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2019年08月26日 16:22:48来源:龙马专家

  • Every year, the American Lung Association looks at the state of air pollution in U.S. cities. This years State of the Air report is out.The group analyzes data from air quality monitors on two kinds of air pollution: ground-level ozone pollution (aka smog) and particle pollution—tiny particles from power plants and our cars and trucks.Lyndsay Moseley Alexander directs the American Lung Associations Healthy Air Campaign. She says both kinds of air pollution pose health risks.;Particularly ozone pollution, when inhaled, can cause coughing, it can trigger asthma attacks and also much more serious symptoms leading to premature death. And particle pollution is similarly ominous. When we inhale tiny particles into our lungs, they can lodge deep there and cause asthma attacks. They can also cause lung cancer, heart attacks, strokes and also premature death,; she says.But she says many parts of Michigan are making progress in reducing both ozone and particle pollution.;Only Grand Rapids remains ranked among the most polluted for ozone pollution. In fact, (its) ranked 18th in the nation among most polluted cities for ozone pollution.;The Detroit-Ann Arbor metropolitan area is ranked 44th most polluted for ozone. She says thats an improvement over previous years.;What were seeing is the average number of days when air is unhealthy to breathe have gone down.;But its not all good news.;The Detroit area is also in the top 25 most-polluted cities for year-round particle levels. Most cities in the nation improved. This area suffered worse levels.;She says the Detroit area did still meet federal standards for year-round particle pollution.From the report:The ;State of the Air 2016; found continued improvement in air quality in 2012-2014, showing lower levels of year-round particle pollution and ozone. Still, more than half of all Americans—166 million people—live in counties where they are exposed to unhealthful levels of these pollutants.Thanks to stronger standards for pollutants and for the sources of pollution, the ed States has seen continued reduction in ozone and particle pollution as well as other pollutants for decades.Overall, the best progress came in the continued reduction of ozone and year-round particle pollution, thanks to cleaner power plants and increased use of cleaner vehicles and engines. Continued progress to cleaner air remains crucial to reduce the risk of premature death, asthma attacks and lung cancer. However, a changing climate is making it harder to protect human health.Moseley Alexander notes there are a number of counties in Michigan (and around the country) that lack air quality monitors—which means there are gaps in the data they have to work with.201604/438777。
  • Noise pollution噪音污染Shhhh!嘘!小声点!Why quiet carriages don’t work, and how they might be made to?安静车厢的推广之途屡屡受挫。原因何在,如何改之?QUIET carriages on trains are a nice idea: travellers voluntarily switch phones to silent, turn stereos off and keep chatter to a minimum. In reality, there is usually at least one inane babbler to break the silence.在列车上设 “安静车厢”是个不错的想法:旅客们自觉将手机调成静音,关掉随身听,轻声地交谈。而在现实中,通常至少会蹦出一个无脑的大嘴巴打破车厢的宁静气氛。A couple of problems prevent peaceful trips. First, there is a sorting problem: some passengers end up in the quiet carriage by accident and are not aware of the rules. Second, there is a commitment problem: noise is sometimes made by travellers who choose the quiet carriage but find an important call hard to ignore.安静之旅基于以下一些原因无法实现。首先是车厢分类问题:一些乘客阴差阳错的坐到了安静车厢,而没有留意乘车守则。其次是乘车义务问题:选择就坐安静车厢的乘客在途中接到一通无法忽视的重要电话,无奈之下发出了声响。The train operators are trying to find answers. Trains in Queensland Australia, are having permanent signs added to show exactly what is expected; a British operator has invested in signal-jamming technology to prevent phone calls. Microeconomics suggests another approach: putting a price on noise.列车运营商正试图找寻解决之道。 澳大利亚昆士兰州的火车里常设标识,提醒乘客遵守乘车守则;英国的一家列车运营商引用信号干扰技术来避免电话骚扰。而微观经济学则提出了另一种方法——金钱同噪音挂钩。Fining people for making a din would surely dissuade the polluter and is a neat solution in theory, but it requires costly monitoring and enforcement. Another tack would be to use prices to separate quiet and noisy passengers—in effect, creating a market for silence. A simple idea would be to sell access to the quiet carriage as an optional extra when the ticket is bought. Making the quiet coach both an active choice and a costly one would dissuade many of those who do not value a peaceful ride.开噪音罚单肯定会减少噪声污染者,并且从理论上讲乃一剂良方,但此方案需耗费大量监管和执行费。另一种方案是从票价上区分喜静的和喜闹的乘客,实际上是开辟“花钱买清静”的交易。一种简单的区分方法是,售票时提供安静车厢选项,乘客可选择付额外费用在安静区就坐。如此一来,“安静座位”不仅可由乘客主动选择,高票价还可将大量不珍惜安静旅途的人拒之门外。Charging may also solve the commitment problem. This is particularly tricky, as attitudes to noise can change during the journey. Some passengers would pay the quiet premium but still chatter away when some vital news arrives. Schemes that reward the silent—a ratings system among fellow passengers, for example—could help. The idea is that losing your hard-won reputation offsets the short-term gain from using the phone. But such a system also fails the simplicity test.收费也有可能解决义务问题。乘客对待噪音的态度在旅途中或多或少会有所改变,这就使得义务问题变得尤为复杂——有些乘客虽然愿意额外花钱到安静车厢就坐,而在看到某些重要新闻时,仍旧按耐不住自己开始喋喋不休。旨在奖励安静乘车旅客的奖励计划或大有裨益。例如,同车乘客打分系统,理念是以来之不易的声誉换取接电话来带的片刻享受。但该系统也不会通过易用性测试。A 2010 book by George Akerlof and Rachel Kranton argues that “norms”—feelings about how everyone should behave—also play a role in decision-making. Charging a price, even if just a token amount, means the quiet carriage becomes a service that fellow passengers have bought, not just a preference they have expressed. Perhaps different norms would come into play, encouraging calm. If not, a personal bubble is always an option: noise-cancelling headphones start at around .乔治·阿克尔洛夫和瑞秋·克拉顿在2010年出版的一书中认为,人类对个体该如何行止的感觉就是“行为规范”,这种规范也影响决策过程。即便是象征性收取少量金额,单凭收费这一行为,就意味着安静车厢不再是同行乘客的偏好之选,而是他们所购买的一项务。或许在鼓励人们保持车厢安静时,应该引入不同的行为规范。若此方案也行不通,那么在列车上出售起价的降噪耳机,创造“个人空间”总是不二之选。 翻译:王葭苇译文属译生译世 /201606/450433。
  • Our lifelong food preferences are largely shaped by the foods were exposed to earlyon in childhood.我们一生的食物偏好大多数取决于在童年时期接触到的食物。This process begins before we even taste solid foods.在我们接触固体食物以前,这个过程已经开始了。If introduced early enough, well happily accept flavors that our own parents might turn their noses up at.如果及早接触的话,我们可能会接受父母嗤之以鼻的口味。For instance, there is an infant formula designed to aid digestion, which has abitter after taste that parents find unappealing.比如,有一个帮助消化的婴儿配方食物,回味起来苦涩无比,家长们都不喜欢。They assume that theirbabies couldnt possibly like it.他们猜测自己的孩子可能也不喜欢。If they wait until their babies are seven months old to introduce the formula, their assumption will probably be right.如果直到孩子7个月大的时候,才给他们喂养这种食物的话,家长们的猜测也许是对的。However, if they introduce the formula to the child within its first four months of life,the baby will accept the formula and continue to accept it.但是,如果在孩子四个月大的时候,喂养这种食物的话,孩子就会接受并继续食用它。So if a mother breastfeeds that mean that by eating vegetables, her baby will be exposed tothe flavors of vegetables through her breast milk.因此,如果一个母亲在吃蔬菜的同时用母乳喂养孩子,她的孩子就会通过乳汁接触到蔬菜的味道。If a mother eats a varied diet, then her breast milk can naturally introduce a widevariety of flavors to her baby early on.假如一位母亲有多样化的饮食,她的母乳在婴儿早期就能介绍各种不同的口味给孩子。And the wider variety of flavors children areexposed to, the more likely they are to eat a varied diet later on in life.孩子接触到的口味越广,他们食用多样化食物的可能性就越大。 201411/342696。
  • Europe Russian politics欧洲 俄罗斯政坛风向突变Putin’s purges普京的清洗运动Interpreting a sudden crackdown on extravagant officials风向突变,指官员;个中详情,且看分解For senior members of the ed Russia party it was like a scene from Mikhail Bulgakov’s “The Master and Margarita”. They would have special affinity with Nikanor Ivanovich Bosoi, chairman of the tenants’ association tricked by Woland (Satan in disguise). The roubles he gets from Woland’s sidekick and stuffs into a ventilation shaft turn into dollars. Bosoi is arrested and put in a psychiatric ward, where he dreams of a bass voice booming from the sky: “Hand over your foreign currency!”对于统一俄罗斯党的高层来说,如今这幅景象就像米哈伊尔·布尔加科夫的《大师和玛格丽特》中写的一样。他们一定对书中的伊万诺维奇·波索伊印象深刻,这位租户协会主席被由魔鬼撒旦乔装的乌兰欺骗。他从乌兰的口袋里搞到苏联卢布,然后通过通风井变成美元。波索伊后来被捕,并被投入精神病院。在病床上,他梦见从空中传来一阵低沉的声音:“把你手里的外汇交出来!”This time the voice asking for a handover of foreign bank accounts was President Vladimir Putin’s. On February 12th he submitted a bill to the Duma banning officials and lawmakers from having foreign bank accounts or investing in foreign government debt. The draft also banned the ownership of property abroad, though this was subsequently changed to merely demanding its declaration.如今这个呼喊着催逼外国账户的人换成了普京总统。2月12日,普京向杜马提交了一份议案,要求禁止政府官员和杜马议员持有外国账户和购买外国国债。议案还禁止拥有境外财产,不过这一项随后被改为只需发表类似声明即可。A day later Vladimir Pekhtin, a founder of ed Russia and head of the Duma’s ethics committee, was revealed as the owner of an undeclared .3mluxury apartment in Miami Beach. The details were posted on the internet by Alexei Navalny, an opposition activist and blogger. Mr Pekhtin brushed off these “unmerited accusations”. “I practically have no property abroad,” he insisted. Yet on February 20th, doubtless after hearing Mr Putin’s voice, he resigned from the Duma. Even though he had done nothing wrong, he said, the scandal tainted the party and its interests must come above his own. Another ed Russia deputy, Anatoly Lomakin, with an estimated fortune of .2 billion, resigned “for health reasons”. More deputies are on their way out, say press reports. State television showed pictures ofMiami Beachapartments and talked of purges and a return of moral values.一天之后,身为统俄党缔造者、俄罗斯杜马道德委员会负责人的弗拉基米尔·佩赫廷被爆出在迈阿密海滩拥有一所并未公开、价值130万美元的奢华公寓。这些细节是由俄罗斯反对派活动家、客作家阿莱克谢·纳瓦尔尼通过网络爆出。佩赫廷否认了这些“不当指责”,他坚称:“事实上我在境外没有财产。”不过在2月20日,佩赫廷选择从杜马辞职,毫无疑问这是普京的授意。佩赫廷表示,虽然自己并没有做错什么事,但这个爆料被视为玷污统俄党的丑闻,党的利益高于他的个人利益,他只能认栽。另一位统俄党党员、身价达120亿美元的安纳托利·罗马金因“健康原因”而辞职。据媒体报道,更多的统俄党人士在寻找出路。俄罗斯国家电视台播送了迈阿密海滩公寓的照片,并谈及这次党内清洗,言及这是道德价值的回归。In place of public denunciations and 1930s show trials, the “purged” Mr Pekhtin was greeted by standing ovations from his comrades who called him an example of morality. No proceedings were started against him and he could yet end up with a cushy job. Nevertheless, the purges signal a shift inRussia’s politics.与公开谴责和上世纪30年代的公审公判不同,这一次“清洗”佩赫廷是以同志们长时间起立鼓掌,称其为道德楷模的方式进行的。他没有遭到任何起诉,退出后还拿到一份轻松的工作。话虽如此,清洗标志着俄罗斯政坛要变风向了。Gleb Pavlovsky, a former Kremlin consultant, explains that, in the past, the nomenklatura were shielded from opponents’ criticism and left to enjoy the fruits of their loyalty at home and abroad without interference from the top. Mr Pekhtin’s resignation shows that this no longer holds true, but without explaining what the new rules are. This makes the elite nervous, which may be no bad thing from Mr Putin’s viewpoint.前克里姆林宫智囊格莱布·帕夫洛夫斯基对此解读说,在苏联时代,政府大员们没有政治对手攻击之虞,只要忠于体制,就能尊享国内国外的种种特权,还不会受到高层干预。佩赫廷的辞职表明这一现象将是明日黄花,只不过新的游戏规则还没有厘定出来。这会让俄罗斯的权贵们紧张不安,不过按照普京的观点这可能不是什么坏事。The purges are not a concession to the opposition. Using Mr Navalny’s information to its advantage has not stopped the Kremlin from throwing new accusations at him. Nor do they stem from a sudden conversion to the principle of democratic accountability. Rather, say Kremlinologists, they reflect Mr Putin’s need to gain more legitimacy among voters and tighten his grip over an elite that likes to keep its assets and children in the West.不过清洗并不代表对反对派的让步。虽然当局采用了纳瓦尔尼的信息,不过这并不会让克林姆林宫停止对他提起新指控。这些变化并非源于民主问责制。相反,按克里姆林宫问题专家的说法,这反倒折射出普京需要从选民手里获得更多的持,并像对待他们在西方国家的财产和移居西方的小孩一样,收紧对俄罗斯权贵阶层的控制。Behind the purges lies an assumption that the West is plotting against him and could exploit the private interests of Russian officials. Mr Putin seems to see America’s Magnitsky act, which threatens sanctions against Russian officials involved in human-rights abuses, as an attempt to control them. Hence his wish to “ring-fence” the elite from Western influence and gain more leverage.清洗的背后也有这样一种假设,即西方正在密谋反对普京,而且可能会利用俄罗斯官员的私人利益来达到目的。美国已经弄出了个“马格尼茨基法案”,这项法案威胁要制裁在马格尼茨基案中侵犯人权的俄罗斯官员,这就是在尝试去控制俄罗斯官员。因此普京要把俄罗斯的精英们从西方的影响中“隔离开来”,加大对这一群体的影响。But Mr Putin’s options are limited. Access to Western goods, services and property is a pillar of his system. Removing it could turn more of the elite against him. Random (and so far soft) purges, a ban on foreign bank accounts and anti-American hysteria may be mere half-measures, but even they may be too extreme. Alexei Venediktov, editor of Echo Moskvy, a radio station, comments that “Mr Putin has tied an axe over the head of the elite. But being a cautious politician, he considers a threat of repression more effective than repression itself.”但是普京手里的牌却不多。精英阶层购买西方商品,享受西方务,置购西方地产,这些特权是持普京权利体系的柱,现在回收这些特权可能会把权贵们赶到自己对立面去。虽然在普京看来,肆意清洗(现在还算轻的),禁开外国账户以及对美国妄想症般的诋毁都不过是折中方案,即便如此,这些方案都显得太过于极端。“莫斯科回声”电台编辑阿莱克谢·维涅季克托夫评价说:“普京在权贵头上悬了一把斧头。但是作为一个审慎的政治家,他知道高压的威胁远比高压本身更有效果。”Repression is used against protesters but also on junior officials. In the past year over 800 cases have been opened into local officials, councillors and mayors. The highest-profile casualty so far was Anatoly Serdyukov, an ex-defence minister implicated in a procurement scandal. He was fired and humiliated on state television, but not arrested or charged. Whether he is now brought before the judges will show just how far Mr Putin’s purges go.镇压不仅用在抗议者身上,还用在高官们身上。在过去的2012年,俄罗斯有800多个案子涉及到地方官员、议员和市长们。迄今为止,最大的受害者就是前国防部长谢尔久科夫,他是因一桩采购丑闻而落马。他被解了职,还在国家电视台上出了洋相,不过没有被关押和指控。他会不会被送到法官面前取决于普京的清洗行动会走多远。翻译:程蒙译文属译生译世201610/472276。
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