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2019年07月21日 21:50:20来源:国际媒体

Don, flying is tougher than walking or running, right?飞行比走路和跑步都要困难些,对吧?So how come birds dont get winded and run out of breath?那为什么鸟类飞行的时候不会喘不过气来?Actually, in terms of distance per unit energy, flying is pretty efficient.按照单位距离来看的话,飞行是非常顺利的。Plus birds have a super efficient respiratory system.并且鸟类有一个特别高效的呼吸系统。While a birds respiratory system takes up about one fifth of its body, its lungs are relatively rigid and small, and dont fully deflate.当鸟呼吸系统占据它身体的五分之一时,它的肺比较僵硬,也比较小,不会完全紧缩。Instead, birds have a complex network of air sacs that work likebellows to pump a constant stream of air through the lungs.相反地,鸟类有一个复杂的肺泡结构,就像一个风箱把源源不断的空气打进肺里。Whats more, air only goes through the lungs in one direction, which means it has a higher oxygen content than the air in human lungs.更重要的是,空气在肺里只能流向一个方向,那就意味着它里面的氧气含量比人类肺里氧含量高。When a bird inhales, the air goes into the rear air sacs, and when it exhales, that air movesforward to the lungs, where oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide waste.鸟在吸气时,空气进入鸟肺泡的底部,而当呼气时,空气就向肺的前面移动,在那里氧气被交换成二氧化碳废气。Then, when the bird inhales again, the air is pushed out of the lungs and into the front air sacs.然后,鸟再次吸气,气体就从肺中进入肺泡。When it exhales asecond time, the air leaves the body.当第二次呼气时,气体就从身体出来了。So it takes two breaths to process a packet of air.所以鸟类需要呼吸两次才能处理气体了。Yep, Plus the air sacs mean that birds weigh less than youd expect, which makes flying lesscostly in terms of energy.是的。加上肺泡的话就说明鸟比我们想象的要轻,那样飞行就不会那么耗能量。But scientists still dont fully understand how birds breathe.但是科学家们现在也不完全明白鸟类是如何呼吸的。Birds fly over Mount Everest at altitudes where the air is so thin humans cant function, and no one knows howthey do it.鸟可以在珠穆朗玛峰上空飞行,但山上空气太稀薄人类无法呼吸,没有人知道它们是怎么做到的。 201409/327429。

  • The wall is very interesting.城墙很有趣。Its built of stone whereby most of the other buildings were built primarily of rammed earth or mud brick.这是石头造的,而其他大部分建筑物主要是夯土或泥砖建造。It doesnt have any obvious habitational function.没有任何明显的居住功能。It doesnt have any obvious defensive function.没有任何明显的防御功能。So whys that wall there?为什么那堵墙会矗立在那里?If storming the citadel through the tunnels was impossible,如果通过隧道进攻是不可能的,then the only other option would be to build a siege tower.那么唯一的解释就是建立一个攻城塔。And by the most ruthless means, on the backs of captured Guge prisoners.而这是捕获古格囚犯最残忍的手段。The royal precinct was virtually unassailable.皇家区实际上是不容置疑的。The Ladahki army reached the shelf beneath the sheer summit.拉达哈尼斯军队通过下面到达。They were stuck here for sometime around one month,他们被困一个月左右,so they began to build a siege tower with pressed Guge labor.所以他们借助古格劳动力开始建造一个攻城塔。They had to bring stones from a black mountain on the far side of the River.他们不得不搬运河另一边一座黑色山上的石头。201403/281289。
  • Bank of America was reported to have reached a settlement with American regulators to pay around 17 billion for mis-selling mortgage-backed securities in the run-up to the 2008 financial crisis. It is by far the biggest penalty levied on a single company. A significant chunk of the fine relates to toxic mortgage products handled by Countrywide Financial and Merrill Lynch, which BofA bought when both were teetering on the edge of bankruptcy.据报道美国已于美国监管部门已就其在2008金融危机前期不合格的抵押债权问题达成协议,将付约170亿美元罚款。这是截至目前对单个公司收取的最高罚款金额。其中大部分金额与美国金融公司和美林券公司所售卖的次级抵押品有关,而美国在这两家公司濒临破产时进行了收购。Benjamin Lawsky, New York states financial regulator, slapped a 300m fine on Standard Chartered for failing to comply with anti-money-laundering procedures it had agreed to as part of a previous settlement in 2012. He also imposed a 25m penalty onPricewaterhouseCoopers for softening a report about payments from Iran and other sanctioned countries made through Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi in the face of pressure from the banks executives.纽约金融监管员本杰明·罗斯基对渣打处以3亿美元罚款,因其未能遵守在2012年同意签署的反洗钱协议。同时他还强迫普永华道会计师事务所向其付2500万美元的罚款,因其不顾高管的压力,执意软处理关于伊朗和其他被制裁国家通过东京付款的报道。The minutes of the August meeting of the Bank of Englands Monetary Policy Committee revealed a split among its members on interest rates, with two voting to raise rates and seven against. It was the first split in the MPC for more than three years and refuelled speculation that the bank might lift rates towards the end of this year. The minutes from the Federal Reserves July meeting showed a lively debate about the timing of a rate rise, but suggested officials wanted to see more evidence that the American economy has fully recovered.据悉英国货币政策委员会在八月的会议上就的利率问题未能达成一致意见,其中2名委员认为应该提升利率,而7名委员提出异议。这是英国货币政策委员会首次在长达三年多的时间里还未能达成一致,同时也增加了将于今年年底提高利率这一推测的可能性。美联储七月份会议也就何时升息展开了激烈的辩论,但最终决定需要看到美国经济已完全复苏的进一步据才能下定论。Thats a lot of dollars好多美元A bidding war broke out among Americas biggest discount retailers when Dollar General offered to buy Family Dollar in a 9.7 billion offer that trumped an earlier tender from Dollar Tree.The combined revenue of Dollar General and Family Dollar is 28 billion.在达乐公司向家庭美元商店提出比美元树公司更高的97亿美元的收购要约美国后,最大的几家折扣零售商之间爆发了一场投标大战。达乐公司与家庭美元公司合并后将获得280亿美元的利润。Mad about Modi对莫迪的迷恋Indias benchmark stockmarket index, the Sensex, reached another record high, as investors cheered a speech by Narendra Modi, the reform-minded prime minister, outlining the things he would like to do to boost exports and manufacturing. But the bullish sentiment sparked by Mr Modis election could soon fizzle if his government does not deliver on its promises to liberalise the economy.在改革派首相纳伦德拉·莫迪发表演说鼓励投资者进行投资后,印度股市的基准敏感指数又创历史新高,莫迪在演说中表示他将大力促进商品出口和制造业的发展。但他如果未能实现其承诺的自由经济将使莫迪总统大选时带来的牛市化为泡沫。Hewlett-Packard reported that its total revenue had grown in the latest quarter for the first time in 11 quarters, to 27.6 billion. The increase was 1%. It achieved this by a 12% rise in computer sales, a market that has wilted as people switch to wireless devices but which may have been boosted by the phasing out of support for Windows XP, prompting companies to invest in new computers.惠普的最新报告显示:上季度惠普的营业利润实现了近11个季度以来的首次增长,达到276亿美元,增长了1个百分点,而该营业额的增长是由电脑销售数量增长12%带动的。在计算机销售市场上,伴随着无线设备的兴起XP系统逐渐被人们淘汰,这将促使计算机公司开发新的机型。Chinas powerful National Development and Reform Commission levied fines on 12 Japanese manufacturers of car parts or ball bearings. They are the first penalties to be reported in an investigation into price-fixing for spare parts and services among foreign car companies in China.中国能源促进和改革委员会对日本12家汽车零件或滚珠轴承制造商进行罚款。他们是中国对零部件及务定价调查中第一批被公布受罚的外国公司。Hertzs share price fell sharply, after the car-rental company forecast that annual profit would come in “well below” expectations. It said business had suffered in part when it was left with a shortage of cars because of a large number of safety recalls from carmakers. General Motors supplies Hertz with 28% of its fleet in the US. Carl Icahn, an activist investor, has started circling; he disclosed an 8.5% stake in Hertz.在赫兹汽车租赁公司预测其年收益将远低于预期后,其股价急剧下降。该公司表示此次问题一定程度上是由于大量安全设备被汽车制造商召回从而导致赫兹公司车辆短缺。赫兹公司在美国28%的车辆由通用汽车公司提供。投资者卡尔·伊坎开始回收资金,他将出售赫兹公司8.5%的股份。Mining for profit矿业经营BHP Billiton confirmed that it will spin off its less-profitable assets into a separately traded company in order to focus on its core ventures in iron ore, copper, coal, petroleum and potash. The move unravels much of the merger in 2001 between BHP and Billiton. The company has been under pressure from investors, and left many disappointed by not also announcing a share buy-back scheme.必和必拓公司宣布为了集中精力经营其核心的铁矿石产业,将分离其获利较低的资产,成立一个单独的贸易公司。此举将解决自2001年必和必拓公司和比利顿公司合并以来出现的许多问题。该公司在投资者的施压下也没有公布股份回收计划,这令投资者们非常失望。Glencore, on the other hand, said it would return 1 billion to shareholders through buy-backs, as it reaps the benefits from selling a Peruvian copper mine for 6.5 billion and a vigorous commodities-trading business. Mining companies are having to cope with slow growth, but Ivan Glasenberg, Glencores boss, contends that “the supercycle aint over.”另一方面,嘉能可国际公司宣布将通过股份回购计划向其股票持有者发放10亿美元的收益,因其在销售秘鲁铜矿时获得65亿美元的盈利并且商品贸易势头强劲。在其他矿产公司不得不应对盈利缓慢增长的问题时,嘉能可国际公司的总裁伊凡·格拉森格认为“此超周期现象不是结束”。Steve Ballmer stepped down from Microsofts board, having handed over the reins as chief executive to Satya Nadella last February. Mr Ballmer recently bought the Los Angeles Clippers basketball team for an estimated 2 billion.微软董事史蒂夫·鲍尔默期满卸任,并于去年2月将董事长职位传予萨蒂亚·纳德拉。最近,鲍尔默预计以20亿美元的价格收购洛杉矶快船队。Acknowledging the regulatory challenges it faces, Uber hired David Plouffe, Barack Obamas former campaign manager, to direct its strategy. The car-sharing business now operates in 170 cities around the world but faces stiff resistance from entrenched interests, much like Mr Plouffes old boss.尤伯公司承认自身存在监管问题,并聘请了曾担任奥巴马竞选经理的大卫·普罗非,指导其未来战略规划。此次汽车共享的商业活动分布在世界各地的170个城市,但却受到既得利益者的顽强抵制,其中也包括普罗非的那个前老板。 201409/325397。
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