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来源:365对话    发布时间:2019年07月21日 21:48:15    编辑:admin         

REMARKS BY THE PRESIDENTON THE AMERICAN GRADUATION INITIATIVEMacomb Community CollegeWarren, Michigan THE PRESIDENT: Hello, Michigan! (Applause.) Thank you. Thank you so much. First of all, give Joe a big round of applause for the wonderful introduction. (Applause.) We've got some special guests here -- now, if everybody has chairs, go ahead and use them. (Laughter.) Feel free. We've got some special guests here today that I just want to acknowledge. All of you are special, but these folks I want to make sure that you have a chance to see them.First of all, one of the best governors in the country, please give Jennifer Granholm a big round of applause. (Applause.) Lieutenant Governor John Cherry -- give John a big round of applause. (Applause.) One of my favorite people, a former colleague of mine, still just a fighter on behalf of working families each and every day -- Senator Debbie Stabenow. (Applause.) We've got Speaker of the House, Andy Dillon, in the house. (Applause.) We've got a lot of other local elected officials, and I just want to thank them.A couple of people who are missing: Carl Levin, who is doing great work. (Applause.) He's in the Senate right now fighting on behalf of a bill to make sure that we're not loading up a bunch of necessary defense spending with unnecessary defense spending. So he's the point person on it. The only reason he's not here is because he is working alongside the administration to get this bill done. Please give him a big round of applause. (Applause.) Congressman Sandy Levin, also working hard on your behalf each and every day, but is not here today. (Applause.) I want to go ahead and acknowledge the new mayor, since he's the new mayor -- Mayor Dave Bing, great ball player. (Applause.) My game is a little like Dave Bing's -- (laughter) -- except I don't have the jump shot or the speed or the ball handling skills -- (laughter) -- or the endurance. Also don't have the afro. Don't think I forgot that, Dave. I remember. (Laughter.) I remember that.I also want to acknowledge that we've got the Executive Director of the White House Council on Auto Communities and Workers, who's working hard, has a direct line to me each and every day. He's traveling constantly back here -- Ed Montgomery. Please give Ed a big round of applause. (Applause.)And the Chairman of the Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa and Chippewa Indian Tribe, Derek Bailey is here. Please give Derek a big round of applause. (Applause.)And finally, the president of the college where we are here, Jim Jacobs. Give Jim Jacobs a big round of applause. (Applause.)And those of you who I've missed, you know how grateful I am that you're here. And thank you all. It is wonderful to be back at Macomb. It was terrific visiting this campus as a candidate, but I have to admit, it's even better visiting as a President. (Applause.)Now, this is a place where anyone -- anyone with a desire to learn and to grow, to take their career to a new level or start a new career altogether -- has the opportunity to pursue their dream, right here in Macomb. This is a place where people of all ages and all backgrounds -- even in the face of obstacles, even in the face of very difficult personal challenges -- can take a chance on a brighter future for themselves and their families.There are folks like Joe, who just told us his story. When Joe lost his job, he decided to take advantage of assistance for displaced workers. He earned his associate degree here at Macomb, and with a pretty impressive GPA, I might add. And with the help of that degree, Joe found a new job, working for the new Henry Ford West Bloomfield Hospital as a maintenance mechanic, using the skills he learned here and the talents that he brought to make a fresh start.There are workers like Kellie Kulman, who is here today. Where's Kellie? Raise your hand, Kellie. Where are you? There you are. There's Kellie right there. (Applause.) Kellie is a UAW worker at a Ford plant in Sterling Heights, Michigan. (Applause.) She used to drive a fork lift, right? But then she decided to train here at Macomb for a job that required new skills, and now she's an apprentice pipe fitter. It's a telling example: Even as this painful restructuring takes place in our auto industry, workers are seeking out training for new auto jobs. And Joe and Kellie's story make clear what all of you know: Community colleges are an essential part of our recovery in the present -- and our prosperity in the future. (Applause.) This place can make the future better, not just for these individuals but for America.Now, since this recession began 20 months ago, 6.5 million Americans have lost their jobs, and I don't have to tell you Michigan in particular has been hard-hit. Now, I -- the statistics are daunting. The whole country now, the unemployment rate is approaching 10 percent. Here in Michigan, it's about five points higher. And new jobs of course are going to be coming out and we're going to see continuing job loss even as the economy is beginning to stabilize.Now, that's not just abstractions. Those just aren't numbers on a page. Those are extraordinary hardships, tough times, for families and individuals who've worked hard all their lives and have done the right things all their lives. If you haven't lost a job, chances are you know somebody who has: a family member, a neighbor, a friend, a coworker. And you know that as difficult as the financial struggle can be, the sense of loss is about more than just a paycheck, because most of us define ourselves by the work we do. That's part of what it means to be an American. We take pride in work -- that sense that you're contributing, supporting your family, meeting your responsibilities. People need work not just for income, but because it makes you part of that fabric of a community that's so important. And so when you lose your job, and when entire communities are losing thousands of jobs, that's a heavy burden, that's a heavy weight.Now, my administration has a job to do, as well, and that job is to get this economy back on its feet. That's my job. (Applause.) And it's a job I gladly accept. I love these folks who helped get us in this mess and then suddenly say, well, this is Obama's economy. That's fine. Give it to me. (Applause.) My job is to solve problems, not to stand on the sidelines and harp and gripe. (Applause.)07/77793。

President Bush Visits Jacksonville, Florida, Discusses Trade Policy   THE PRESIDENT: Thank you all. (Applause.) Please be seated. Thank you for the warm welcome. It's nice to be back in J-ville. (Applause.) It's an interesting place to come, isn't it? I've been in your stadium, I've been in your church -- I've never been on the docks. But if you're interested in trying to figure out one of the reasons why this is one of America's most vibrant cities, you got to come to the docks. (Applause.)   And I want to explain why these docks are important to not only the citizens of Jacksonville, but also why what happens here is important to the overall economy in the ed States.   Before I do, I do want to thank SeZor Morales. Thank you for your leading here as the Chairman of the Jacksonville Port Authority. Thanks for being the kind of American we love, somebody who comes from abroad, recognizes the great blessings of the ed States of America, and contributes mightily to our success. (Applause.)   I appreciate the Executive Director, Rick Ferrin. I've just had an interesting tour of this facility by Magnus Lindeback -- Captain Magnus Lindeback. (Applause.) Magnus, it sounds like some of them have heard of you around here. (Laughter.) I'm going to talk about Magnus a little later on. He's a fellow who came to America with a dream, and now employs a lot of good, hardworking folks because of goods that are shipped from here to other parts of the world, and for goods that are shipped from other parts of the world to here. See, everybody here is working as a result of trade -- trade that happens and occurs right here on these docks.   The Governor of the great state of Florida, Charlie Crist, has joined us. Mr. Governor, proud you're here. Thanks for taking time. (Applause.) Two members from the ed States Congress have come -- this must be a special occasion -- (laughter) -- Ander Crenshaw, Congressman from this district, doing a find job. (Applause.) And Congresswoman Corrine Brown -- Madam Congresswoman, we're proud you're here. (Applause.)   Daniel Davis, President of the Jacksonville City Council, appreciate you coming. (Applause.) A lot of other state and local officials, Port Authority employees, Coastal Maritime employees -- thanks for greeting me here. Appreciate you coming. (Applause.)   One thing is for certain: This is a challenging time for our economy. You know that, I know that, a lot of Americans understand that. In the short run, the strains on the economy have been caused by the turmoil in the housing market, which has required focused and decisive action. And that's exactly what the federal government is doing.   There are problems, but the key is to recognize problems and to act early, which we have done. For example, we brought together what's called the HOPE NOW Alliance. It's a private sector group that is helping large numbers of homeowners refinance their mortgages. We want to help people stay in their homes. And millions of people are going to be affected by this program. And it makes sense to help some person who is creditworthy find the capacity and understand where to refinance. The more people live in their homes, the better off America is. But no question there's been a over-supply of housing, and it's going to take time to work through this over-supply.   We also worked with Congress -- and I want to thank the members of Congress -- to pass a bipartisan economic growth package. That's Washington-speak for you're fixing to receive some money. (Applause.) By the way, it's your money to begin with. (Laughter.) But in the second week of May, there is a substantial amount of money being returned to people in the hopes of encouraging increased consumption. There's also incentives in this piece of legislation passed by both Republicans and Democrats that will encourage small and large businesses to invest. And when businesses invest, as Magnus will tell you, it makes it easier to give people work. Investment equals jobs.   And so in the second week of May, checks will be coming. And the experts tell me this is going to help with the economic vitality of the country. After all, it's over 0 billion that is going to be distributed. The plan was voted on, I signed it into law, but it hadn't been put completely into effect yet.   Our financial markets have also been subjected to stress. And the Federal Reserve and the Treasury acted swiftly to promote stability in our financial markets at a crucial time. It was action that was necessary. And I appreciate the leadership of Chairman Bernanke and Secretary Paulson. And they'll continue to closely monitor the markets and the financial sector. And the point I want to make to you is, if there needs to be further action we'll take it, in a way that does not damage the long-term health of our economy.   In the long run, Americans ought to have confidence in our economy. I mean, there are some anchors that promote long-term -- that should promote long-term confidence. Let me give you a few. First of all, the unemployment rate is relatively low. We've got a low unemployment rate here in Florida. It's low in most parts of the country. We're an innovative society with a flexible economy. But there's a lot of research and development being spent here in America. There are new technologies being developed. Productivity is on the rise. We have a strong agricultural sector. The small business sector is vibrant. And people are investing in the ed States. And so I understand there's short-term difficulty. But I want people to understand that in the long term we're going to be just fine. People will still be able to work.   You know, one of the interesting signs of strength is that we're the world's leading exporter of goods and services. I'm not saying we're second place or third place; we're the world's leading exporter. And that's positive, particularly if you're somebody whose job depends upon trade.   Now, we're in the middle of a debate here about trade, whether it's good or not. Well, anybody wondering about the stakes in the trade debate ought to come right here to Jacksonville, Florida, to the docks to see whether or not trade makes sense. (Applause.)   According to the most recent data, you move more than 8 million tons of cargo each year. This cargo doesn't move itself; somebody has to move it from port to port.   I'm sitting in -- standing in front of people that are all part of the process, good, hardworking Americans that are putting food on the table for their families because of trade. You handle most -- more than -- more automobiles than any American port. I don't know if the people in Jacksonville understand that. Think about that. More automobiles are handled at this port than anywhere in the ed States of America. You help support more than 45,000 jobs. (Applause.) This port serves as a vital commercial and strategic link to our neighborhood, to our neighbors in Latin America and the Carribean.   Opening trade has been one of the high priorities of my presidency. See, I believe trade leads to good jobs. I believe trade is in our interests. When I took office, America had free trade agreements in force with three countries. Today we have agreements in force with 14 countries. (Applause.) And there are three more agreements pending this year: Colombia, Panama and South Korea. All three of these agreements are important, and the one with Colombia is especially urgent. And I want to spend a little time talking about the free trade agreement with Colombia, and what it means for our national security, and what it means for your job security.   We have worked closely with leaders in Congress to seek a path to bring the Colombia agreement up for approval. And we've got a good model to go on. Last year we worked out a bipartisan approach on a bill implementing a good free trade agreement with Peru. And it was a good bill. And it was one of those bills where people, when they stepped back from politics, realized it made good sense, and overwhelmingly approved it; both Republicans and Democrats voted for that, two of whom happen to be sitting right here.   The Colombia agreement is almost identical to the agreement with Peru, except that the Colombia agreement has even greater economic potential because Colombia has a larger GDP, and even greater national security importance because of Colombia's strategic location. The lesson is clear: If Congress can find a way to vote on and improve the Peru agreement, there's no reason it can't do the same for Colombia.   Now, why is it important? Before I get to the importance I do want to tell you the time is urgent. There must be a vote on Colombia this year. And this agreement is too important to be delayed any longer. So I am reiterating my call on leaders in Congress to act with urgency. I ask members of both parties to ensure that politics do not get in the way of a vital priority for our nation, and frankly, a vote that will help people who are working here on the docks. You can think in terms of national security interests, but if that doesn't interest you, think about terms of helping folks just like this make a living. (Applause.)   Let me talk a little bit about the national security implications from this vote. In Colombia, President Uribe is waging an active battle against terrorists who are seeking to overthrow his nation's democracy. This terrorist network is known as FARC. It pursues Marxist objectives through bombing, hostage taking, and assassination. Much of its funding is derived from drug trafficking. Attacks by the FARC have killed or injured more than a thousand civilians since 2003. These are brutal people, and they're ruthless people. And they'll use all kinds of means to achieve their objectives. FARC terrorists have held three American citizens hostages in jungle camps for more than five years, making them the longest-held American hostages anywhere in the world.   The challenge posed by these terrorists is compounded by the hostility and aggression of some of Colombia's neighbors. The regime in Caracas has railed against America, has forged an alliance with communist Cuba, has met with FARC leaders in Venezuela, has deployed troops to the Colombian border. In the process, regime leaders have squandered their oil wealth and left their people to face food shortages.   Recently when Colombian forces killed one of the FARC's most senior leaders they discovered computer files that suggest even closer ties between Venezuela's regime and FARC terrorists than we previously knew. Colombia officials are investigating the ties, but this much should be clear: The ed States strongly supports, strongly stands with Colombia in its fight against the terrorists and drug lords. (Applause.)   President Uribe has remained focused on strengthening Colombia's democracy. Over the past six years, kidnappings, terrorist attacks and murders of labor activists have all dropped by more than 75 percent. Police are on the streets. Tens of thousands of paramilitary fighters have been demobilized, and Colombia's murder rate has fallen substantially.   At the same time, Colombia's economy has shown strong growth. Poverty and unemployment have declined; trade and investment have increased substantially. That's what we want. We want less violence in our neighborhood, and more prosperity in our neighborhood. We want our neighbors to be prosperous.   President Uribe has been an unshakeable partner for the ed States. He's answered hundreds of requests to extradite criminals to our country. And with the assistance from Plan Colombia, a program first supported by President Bill Clinton, and continued under my administration, he's cracked down on drug trafficking. He constantly speaks out against anti-Americanism. By any measure, he has been one of our most reliable and effective allies. And this trade agreement is the way to signal our strong support for President Uribe. It's the way to help this country develop more momentum toward peace.   Despite the record of success, some in Congress claim Colombia needs to do more before a treat -- the trade agreement can be approved. But this is unrealistic. And it is unfair. If members of Congress truly want Colombia to make further progress, then it makes no sense to block the very measure that would make progress more likely.   Our fellow citizens have got to know that across the hemisphere and across the globe, people are waiting to see what the members of Congress will do. In other words, this isn't just one of these isolated votes that gets no attention outside of Washington. This is a vote that is being observed very carefully by people across the world. Voices from near and far are urging Congress to make the right decision. Members of Congress from both parties travel to Colombia; they have seen firsthand the progress that President Uribe is making. Business leaders from many backgrounds, along with current and former senators, congressmans [sic], mayors, diplomats, national security council people, Cabinet members from both parties -- I emphasize, from both parties -- support this agreement.   In other words, it's just not me talking. There's a lot of people who understand the importance of this agreement. Our allies have made their position clear. I want the members of Congress to hear what the Prime Minister of Canada, Stephen Harper, said. He said, "If the U.S. turns its back on its friends in Colombia, this will set back our cause far more than any Latin American dictator can hope to achieve." Those are wise words, and words worth listening to. Congress needs to listen to the voices, and they need to pass this important piece of legislation.   The national security benefits are only part of the cause for this agreement. Both our economies stand to gain, as well. Today, virtually all exports from Colombia enter our country duty-free. And yet, many U.S. exports going to Colombia face heavy tariffs. Goods coming from Colombia, duty-free; our goods going to Colombia get taxed. That doesn't seem fair to me. I know the folks here understand that if you reduce tariffs, it's more likely we'll send more goods. Doesn't it make sense for Congress to say to Colombia, treat America the way we treat you -- which is precisely what this trade deal does.   A banana grown in Colombia enters the ed States duty-free; an apple grown in Pennsylvania, or an orange grown in Florida is subject to a 15-percent tariff when it's exported to Colombia. Doesn't it make sense for the federal government to try to eliminate that tariff? I think it does. If you're growing oranges, it does. If you're growing apples, it does. And if you're shipping goods and services -- or goods from this port to Colombia, it makes sense to make it easier to ship more goods. (Applause.)   That's why I talk about level the playing field. They estimate this will help 9,000 U.S. companies export to Colombia, most of which are small and mid-sized companies. Level the playing field is going to help hundreds of thousands of employees who work at these companies. And level the playing field will create new opportunities for exporters and dock workers who ship heavy machinery, and glass, and chemicals, and electronics, and paper and other products to Colombia from this port -- people just like the folks seated right here.   Earlier today I had a chance to tour this company with Magnus Lindeback -- Captain Magnus Lindeback. (Applause.) The man is living the American Dream. You talk to Magnus, he's about as proud an American as you can find. He might not have been born here, but he loves it here. And he loves the people that work with him, and he's very proud of the fact that this company has grown from two employees to over 250. And he cares about each and every employee. (Applause.)   And here's why the Colombia free trade agreement matters to a -- are you small or mid-size? I call you -- oh, mid-size. You say small, I say mid-size. Okay, small. (Laughter.) Here's why it matters to a small-sized/mid-sized company like Coastal Maritime. (Laughter.) Coastal Maritime -- about a quarter of its cargo goes to Colombia. So, in other words, if you're somebody wondering whether you're going to have a job, and a fellow comes along and says, "Would you like to be able to sell more goods to Colombia? After all, a quarter of your revenues go to Colombia," I think the answer ought to be, yes, we want to be able to access more of Colombia. We're good at what we're doing now.   They send, by the way, mining equipment, bulldozers and cranes. Magnus doesn't make the cranes and bulldozers and mining equipment; he just ships it. But somebody in America is making the cranes, and somebody in America is making the bulldozers. And so when you think about trade, you're not only thinking about dock workers who are working good jobs because of trade, but somebody has got to make the products that the people in Colombia are buying, as well.   If Colombia approves the free trade agreement, Coastal Maritime estimates that the volume of products they ship to Colombia would increase by 20 to 50 percent in a short period of time. Magnus says he's going to use the extra revenues for two purposes: to re-invest in technology and equipment -- like that crane we -- a guy tried to get me to drive over there -- (laughter.) I told him I was a history major -- (laughter.) And he wants to raise wages for his workers. (Applause.)   I want to e Magnus: "Trade is our entire business. All our workers depend on it. An increased volume of cargo to Colombia would be tremendous from us because the more cargo we have to handle, the more revenue is generated."   American exporters aren't the only ones who will benefit. The free trade agreement will guarantee permanent duty-free access to the U.S. market for businesses in Colombia. Why is that important? Because it will help them attract investment and stimulate growth. It will lead to additional opportunities at a port such as this. The more prosperous our neighborhood, the more commerce there will be. And the more commerce there is, it's more likely to pass through a port just like this. We want people doing well. We want programs that are good for small businesses and farmers. And that's exactly what this vote will be. And it's important. And it's an important vote for the ed States Congress to understand. It's in our national security interests and economic security interests.   And during this time of economic uncertainty, when consumer spending and investment is slowing down, it's important to understand the role trade has made for our economy. Last year exports accounted for more than 40 percent of our total growth. That's good news. Export is continuing. This January, exports were up more than 16 percent over last January. If you're worried about the economy, it seems like you ought to be sending a clear signal that the ed States of America will continue to trade, not shut down trade. And that's what this Colombia vote says. (Applause.)   And once Congress approves the free trade agreement with Colombia, then they can approve one with Panama. And once they finish one with Panama, then they can do one with South Korea. All these agreements are important. These agreements are important to enhance our friendship, but these are good for our economy.   Now, I fully understand that trade makes people nervous. It doesn't make these folks nervous because they understand the benefits firsthand. And in a political year, you hear all kinds of things about trade. One of the things people say is that people lose their jobs because of trade. Well, in the manufacturing sector, sometimes that's right, but a lot of times it's a result of productivity increases. In other words, technology changes and one worker can produce three times as much as he or she used to be able to, and therefore, same output with fewer workers.   But whatever the case is, the question is, what should we do about people who aren't working? One alternative is to say, it's all because of trade; let's quit trading. Then people here lose work. The other opportunity is to focus on good educational programs. You know, we could cut ourselves off, or we could have faith in our capacity to compete, and focus on helping individuals. I choose the latter.   I believe strongly that we can help people gain extra skills with smart programs. That's why my budget requests billion to educate and prepare workers for the 21st century. I'm a big believer, Governor, in community colleges. I think our community colleges are great places for people to gain the skills necessary to fill the jobs of the 21st century. So rather than resort to protectionism and say let's shut down our trading opportunities, why don't we resort to education, to give people the skills necessary to fill the jobs for the 21st century here in the ed States of America? (Applause.)   Now, you'll hear the word "trade adjustment assistance" talked about in Congress. And these two Congress folks understand what I'm talking about. That basically says that we're going to have education programs aimed at helping people find skills. And I'm a supporter. And I believe it's important that trade adjustment be a component of our trade policy. I look forward to working with Congress to reform it and to reauthorize it, to make sure it does the job that it could -- is supposed to do -- just like I'm looking forward to signing those trade bills, particularly starting with the one from Colombia.   I -- so I've come here as a vivid reminder to people in Congress who wonder whether or not trade is positive for America. It is. It's economically a good deal for our country. And I do have confidence that Congress will get it right. It may take a little persuading. (Laughter.) It's going to take a lot of hard work. Oh, it may take some of you having to write letters to your senators and congressmen to remind them that trade is good. Confident nations are free traders.   But trade also means making sure we get treated right; that they treat us the way we treat them. That's all we're asking. That's what this agreement says: Just treat us fairly. Because America can compete with anybody, any time, anywhere, as long as the playing field is level. (Applause.)   And so I've come to talk about our economy and a key issue facing you. I thank you for giving me the opportunity to be in your midst. I'm proud of the work you do here. And may God bless you, and God continue to bless the ed States of America. (Applause.) 200806/41104。

This morning, President Obama and Vice President Biden travelled to the Pentagon to attend the Armed Services farewell tribute in honor of Defense Secretary Robert Gates, one of the longest serving Secretaries of Defense in U.S. history. The President also presented Secretary Gates with the Medal of Freedom – the highest honor the President can bestow on a civilian.Download Video: mp4 (280MB) | mp3 (27MB) 201107/142808。

My fellow citizens : Today we celebrate the mystery of American renewal.同胞们:今天,我们庆祝美国复兴的奇迹。This ceremony is held in the depth of winter.这个仪式虽在隆冬举行。But, by the words we speak and the faces we show the world, we force the spring.然而,我们通过自己的言语和向世界展示的面容、却促使春回大地。A spring reborn in the worlds oldest democracy, that brings forth the vision and courage to reinvent America.回到了世界上这个最古老的民主国家,并带来了重新创造美国的远见和勇气。When our founders boldly declared Americas independence to the world and our purposes to the Almighty, they knew that America, to endure, would have to change.当我国的缔造者勇敢地向世界宣布美国独立,并向上帝表明自 己的目的时,他们知道,美国若要永存,就必须变革。Not change for changes sake, but change to preserve Americas ideals; life, liberty, the pursuit of happiness.不是为变革而变革,而是为了维护美国的理想--为了生命、自由和追求幸福而变革。Though we march to the music of our time, our mission is timeless.尽管我们随着当今时代的节拍前进,但我们的使命永恒不变。Each generation of Americans must define what it means to be an American.每一代美国人,必须为作为一个美国人意味着什么下定义。On behalf of our nation, I salute my predecessor, President Bush, for his half-century of service to America.我的前任布什总统为美国务了半个世纪,在此,我代表我们的国家向他致以崇高的敬意。And I thank the millions of men and women whose stead fastness and sacrifice triumphed over Depression, fascism and Communism.我还要向千百万人民表示感谢,他们以坚定的信念和牺牲战胜了经济萧条、法西斯主义。Today, a generation raised in the shadows of the Cold War assumes new responsibilities in a world warmed by the sunshine of freedom but threatened still by ancient hatreds and new plagues.今天,在冷战阴影下成长起来的一代人,在世界上负起了新的责任,这个世界虽然沐浴着自由的阳光,但仍受到旧仇宿怨和新的祸患的威胁。Raised in unrivaled prosperity, we inherit an economy that is still the worlds strongest, but is weakened by business failures, stagnant wages, increasing inequality, and deep divisions among our people.我们在无与伦比的繁荣中长大,继承了仍然是世界上最强大的经济,但由于企业倒闭,工资增长停滞、不平等状况加剧,人民的分歧加深,我们的经济已经削弱。When George Washington first took the oath I have just sworn to uphold, news traveled slowly across the land by horseback and across the ocean by boat.当乔治·华盛顿第一次宣读我刚才宜读的誓言时,人们骑马把 那个信息缓慢地传遍大地,继而又来船把它传过海洋。Now, the sights and sounds of this ceremony are broadcast instantaneously to billions around the world.而现在,这个仪式的情景和声音即刻向全球几十亿人播放。Communications and commerce are global; investment is mobile; technology is almost magical; and ambition for a better life is now universal.通信和商务具有全球性,投资具有流动性;技术几 乎具有魔力;改善生活的理想现在具有普遍性。03/64208。

Richard M. NixonCambodian Incursion Address delivered 30 April 1970 from Washington, DC[AUTHENTICITY CERTIFIED: Text version below transcribed directly from audio. (2)]Good evening, my fellow Americans. Ten days ago, in my report to the nation on Vietnam, I announced the decision to withdraw an additional 150,000 Americans from Vietnam over the next year. I said then that I was making that decision despite our concern over increased enemy activity in Laos, in Cambodia, and in South Vietnam. And at that time I warned that if I concluded that increased enemy activity in any of these areas endangered the lives of Americans remaining in Vietnam, I would not hesitate to take strong and effective measures to deal with that situation. Despite that warning, North Vietnam has increased its military aggression in all these areas, and particularly in Cambodia.After full consultation with the National Security Council, Ambassador Bunker, General Abrams and my other advisors, I have concluded that the actions of the enemy in the last 10 days clearly endanger the lives of Americans who are in Vietnam now and would constitute an unacceptable risk to those who will be there after withdrawal of another 150, 000. To protect our men who are in Vietnam, and to guarantee the continued success of our withdrawal and Vietnamization program, I have concluded that the time has come for action. Tonight, I shall describe the actions of the enemy, the actions I have ordered to deal with that situation, and the reasons for my decision.Cambodia -- a small country of seven million people -- has been a neutral nation since the Geneva Agreement of 1954, an agreement, incidentally, which was signed by the government of North Vietnam. American policy since then has been to scrupulously respect the neutrality of the Cambodian people. We have maintained a skeleton diplomatic mission of fewer than 15 in Cambodia’s capital, and that only since last August. For the previous four years, from 1965 to 1969, we did not have any diplomatic mission whatever in Cambodia, and for the past five years we have provided no military assistance whatever and no economic assistance to Cambodia.North Vietnam, however, has not respected that neutrality. For the past five years, as indicated on this map, that you see here, North Vietnam has occupied military sanctuaries all along the Cambodian frontier with South Vietnam. Some of these extend up to 20 miles into Cambodia. The sanctuaries are in red, and as you note, they are on both sides of the border. They are used for hit-and-run attacks on American and South Vietnamese forces in South Vietnam. These Communist-occupied territories contain major base camps, training sites, logistics facilities, weapons and ammunition factories, airstrips, and prisoner of war compounds.And for five years neither the ed States nor South Vietnam has moved against these enemy sanctuaries because we did not wish to violate the territory of a neutral nation. Even after the Vietnamese Communists began to expand these sanctuaries four weeks ago, we counseled patience to our South Vietnamese allies and imposed restraints on our own commanders.In contrast to our policy the enemy in the past two weeks has stepped up his guerrilla actions, and he is concentrating his main forces in these sanctuaries that you see in this map, where they are building up to launch massive attacks on our forces and those of South Vietnam.North Vietnam in the last two weeks has stripped away all pretense of respecting the sovereignty or the neutrality of Cambodia. Thousands of their soldiers are invading the country from the sanctuaries. They are encircling the capital of Pnompenh. Coming from these sanctuaries, as you see here, they had moved into Cambodia and are encircling the capital.Cambodia, as a result of this, has sent out a call to the ed States, to a number of other nations, for assistance. Because if this enemy effort succeeds, Cambodia would become a vast enemy staging area and a springboard for attacks on South Vietnam along 600 miles of frontier: a refuge where enemy troops could return from combat without fear of retaliation. North Vietnamese men and supplies could then be poured into that country, jeopardizing not only the lives of our own men but the people of South Vietnam as well. Now confronted with this situation we had three options: First, we can do nothing. Well the ultimate result of that course of action is clear. Unless we indulge in wishful thinking, the lives of Americans remaining in Vietnam after our next withdrawal of 150,000 would be gravely threatened.Let us go to the map again.Here is South Vietnam. Here is North Vietnam. North Vietnam aly occupies this part of Laos. If North Vietnam also occupied this whole band in Cambodia, or the entire country, it would mean that South Vietnam was completely outflanked and the forces of Americans in this area as well as the South Vietnamese would be in an untenable military position.Our second choice is to provide massive military assistance to Cambodia itself. Now unfortunately, while we deeply sympathize with the plight of seven million Cambodians whose country has been invaded, massive amounts of military assistance could not be rapidly and effectively utilized by this small Cambodian Army against the immediate trap. With other nations we shall do our best to provide the small arms and other equipment which the Cambodian Army of 40,000 needs and can use for its defense. But the aid we will provide will be limited for the purpose of enabling Cambodia to defend its neutrality and not for the purpose of making it an active belligerent on one side or the other.Our third choice is to go to the heart of the trouble. And that means cleaning out major North Vietnamese and Vietcong occupied territories, these sanctuaries which serve as bases for attacks on both Cambodia and American and South Vietnamese forces in South Vietnam. Some of these, incidentally, are as close to Saigon as Baltimore is to Washington. This one, for example, is called the Parrot’s Beak. It’s only 33 miles from Saigon.Now faced with these three options, this is the decision I have made. In co-operation with the armed forces of South Vietnam, attacks are being launched this week to clean out major enemy sanctuaries on the Cambodian-Vietnam border. A major responsibility for the ground operations is being assumed by South Vietnamese forces.For example, the attacks in several areas, including the parrot’s beak that I referred to a moment ago, are exclusively South Vietnamese ground operations, under South Vietnamese command, with the ed States providing air and logistical support. There is one area however, immediately above the parrot’s beak where I have concluded that a combined American and South Vietnamese operation is necessary.Tonight, American and South Vietnamese units will attack the headquarters for the entire Communist military operation in South Vietnam. This key control center has been occupied by the North Vietnamese and Vietcong for five years in blatant violation of Cambodia’s neutrality.This is not an invasion of Cambodia. The areas in which these attacks will be launched are completely occupied and controlled by North Vietnamese forces. Our purpose is not to occupy the areas. Once enemy forces are driven out of these sanctuaries, and once their military supplies are destroyed, we will withdraw.These actions are in no way directed to the security interests of any nation. Any government that chooses to use these actions as a pretext for harming relations with the ed States will be doing so on its own responsibility and on its own initiative, and we will draw the appropriate conclusions. And now, let me give you the reasons for my decision. A majority of the American people, a majority of you listening to me are for the withdrawal of our forces from Vietnam. The action I have taken tonight is indispensable for the continuing success of that withdrawal program. A majority of the American people want to end this war rather than to have it drag on interminably. The action I have taken tonight will serve that purpose. A majority of the American people want to keep the casualties of our brave men in Vietnam at an absolute minimum. The action I take tonight is essential if we are to accomplish that goal. We take this action not for the purpose of expanding the war into Cambodia, but for the purpose of ending the war in Vietnam, and winning the just peace we all desire. We have made, we will continue to make every possible effort to end this war through negotiation at the conference table rather than through more fighting in the battlefield. Let’s look again at the record.We stopped the bombing of North Vietnam. We have cut air operations by over 20 per cent. We’ve announced the withdrawal of over 250, 000 of our men. We’ve offered to withdraw all of our men if they will withdraw theirs. We’ve offered to negotiate all issues with only one condition: and that is that the future of South Vietnam be determined, not by North Vietnam, and not by the ed States, but by the people of South Vietnam themselves.The answer of the enemy has been intransigence at the conference table, belligerence at Hanoi, massive military aggression in Laos and Cambodia and stepped-up attacks in South Vietnam designed to increase American casualties.This attitude has become intolerable.We will not react to this threat to American lives merely by plaintive, diplomatic protests.If we did, the credibility of the ed States would be destroyed in every area of the world where only the power of the ed States deters aggression.Tonight, I again warn the North Vietnamese that if they continue to escalate the fighting when the ed States is withdrawing its forces, I shall meet my responsibility as commander in chief of our armed forces to take the action I consider necessary to defend the security of our American men.The action I have announced tonight puts the leaders of North Vietnam on notice that we will be patient in working for peace. We will be conciliatory at the conference table.But we will not be humiliated.We will not be defeated.We will not allow American men, by the thousands, to be killed by an enemy from privileged sanctuaries.The time came long ago to end this war through peaceful negotiations. We stand y for those negotiations. We’ve made major efforts, many of which must remain secret. I say tonight all the offers and approaches made previously remain on the conference table whenever Hanoi is y to negotiate seriously. But if the enemy response to our most conciliatory offers for peaceful negotiation continues to be to increase its attacks and humiliate and defeat us, we shall react accordingly. My fellow Americans, we live in an age of anarchy, both abroad and at home. We see mindless attacks on all the great institutions which have been created by free civilizations in the last 500 years. Even here in the ed States, great universities are being systematically destroyed. Small nations all over the world find themselves under attack from within and from without. If, when the chips are down, the world’s most powerful nation -- the ed States of America -- acts like a pitiful, helpless giant, the forces of totalitarianism and anarchy will threaten free nations and free institutions throughout the world. It is not our power, but our will and character that is being tested tonight. The question all Americans must ask and answer tonight is this: Does the richest and strongest nation in the history of the world have the character to meet a direct challenge by a group which rejects every effort to win a just peace, ignores our warning, tramples on solemn agreements, violates the neutrality of an unarmed people, and uses our prisoners as hostages? If we fail to meet this challenge, all other nations will be on notice that despite its overwhelming power the ed States when a real crisis comes will be found wanting. During my campaign for the Presidency, I pledged to bring Americans home form Vietnam. They are coming home. I promised to end this war. I shall keep that promise. I promised to win a just peace. I shall keep that promise. We shall avoid a wider war, but we are also determined to put an end to this war. In this room, Woodrow Wilson made the great decisions which led to victory in World War I. Franklin Roosevelt made the decisions which led to our victory in World War II. Dwight D. Eisenhower made decisions which ended the war in Korea and avoided war in the Middle East. John F. Kennedy, in his finest hour, made the great decision which removed Soviet nuclear missiles from Cuba and the western hemisphere. I have noted that there’s been a great deal of discussion with regard to this decision that I have made. And I should point out I do not contend that it is in the same magnitude as these decisions that I have just mentioned. But between those decisions and this decision, there is a difference that is very fundamental. In those decisions the American people were not assailed by counsels of doubt and defeat from some of the most widely known opinion leaders of the nation. I have noted, for example, that a Republican Senator has said that this action I have taken means that my party has lost all chance of winning the November elections. And others are saying today that this move against enemy sanctuaries will make me a one-term President.No one is more aware than I am of the political consequences of the action I have taken. It is tempting to take the easy political path, to blame this war on previous Administrations, and to bring all of our men home immediately -- regardless of the consequences, even though that would mean defeat for the ed States; to desert 18 million South Vietnamese people who have put their trust in us; to expose them to the same slaughter and savagery which the leaders of North Vietnam inflicted on hundreds of thousands of North Vietnamese who chose freedom when the Communists took over North Vietnam in 1954.To get peace at any price now, even though I know that a peace of humiliation for the ed States would lead to a bigger war or surrender later. I have rejected all political considerations in making this decision. Whether my party gains in November is nothing compared to the lives of 400,000 brave Americans fighting for our country and for the cause of peace and freedom in Vietnam. Whether I may be a one-term President is insignificant compared to whether by our failure to act in this crisis the ed States proves itself to be unworthy to lead the forces of freedom in this critical period in world history. I would rather be a one-term president and do what I believe was right than to be a two-term President at the cost of seeing America become a second-rate power and to see this nation accept the first defeat in its proud 190-year history. I realize in this war there are honest, deep differences in this country about whether we should have become involved; that there are differences to how the war should have been conducted. But the decision I announce tonight transcends those differences, for the lives of American men are involved.The opportunity for 150,000 Americans to come home in the next 12 months is involved.The future of 18-million people in South Vietnam and 7 million people in Cambodia is involved. The possibility of winning a just peace in Vietnam and in the Pacific is at stake.It is customary to conclude a speech from the White House by asking support for the President of the ed States. Tonight, I depart from that precedent. What I ask is far more important. I ask for your support for our brave men fighting tonight halfway around the world, not for territory, not for glory, but so that their younger brothers and their sons and your sons can have a chance to grow up in a world of peace, and freedom, and justice. Thank you, and good night.200806/41541。