的全过程,连同每一个时刻,日面亏损的位置、大小都能比较准确地测量出来。因此,仰仪是一种很受古代天文爱好者喜爱的天文观测仪器。 /201511/409372

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