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武汉华夏生殖武汉前列腺炎要做哪些检查武汉华夏切包皮 Business商业报道Law firms律师事务所Charging more, getting less标价更高,收益更少Lawyers biggest customers are discovering that they can haggle律师的最大客户们发现他们能与律师还价THERE were groans in big companies legal departments in the mid-2000s, when the fees of Americas priciest lawyers first hit 1,000 an hour.当美国最高的律师酬金达到每小时1000美元,20世纪中期,一些大公司的法律部门里开始抱怨连连。Such rates have since become common at firms with prestige.自此以后,这样的价格在名企变得普遍。A survey published this week by the National Law Journal found that they now go as high as 1,800.美国法律期刊刊登的一项调查表明,现在的律师费用已经高达1800美元/时,But the general counsels of large businesses are increasingly finding that they can ignore these extravagant rates, and insist on big discounts.但是那些为大公司效力的法律顾问却逐渐发现,他们忽视高额酬金,并坚持较大折扣。Price-discounting tends to be associated more with used-car lots than with posh law firms. There was a time when a lawyer could submit his bill and be confident of receiving a cheque for the same amount.价格折扣渐渐常见于二手车交易,并非光鲜的律师律师事务所。有一段时间,律师收到的票跟账单数目一样,并且,他们引以为豪。In banner years, some even got more, as grateful clients tipped them a little extra for a job well done.在收益相当的那些年,一些慷慨的客户还会给点小费,来奖励他们的良好表现,因此有些律师能得到更多。Since the financial crisis, however, the realisation of law firms—the proportion of their standard rates that they collect in practice—has been sliding.然,自金融危机,律师律师事务所的个人实现,即他们在实际中累积到标准价格的部分在下滑。Earlier this month Peer Monitor, a company that tracks the legal industry, said that the ratio in the ed States dropped from 92% in 2007 to an all-time low of 83.5% in 2013.本月初,一家跟踪报道法律产业的公司,Peer Monitor表示,在美国,价格比率已由07年的92%下滑到空前低值,13年的83.5%。British lawyers have seen a similar decline.英国律师界也有类似情况。Discounts are rampant, says Brad Hildebrandt, a consultant to law firms.折扣现象在蔓延。一家律师律师事务所的顾问Brad Hildebrandt如是说。The economic forces driving high-flying legal eagles into the bargain bin are no mystery.经济力量将这些高身段的律师界雄鹰打入廉价区,这已不再是秘密。Demand for corporate legal work on such things as mergers, takeovers and share and bond issues plummeted in the 2008-09 recession, and has yet to recover.在企业合并、收购、股票债券问题等的法律合作需求也在08-09年的经济衰退中减弱,至今没恢复。Simultaneously, the easy profits once earned in litigation departments have also dried up: the tedious task of reviewing mountains of documents, which law firms used to farm out to battalions of newly qualified associates, can increasingly be done by computers.同时,诉讼部的易得利润也枯竭了:枯燥的审核成堆文件工作,之前律师事务所都是承包给大批刚合格的伙伴,现也被电脑代替了。Putting up prices at a time of weak demand and fierce competition seems perverse.在需求小,竞争激烈的时候提高价格似乎有些悖于常理,Yet the industry has continued to increase its sticker prices by 2-3% every year—only to give back almost all the gain by offering ever-greater discounts.但是律师行业仍旧持续以每年2%-3%的速度提高标价—仅仅只是提供一个更好的折扣给顾客。One reason for this is that, as ever more big clients discover they can haggle, law firms have realised that the best way for them to start the negotiation is with the highest possible asking-price.原因之一在于,因为更多的客户发现他们能讨价还价,律师律师事务所意识到开始协商的最好办法就是给出最高索价。In this, lawyers now find themselves in the same boat as accountants and other professionals who have long been used to having to bargain with bigger customers.而如今,律师们发现他们跟会计以及其他职业的人一样,一直以来都在跟较大客户还价。Another reason is that sophisticated legal services are somewhat like luxury cars and handbags, in that a high asking-price is taken as a sign of quality.另一个原因是,错综复杂的法律务体系有点像豪车和高端手提包一样,高价意味着高质。No one wants to have hired the cheaper firm in a high-stakes lawsuit.没人想在一个赌注高的诉讼中雇佣一个廉价律师事务所来为自己工作。But perhaps the most important rationale for discounting is that it lets law firms charge different prices to different clients, depending on their willingness to pay.但折扣最重要的理论基础是,它使得律师事务所根据不同的客户收取不一样的费用,当然,这取决于客户的意愿。And even among business clients with big budgets, this varies markedly.甚至是与预算高的商业客户,价格也明显不同。Over the past 25 years some large companies have built up their in-house legal departments, so that these can now deal with outside law firms on an equal footing.在过去的25年中,大公司自己内设了法律部门,像外面的律师事务所一样处理相关问题。In-house lawyers know the market value of every type of service, and have sophisticated software that scrutinises invoices and queries anomalies.内部律师了解每一种务的市场价值,拥有完善的软件细查发票,质疑异常。Such clients no longer just take the law firms word for how many hours its lawyers spent on a job: if the bill looks padded, they will not hesitate to demand cuts.这样的商业顾客,不再完全听信律师事务所在某一案子上花费的时长:如果账单看上去有水分,他们将毫不犹豫寻求折扣。DuPont, a chemicals giant, has found plenty of scope for curbing its legal bills by becoming a cannier client.化学巨头杜邦发现变身为一个精明的客户,能有许多减少法律账单的机会。In the early 1990s it sp its legal work among 350 firms.在20世纪90年代,杜邦将法律事务分配给350个律师事务所,Now it uses only 38—including some smaller firms in smaller cities, which offer better value for money.现在,只委托38个—包括一些较小城市的小公司,这些公司把金钱的价值用到实处。DuPont has persuaded its remaining law firms to work together more closely.杜邦劝导现有的律师事务所加强合作。For routine work it insists on flat fees; for riskier cases it seeks no-win, no-fee agreements.对于常规事务,坚持统一收费,对于有风险的事务,寻求没有胜利就没有酬薪的宗旨。Above all, says Thomas Sager, DuPonts general counsel, We had to communicate that this is a new day, and you need to be as committed to our financial success as you are to yours.特别是,杜邦的总顾问Thomas Sager说:我们不得不相互传达‘今天是新的一天,你必须坚定的为我们的经济成功努力,就如同你对自己的那样的信息。Law firms profits would evaporate if they offered smaller and less sophisticated clients such attractive deals.如果将很完美的方案提供给较小的,不那么精明的客户,律师事务所的利润可能会减少很多。Fortunately for them, they have so far been able to get away with offering discreet, selective discounts.幸运的是,目前为止,他们能够避免供应谨慎,选择性折扣。There are still a few big clients around who do not realise what they are missing:仍有少数大顾客没有意识到错过了什么:If you increase the rate every year, some clients will make you take it back, but others will let you keep it, says Tony Williams, a former managing partner of Clifford Chance, one of Britains biggest law firms.如果每年都提高价格,一些顾客会让你收回该要求,但是另外一些会答应你的条件。高伟绅—英国最大律师事务所之一的总顾问Tony Williams如是说。 201401/273891孝昌县人民医院看泌尿科怎么样

武汉割包茎手术费用多少钱Business商业报道Women in management女性管理者A word from your sponsor后台一句话的事Time for women to stop being shrinking violets at work职场女性,从此不再羞答答的I DONT know any successful women who havent had a powerful sponsor in their organisation to give them their first big break, says Avivah Wittenberg-Cox, the boss of 20-first, a consultancy that helps companies put more women into senior jobs.在一个组织里,对于女性而言,没有过硬的后台帮助她们完成人生的首次突破,还能够风生水起的,我实在是没咋地见过,阿维娃·维滕贝格-考克斯,性别顾问公司20-First总裁,如是说。That sentiment is echoed by many people who work in this field.顾问公司20-First帮助很多的公司,让更多的女性做高层领导。她的这一观点得到众多同行的呼应。But why do women need so much help?但是为啥女性需要那么多的帮助呢?Many women who climb the corporate ladder have sponsors, too.许多女性要想晋升,必须有后台,这一道理同样适用于公司。Indeed, they find it easier than women to persuade a senior colleague to sponsor them. They are also less likely to build up useful networks of contacts.确实,女性要想劝高层领导帮助自己,不是件太难的事。But women need help more because they are generally more reluctant to promote themselves.但是女性需要更多的帮助,原因就是,一般来的来说,她们不愿意推销自己。同时,她们也不大可能去建立一个对自个有用的关系网。That may help to explain why women, although they now enter white-collar jobs in much the same numbers as men in many countries, still find it so hard to get anywhere near the executive suite.这也解释了这样一个现象,在很多的国家,白领女性的数量跟男性持平,但是女性进入高管还是一个字,难。A new report, Sponsor Effect: UK, produced by the Centre for Talent Innovation, a New York think-tank, offers a detailed picture of the female talent pipeline in Britain, based on a survey of about 2,500 graduate employees, mostly of large companies.一份新的报告,《后台效应:英国》,制作者为纽约智囊团人才创新中心,详述描绘了英国女性人才的分布状况。这份报告的制作,是基于对2500个左右研究生雇员的调查,且她们基本上都来自大公司。It notes that although women in Britain account for 57% of new recruits to white-collar jobs, they make up just 17% of executive directors and a mere 4% of chief executives of the FTSEs 100 biggest companies.它指出,虽然女性新雇员占白领比例57%,但是在富时指数的100个大公司里,执行理事也就17%,首席执行官只有可怜的4%。It is not that the women lack ambition, says the report.报告表示不是说女性没有雄性壮志。No less than 79% of senior women in the sample said they aspired to a top job and 91% were keen to be promoted.调查者中,多达79%的大龄女性表示希望成为高管,91%希望得到晋升。Nor, say the authors, are they necessarily held back by family responsibilities:作者称,家庭责任并不一定会拖累她们:nearly two in five of those aged 40 or over had no children.年龄在40或是以上的,接近五分之二,是没有孩子的,有五分之三的女性是有孩子的,这个确实不假。Three in five of the over-40s did have children, and talented women who quit work to raise kids are not included in the sample.那些为了照顾孩子而放弃工作的才女们并不在这个范围之内。Still, the surveys main finding is striking.仍然,这个调查的主要发现还是会吓人一跳。Only 16% of the sample had sponsors, defined as people several levels above them who give them career advice, introduce them to contacts and help them get promotions.调查者中,只有16%的人有后台,后台的意思指的是那些比她们的位子要高那么几级的人,在工作当中给予她们建议,给她们接触的机会,帮助她们晋升。Having a sponsor dramatically improves a womans career prospects.有个后台,女性在职场上的路要好走非常多。The British report is a follow-on from a similar study by the CTI on America, The Sponsor Effect, published last year by the Harvard Business Review.这份英国报告,其实是美国CTI的一份类似研究的后续。The CTI is now working on India;这份研究的名称为《后台效应》,去年在期刊《哈佛商业》上出版。Germany may come after that.CTI现在正在对印度进行研究;印度之后可能就是德国。It is also preparing a road map to make it easier for women everywhere to find sponsors.CTI同时也在酝酿一幅公路图,目的就是为了让各地的女性更好地找到后台。Sylvia Ann Hewlett, the CTIs boss, who co-wrote the report, says there are some differences between countries.西尔维亚·安·休利特,CTI老板,是此份报告的共同撰写者。她说,各个国家的情况真的还不大一样。But the broad picture is similar everywhere:但是从更大范围来看,情况其实差不多:women underestimate the importance of sponsorship and fail to cultivate business relationships effectively.女性低估了后台的力量,并且没能够有效地培养商业关系。This may be true, but networking takes time, often after hours.这可能是对的,但是关系网的维护还是需要时间的,尤其是下班时间。Are women with children equally willing to put in that extra time?那么,女性会把跟孩子在一起的时间花在培养关系网上吗?Drawing attention to the problems of women in upper management makes a useful change from the usual lament about the lack of women on boards.把注意力集中到高管女性的问题上,而不是像往常一样,哀叹董事会的女性怎么就这么少,要有用的多了。The scarcity of both is a symptom of something bigger:高管女性和董事会女性的稀缺只是问题的一个症状,更大的问题是:a lot of employers neither know nor care how many senior women they have working for them.许多老板对这个有多少女性在为他工作上,不关心也不在乎。Studies show a correlation between more women in senior positions and superior company performance, though it is hard to know whether more sexual diversity improves performance or top-notch firms promote more women.研究显示,女性高管越多,公司的表现越好,这之间是有一定的关系的,虽然还不是很确定,到底是性别多样化促进绩效呢,还是一流的公司更多的提拔女性呢。How much can sponsorship help?后台到底能有多大用?Ms Wittenberg-Cox is glum.维滕贝格·考克斯女士不清楚。She says there have been so many initiatives that many firms suffer from diversity fatigue,她说,有太多的公司因为性别单一而缺乏主动性,but none has dealt with the appalling reality of the pipeline.但是并没有什么人来解决这个可怕的人才分布事实。The only remedy, she reckons, is a change of thinking at the top.她觉得,唯一的解救方法,恐怕就是高层的变动。 /201307/248143武汉华夏男子医院看病口碑 长江航运总医院治疗阳痿早泄

武汉广州军区医院治疗性功能障碍多少钱Leaders社论Syrias civil war叙利亚内战Desperate times艰难时刻A conference on Syria is not enough. The West should also arm the rebels叙利亚问题远非一项会议可以解决,西方国家还应该为反对派提供武装援助NOBODY thinks that the Geneva negotiations, which began on January 22nd after months of effort, will bring peace right away.经过数月努力后,日内瓦会议于1月22日召开,没人相信此次调解会立即带来和平。But with civil war raging inside Syria, just getting people around the same table feels like progress; and, it is argued, the talks might lay the ground for negotiations that may one day lead to a ceasefire, or even to power changing hands.然而,由于叙利亚国内战争甚嚣尘上,单是将双方集结到一张桌子上已属不易。而且,据称,此次对话可能为之后的谈判奠定基础,以实现最终的停火,甚至是权利交接。Meanwhile, they can broker local truces and get relief to Syrians dying for lack of food and medicine.同时,这次的对话还可以调解地方冲突以求和平,为缺少食物和药物的叙利亚人送去援助。Anything that would alleviate Syrias plight is welcome.任何有助于缓解叙利亚困境的行动都是受欢迎的。But if America and Europe are serious about helping Syria, they should arm the rebels fighting the regime.但是,如果美国和欧洲国家真相帮助叙利亚,他们应该武装反对派,打击政权。Out-thinking, out-manoeuvring, inhuman先发制人,惨无人道That is a message people do not want to hear.世人并不想听到这样的消息。Then again, neither do they want to face up to the brutality inside Bashar Assads prisons.同样,他们也不忍直视巴萨尔阿萨德监狱里的残暴。This is not casual thuggery but, as a security official who defected from the regime with thousands of horrific photographs has revealed, an audited policy of official terror administered on an industrial scale.这并非一般的暗杀,而是一名安保人员,背叛组织后惨遭杀害,几千张惊恐的图片披露了这一行径,一项官方恐怖的审计政策以工业规模展开。The violence Mr Assad has used has driven reason and tolerance out of what was one of the Middle Easts most integrated countries.总统阿萨德的暴行使原本团结的中东国家失去了理性和包容。Well over 100,000 people have died and millions have fled their homes.10万多人丧生,数百万人流离失所。The hatred is sping to Lebanon and Iraq.仇恨正向蔓延黎巴嫩和伊拉克。The Geneva gathering cannot drain such an ocean of suffering and wrongdoing. It is built on the premise that Mr Assad will relinquish power through a transitional government.日内瓦会议无法化解这无边的苦海和冤屈,除非总统阿萨德能够放弃权力,组件临时政府。But why should he?但是,他这么做理由何在呢?He believes he is winning. He is holding his own against rebel attacks, or even gaining territory.他认为他正在获得胜利。他正在尽全力对抗反对派,甚至扩张领土。The programme to eliminate his chemical arsenal, imposed after he murdered about 1,000 civilians in a nerve-agent attack, has turned him into a partner of the West.在他屠杀了1000多手无寸铁的平民后,联合国决议决定销毁他的化学武器,但这却使他成为西方国家的一员。He set out to radicalise the rebels, releasing jihadists from his jails early in the conflict.他决意激怒反对派,在冲突开始早些时候释放了圣战者。This programme has been so successful that Western voters now think the rebels are as vile as Mr Assad.这一激将法十分奏效,西方国家目前认为反对派同阿萨德一样邪恶。Geneva could even get in the way of peace.可以说,日内瓦会议妨碍了和平进程。The humanitarian aid that may come from the talks is desperately needed by Syrians, but it comes at a cost, because UN aid agencies will, again, depend on Mr Assad for co-operation.叙利亚人亟需和谈中可能达成的人道援助,但是这些援助却不是免费的午餐,因为联合国援助机构会再次依靠阿萨德的合作。Peace is almost impossible unless Iran, Mr Assads biggest backer, also leans on the regime.除非伊朗—阿萨德最大的持者,也持这一政权,否则,叙利亚和平只能是泡影。Yet Iran was barred from the conference only hours after having been invited, because it will not sign up to the condition that he surrenders power.然而,伊朗在接受邀请数小时后就被拒绝参加会议,因为该国不同意阿萨德交出政权。To cynics, Geneva is a device that lets everyone pretend to have a Syria policy even when they dont.对批评人士来说,日内瓦会议只是权宜之计,让所有人误以为叙利亚问题有方法解决,实则是无计可施。That may be deft diplomacy, but it is a licence for inaction, and the price is counted in Syrian suffering.于外交来说,这一招妙不可言,但却使不作为获得了许可,而且代价在叙利亚伤亡中显而易见。As talks drag on, Russia and Iran will continue to boost Mr Assads strength.由于谈判一再拖延,俄罗斯和伊朗将继续为阿萨德提供援助。It would be wrong to let the balance tilt so far that he can dictate terms.力量失衡如此严重,让阿萨德可以为所欲为,实属下策。The best way to break the deadlock would be for the West to arm and train selected rebels, as it should have done almost from the start of the violence.打破僵局的最好办法是西方武装和训练精挑细选的反对派,战争开始之初就应该这样做。Many fear that the beneficiary of money, equipment and arms would be al-Qaeda, which matches only Mr Assad in its contempt for human life and Western democracy.许多人担心钱财、设备和武器最后会落到基地组织手里,他们残害生命和打击西方政策的行径与阿萨德不相上下。But over the past few weeks that risk has diminished, as nationalist Sunni groups, including devout Islamists, have turned against the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham, an al-Qaeda affiliate.但是,在过去的几个星期里,风险已经降低,因为民族主义者逊尼派,包括虔诚的伊斯兰教徒,已与伊斯兰教国家伊拉克和ISIS反目,后者是基地组织的一个分。Not only are arms and money less likely to end up in the wrong hands, but the nicer rebels—even if they are not the most reliable or savoury allies—are the front line against ISIS, whose sectarian poison threatens the entire region.不仅武器和钱不太可能落入贼手,稍显仁慈的反对派—即使他们不是最可靠、最适合的同盟者,却在前线对抗ISIS,其派别纷争威胁着整个地区。Even with more outside help, the rebels are not about to defeat Mr Assad.即使外援增加,反对派也无意于扳倒阿萨德。But turning the tide of the fighting might shift the negotiations, too.然而,转移斗争的矛头可能会影响谈判。If the regime is under pressure on the battlefield, it may be more willing to negotiate a proper ceasefire, or even, if people are tired of war, Mr Assads departure.如果政权在战场上饱受压力,阿萨德可能更乐意协议停火,或者,人们厌倦了战争,阿萨德会选择放弃。Moreover Iran can ill afford to finance a stalemate.而且,如果伊朗意图不轨,大可继续为其提供援助,维持僵局。When it has had enough of pouring money into Mr Assads seemingly endless conflict, it may be willing to argue for peace.待到有足够的金钱持阿萨德似乎无休止的战争时,伊朗可能会求和。Some say that if outsiders continue to help the rebels, they will condemn Syria to even more suffering.有人认为,如果外界继续帮助反对派,可能会使叙利亚的苦难更加深重。That is possible.这一点并非不可能。But the brutality Mr Assad has practised against his own people strengthens the case for trying to tip the balance of power against him, and the best way to persuade his backers to withdraw their aid is if the West has money on the table, too.然而,阿萨德对其人们施行的暴政使外界决意使力量的天平向对方倾斜,而且劝退其持者的最好办法便是,西方国家也提供援助。One thing is certain: if either Mr Assad or al-Qaeda prevails, Syria will continue to suffer for a very long time.一件事可以肯定:无论阿萨德或基地组织任一方胜出,未来很长一段时间里,叙利亚都将继续处于水深火热中煎熬。 /201402/275815 Finance and economics财经商业Monetary policy in America美国的货币政策Taper tiger逐渐变弱的老虎The Federal Reserve surprises everyone by changing nothing美国联邦储备委员保持政策不变让人们感到惊奇SHORTLY after the Federal Reserve hinted in May that it might start to ease its monetary stimulus, rich-country bond yields shot up; emerging-market currencies and stockmarkets cratered.在美联储5月暗示可能会退出货币刺激政策后不久,富裕国家的债券收益率飙升,新兴市场货币和股市出现震荡。Was it all for nothing?难道这没有原因吗?On September 18th, at the end of a closely watched meeting, the Federal Open Market Committee, the Feds policy-setting body, chose not to taper.9月18日,在一个被密切关注的会议结束时,美联储的政策制定机构联邦公开市场委员会没有选择退出。Instead, it said it would keep buying 85 billion a month of Treasury and mortgage bonds with newly created money.相反,表示将用新创造的货币继续每月购买85亿的国债和抵押债券。Although the Fed had never actually promised to act in September, all the signals pointed in that direction.虽然美联储从来没有承诺在9月份采取行动,但是所有的信号都指向这个方向。QE would stop, it had said when the latest bout of bond-buying began last September,when the labour-market outlook had improved substantially.去年9月开始的新一轮购买债券时表示,当劳动力市场的前景已经大幅改善时QE会停下来。Since then, the unemployment rate has dropped to 7.3% from 8.1% and private employment has risen by 2.3m, or 2%.从那时起,失业率从8.1%下降至7.3%,私营部门就业增加了2.3或2%。In June Ben Bernanke, the Fed chairman, said the Fed would probably start to taper by year-end, and stop QE when unemployment hit 7%, which it expected by mid-2014.在6月,美联储主席本?伯南克表示,美联储可能会开始在今年年底如果失业率达到7%就停止量化宽松政策,预计是在2014年中期。So what has now held it back?那么是什么原因导致倒退?First, the pace of job growth has recently flagged; the drop in unemployment has been flattered by the number of people no longer looking for work.首先,就业增长速度最近开始减弱,失业人数的下降是被不再找工作的人数粉饰过的。The labour-market participation rate sank to 63.2% in August, a 35-year low.劳动力市场参与率8月下跌至63.2%,是35年来的新低。Second, fiscal policy continues to work at cross-purposes to monetary policy.其次,财政政策将继续为多个货币政策目的起作用。Higher taxes and spending cuts have subtracted at least a full percentage point from growth this year.更高的税收和削减开至少降低了今年经济增长整整一个百分点。The prospect that spending caps may be lifted when the new fiscal year begins on October 1st has melted away.在10月1日新的财政年度开始时可能会取消出上限的预期已经没有了。With Republicans in Congress and Barack Obama unable to agree on how to fund the government or raise the Treasurys statutory debt ceiling, the risk of a government shutdown loomed large in the minds of Fed officials.随着共和党在国会和奥巴马政府在如何资助或提高财政部的法定债务上限上谈不拢,在美联储的官员看来政府有很大的关闭风险。But the third and most important restraint on the Fed was the unexpected effect on financial markets of a prospective change in monetary stance.但是,对美联储的第三个也是最重要的约束是变动的货币政策对金融市场的意想不到的影响。The central bank had always emphasised that tapering did not mean tightening.央行此前一直强调退出并不意味着紧缩。Provided asset purchases remained above zero, the Feds balance-sheet would keep growing and monetary policy would still be loosening.倘若资产购买仍高于零,美联储的资产负债表将保持增长和货币政策仍然会松动。Separately, the Fed never wavered from its pledge to keep the federal-funds rate near zero at least until unemployment had fallen to 6.5%.另外,美联储从来没有动摇其承诺保持联邦基金利率接近零直到到失业率下降至6.5%。Nonetheless, investors radically repriced their expectations of Fed policy and fled positions predicated on a policy of QE ever after.尽管如此,投资者从根本上重新定价他们对美联储政策的预期,并从量化宽松的政策以后改变了定位。Bond yields have risen by slightly less than a percentage point since May, mortgage rates by slightly more.从五月以来债券收益率上升了约一个百分点,住房抵押贷款利率上涨更高一些。Mr Bernanke fretted that this rapid tightening of financial conditions in recent months could have the effect of slowing growth, a problem that would be exacerbated if conditions tighten further.伯南克担忧最近几个月这种快速紧缩财政的情况会使经济增长放缓问题是继续紧缩会使情况更糟。The euphoric market response to the FOMCs decision this week would seem to vindicate that judgment.这周市场对联邦公开市场委员会决定的积极反应明了这个判断。But it leaves wide open the question of when the Fed will taper.但它留下宽泛的问题,美联储什么时候开始紧缩。The FOMC trimmed its projections for growth this year and next by about a quarter of a percentage point from its June forecast, to 2.2% in 2013 and 3% in 2014.联邦公开市场委员会对今年和明年经济增长四分之一个百分点的6月份的预测进行了修改,2013年增长2.2%,2014年增长3%。It also changed its unemployment projections, which it now expects to hit 7% early in 2014 and 6.5% later that same year.它也改变了失业率的预测,它现在预计2014年上半年将达到7%,和下半年6.5%。Mr Bernanke was at pains this week to stress that the 7% unemployment target for ending QE and 6.5% threshold for raising rates have never been automatic triggers.伯南克本周煞费苦心的强调,达到7%的失业率时退出QE政策和6.5%时提高利率从来没有自动进行。It all depends on what else is happening in the economy.这一切都取决于经济体中发生的其他事情。It is entirely sensible for the Fed not to be slavishly bound by its guidance,对于美联储不会盲目的遵从指导是完全合理的,but that raises questions over how useful such guidance is.但对这种指导有多大用处有人提出了疑问。Most Fed officials expect to raise rates by 2015, for example,大多数美联储官员预计2015年升息,例如,but Mr Bernanke said rates are unlikely to rise if inflation is below its 2% target, which the Feds new projections suggest could be the case until 2016.但伯南克表示如果通胀率低于2%的目标利率不太可能上升,美联储新的预测显示直到2016年才会实行。The start of tapering could conceivably come at the end of October if data reassure the Fed that the economy has brushed off higher bond yields and if a fiscal train wreck has been avoided.如果经济降低债券收益率的数据和财政列车已避免脱轨能够使美联储相信,紧缩计划能够真的在10月底开始。But there are no clear signposts, which will irk investors.但目前还没有明确的标志,这将会使投资者感到恼怒。Their frustration pales next to that of the Fed itself, which has blown its balance-sheet up to 3.6 trillion and held rates at zero since 2008 but achieved underwhelming results in return.美联储本身相形见绌,资产负债表为3.6万亿美元,并从2008年开始维持利率为零,但并没有取得让人满意的回报。On September 17th the federal Census Bureau reported that real household incomes in America, which had fallen by 8% between 2007 and 2011, did not fall further in 2012.联邦人口普查局9月17日报道,在美国2007年和2011年之间家庭实际收入下降了8%,在2012年并没有进一步下跌。That this counts as good news is telling.这算作一个好消息。Income inequality, meanwhile, is worsening on some measures.同时收入不平等使一些措施恶化。Emmanuel Saez at the University of California, Berkeley, reckons the top 10% grabbed its largest share of total incomes since 1917 last year.加州大学伯克利分校的埃马纽埃尔?赛斯估计自1917年以来,去年前10%的人在总的收入份额中占有最大的部分。This is partly due to QE, which has been very good for the stockmarket and thus the wealthy.部分原因是由于量化宽松政策,有利于股市,使某些人更富裕。QE works in part by boosting household wealth and thus spending and jobs, but the effects have not yet filtered through strongly to the wider economy.QE促进家庭财富增加,消费和就业,但效果尚未渗透到更广泛的经济领域。The taps will be open a while longer yet.水龙头在未来的一段时间继续打开。 /201310/259343武汉市第三医院首义院区男科预约武汉市中心医院有泌尿科吗

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