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2019年11月13日 00:03:16 | 作者:健康指南 | 来源:新华社
One little girl was clutching her favourite toy while her younger sister was sucking her thumb – and both looked utterly lost and forlorn.一名小女孩抓着她最心爱的玩具,她的在一旁舔着拇指,俩看起来孤零零的,似乎迷路了。In a bygone era, a concerned adult might have stopped to ask them where their mother was. But in a damning indictment of modern Britain, hundreds of busy people simply walked on by.以前,路过的大人也许会停下来问问她们的妈妈去哪儿了。但是在英国,行人们谁也没有停下的意思,这是对英国社会的控诉。The girls stood for an hour on a Saturday morning in a busy shopping arcade looking for #39;help#39;, as part of a social experiment for television.周六早晨,女孩们在繁华的商业街站了整整一个小时,寻求路人的帮助。其实这是英国某电视台进行的一次社会实验。Astonishingly, over the whole hour only one person, a grandmother, took a moment to find out if there was a problem. All of the 616 other passers-by completely ignored the girls.令人震惊的是,一个小时里,只有一位老奶奶看出了不对劲。616名路过的人直接忽略了女孩们。Heartbreakingly for the mother of the sisters – who was watching from a hiding place nearby – passing couples even split apart to walk around either side of the #39;lost#39; girls and people wheeling suitcases took evasive action to avoid Maya and Uma, not thinking to check if they needed help.女孩们的妈妈在不远处注视着这一幕,心中酸涩。两个女孩一个叫玛雅,一个叫乌玛。并肩行走的两个人遇到她们时会直接绕开。拖着拉杆箱的路人对她们避之不及。没有人关心女孩们是不是需要帮助。Yesterday the NSPCC said the results of the experiment were shocking and called on members of the public to step in if they saw a youngster looking lost.昨天英国反虐待儿童协会表示实验结果令人唏嘘。他们呼吁大众积极帮助走失的儿童。Maya and Uma agreed to help and were brought along by their mother Reshma Rumsey, who watched from behind a nearby pillar with a presenter. Uma went first, standing alone in the middle of the concourse, holding her pink doll and putting on a good act of being scared and vulnerable.实验经过了两个小女孩的同意,她们的母亲一路陪伴着她们,在附近的拱柱旁静静观察。乌玛先出现在路边,一个人站在聚集的人群中间,抱着她的粉色娃娃,脸上是害怕受伤的表情。Under the gaze of the hidden cameras 25 yards away, dozens of shoppers and travellers bustled past. A mother with a pram manoeuvred around her, then a group of women pulling suitcases turned a blind eye.25个隐藏的摄像头记录下的是匆匆避过的顾客和游客。一位推着婴儿车的母亲绕过了乌玛,接着是一群冷眼旁观的女性拖着箱子离开了。After 20 minutes, not a single person had stopped to ask the seven-year-old if she was all right, even though some of them had plainly seen her.20分钟过去了,尽管一些路人确实看到了乌玛,当中没有一个停下来询问7岁的乌玛的情况。Next, it was her five-year-old sister#39;s turn. Maya stood sucking her thumb, and then tried kneeling down, gazing up forlornly at passing shoppers, but she too seemed to be invisible.接着,是5岁的玛雅。她吸着手指,甚至试图跪下来,眼睛盯着经过的路人。但是她就像是透明的。Eventually, a pensioner gave her a concerned look. At first, Pearl Pitcher, of Kent, who is in her seventies, carried on walking, but she soon turned around and came back to ask Maya if she was waiting for somebody.终于,一位老人给她投去了关心的目光。这位老人70来岁,一开始,她也直接走了过去,但很快就转身去询问玛雅是否在等人。Mrs Pitcher said later: #39;She had stood too long by herself and no parent or friend came up to see her. I was very hesitant to come and ask her, and I walked past but I thought I must come back – just in case.”老人后来透露:“她一个人站了很久,没有父母或朋友过去照顾她。一开始我有些犹豫,所以走了过去,但是我觉得自己必须回头帮助她,万一她走失了呢。”#39;I think the older generation would stop, but very cautiously, a bit like I was. I don#39;t know about the younger generation. A lot of people walked by and didn#39;t take any notice at all.#39;“我认为老一辈的人会停下来的,但是会很小心,就像我一样。我不了解年轻人,他们路过之后就直接走了,一点也不关心。”Mrs Rumsey said she was gobsmacked by seeing her daughters ignored by more than 600 members of the public.女孩的母亲说,看到女儿被600多个行人忽视的时候,震惊极了。Experts said the reluctance of the passers-by was partly explained by people being busy, and partly a fear – especially among men – of any help they offer a child being misinterpreted.专家们表示行人不愿意停下的原因可能是因为太过繁忙。也可能是出于担忧,尤其是男性,给孩子们提供帮助可能会引起误会。But the NSPCC said a child#39;s welfare was more important than worrying about being labelled a #39;stranger danger#39;.但是英国反虐待儿童协会称孩子们的健康比被误解为“不怀好意的陌生人”要重要的多。 /201403/282078If all goes to plan in the coming months, Mike Froman, US trade representative, is set to land arguably the biggest prize in the country’s recent economic history.如果未来几个月一切按计划进行,美国贸易代表迈克#8226;弗罗曼(Mike Froman)即将收获该国近期经济史上可能最重要的奖品。The 12-country Trans-Pacific Partnership, now nearing conclusion almost seven years after the US joined negotiations, is daunting in size and scope and dwarfs the North American Free Trade Agreement with Canada and Mexico that went into effect two decades ago.有12国参与的《跨太平洋伙伴关系协定》(Trans-Pacific Partnership,简称TPP)在美国加入谈判近7年后正接近达成,其规模和范围都很惊人,让20年前生效的美国与加拿大和墨西哥签订的《北美自由贸易协议》(North American Free Trade Agreement)相形见绌。Some 40 per cent of global output will be covered by the TPP, including two of the top three economies in the world (the US and Japan). It will significantly lower tariffs and other trade barriers around the Pacific Rim on everything from rice and steaks to cars and chemicals. It will contain enforceable standards on labour and the environment. It will set benchmarks by delineating rules for state-owned enterprises in the developing world and the digital economy. It will leave rivals in Beijing and Brussels salivating.TPP将涵盖全球约40%的产出,包括全球最大三个经济体中的两个(美国和日本)。它将大大降低环太平洋地区很多商品的关税和其他贸易壁垒,从大米、牛排到汽车和化学品。它将纳入劳动力和环境方面的强制性标准。它将设定基准,为发展中国家的国有企业和数字经济制定规则。它将让中国和欧盟的竞争对手羡慕不已。Yet the TPP is being derided by many inside President Barack Obama’s Democratic party and by the unions it has relied on for its base. At a time when Mr Obama is putting a new “middle-class economics” and the fight against inequality at the centre of his agenda, his push for new trade agreements causes many on his side of politics to squirm.然而,美国总统巴拉克#8226;奥巴马(Barack Obama)所在民主党内部的很多人,以及民主党所仰仗的工会,正嘲笑该协定。在奥巴马将新的“中产阶级经济学”以及反对不平等列为其执政议程核心之际,他对于新的贸易协定的推动,让他所在政治阵营的很多人不安。Such are the politics of trade in the US.这就是美国的贸易政治。The consensus among many Democrats with regard to trade agreements and globalisation is that they have not been kind to the middle class, having contributed to high-paying manufacturing jobs being shipped offshore and wages stagnating.在贸易协定和全球化问题上,很多民主党人的共识是,这些对中产阶层不利,导致高薪制造业工作被外包到海外,并使工资不再增长。Economists such as Joseph Stiglitz and Paul Krugman have raised doubts about TPP. Even as she has made friendly noises on trade, Nancy Pelosi, the powerful Democratic leader in the House of Representatives, has been blunt about the administration’s challenge. “The burden is on [the White House] to demonstrate that this is good for American pay cheques,” she said last week.约瑟夫#8226;斯蒂格利茨(Joseph Stiglitz)和保罗#8226;克鲁格曼(Paul Krugman)等经济学家一直对TPP提出质疑。美国众议院颇有影响力的民主党领袖南希#8226;佩洛西(Nancy Pelosi)在贸易问题上的态度比较友好,但她还是坦率地谈到了奥巴马政府所面临的挑战。她上周表示:“(白宫的)任务是明,这对于美国人的薪资有利。”But, sitting before the brick hearth in his office, a spitting distance from the White House, Mr Froman is resolute.然而,在距离白宫仅一步之遥的地方,坐在办公室砖砌壁炉前的弗罗曼却态度坚决。“We’re doing this to protect American jobs and American workers,” he tells the Financial Times in an interview.他在接受英国《金融时报》采访时表示:“我们这么做是为了保护美国的就业和劳动者。”The TPP is, he argues, a way to open up more markets for US goods and services in fast-growing Asia and to create high-paying jobs at home. It is also a way to level the playing field for American workers by including stronger labour and environmental standards that will be enforceable via trade sanctions. And, with Canada and Mexico included, to deliver on President Obama’s long-ago campaign promise to renegotiate Nafta, something the progressive wing of the Democratic party has long sought.他认为,TPP能够在增长迅速的亚洲为更多美国商品和务打开市场,并在国内创造高薪岗位。它还可以纳入能够通过贸易制裁强制执行的更严格的劳动力和环境标准,为美国劳动者创造公平竞争环境。加拿大和墨西哥的加入,将兑现奥巴马总统很久以前提出的就《北美自由贸易协议》重新谈判的竞选承诺,这是民主党进步派长期以来一直寻求的。“There are a lot of people who raise very legitimate concerns about the impact of globalisation on patterns of production, on jobs, on wages. But I think it’s also important not to conflate globalisation with trade agreements,” Mr Froman says.弗罗曼表示:“很多人就全球化对生产、就业和薪资模式的影响提出了非常合理的担忧。但我认为,同样重要的是,不要把全球化与贸易协议混为一谈。”“Globalisation is a force. It exists. The question is whether we can use trade agreements to shape it, or whether we want to just sit and be shaped by it.”“全球化是一种力量。它是存在的。问题是我们能否利用贸易协议来影响全球化,还是说我们甘愿坐等全球化来影响我们。”The US, he says, needs to be at the forefront of setting global rules of commerce. Countries like China are engaged in their own rival bids to create regional blocs that exclude the US and do not include the sort of rules the US is pursuing on labour, intellectual property or the internet. Ceding ground to such rivals “has got to be worse for American workers and the American middle class than even the status quo”.他表示,美国需要走在制定全球商业规则的前列。中国等国正试图创建竞争性的区域集团,这些集团排斥美国,也排斥美国在劳动力、知识产权或互联网领域所力推的那些规则。“对美国劳动者和美国中产阶级而言”,向这些竞争对手让步“比保持现状更糟糕”。Negotiators from the US, Japan and the 10 other countries in the TPP are involved in almost constant discussions. Obstacles clearly remain and negotiations are tough. But a TPP deal is “a small number of months” away, Mr Froman forecast during a Senate hearing last week.来自美国、日本和其他10个TPP国家的谈判代表正在进行近乎不间断的磋商。障碍显然存在,同时谈判相当艰难。但弗罗曼在上周参议院的一次听会期间预测,达成TPP只有“几个月”之遥。The US has told its partners within the TPP that it wants to complete negotiations before the summer so that an agreement can be put to Congress by the end of 2015 and before the 2016 presidential campaign heats up.美国已告诉其TPP伙伴国,美国希望在今年夏季之前完成谈判,这样协定就可以在2015年底之前递交国会,赶在2016年总统大选升温之前。Amid pitched partisan battles on other issues, importantly the new Republican leadership in Congress says it wants to give Mr Obama the “fast-track” authority he needs to close the TPP and, eventually, a parallel negotiation with the EU.尽管两党正在就其他问题展开激战,但重要的是,国会新任共和党领导层表示,希望赋予奥巴马缔结TPP、以及最终与欧盟完成类似谈判所需的“快车道”授权。Business groups, Republicans and the administration all believe a healthy majority in Congress will back a vote on what is formally called Trade Promotion Authority. Asked whether he expects such a vote to succeed, Mr Froman answers: “Yes”.商业组织、共和党人以及奥巴马政府都认为,国会的绝大多数议员都将持就这项正式名称为“贸易促进授权”(Trade Promotion Authority)的措施投票。在被问及他是否预测投票会成功时,弗罗曼的回答是肯定的。The consensus in the US is that Congress is likely to vote on fast-track authority within two-three months and that a TPP deal will be closed shortly thereafter. Mr Froman’s big moment — the US’s big trade moment — may well be not very far away.美国的共识是,国会可能会在两三个月内就“快车道”授权进行投票,TPP将在之后不久达成。弗罗曼的重大时刻——也是美国贸易的重大时刻——很可能不久就要到来了。 /201502/358690

“UK Border” is the sign that greets passengers arriving at Heathrow. The airport is not on the border. It is in a west London suburb. But the wording carries a message: “You are approaching a barrier. Do not expect an easy time.”游客抵达希思罗机场后,首先映入眼帘的是“英国边境”这个标记。该机场并没有位于英国边境,而是位于伦敦西部郊区。但这样的措辞传递一个信息:“你正在接近一道屏障。别指望轻松过关。”The government’s online visa and immigration page is just as forbidding. This week, below the link to visa applications, were three news stories. The first was about a health surcharge for temporary migrants. The second reported on a London-based Moldovan accountant who was fined for providing unregulated immigration advice. The third said that “nearly 800 foreign criminals are being kicked out of the country”.英国政府的在线签和移民页面也同样令人望而生畏。上周,在签申请链接下面有三条新闻。第一条是关于临时移民的医保附加费。第二条讲的是一名驻伦敦的尔多瓦会计师因提供不受监管的移民建议而被罚。第三条称“近800名外国罪犯被踢出国境”。These are all important issues. But what would it cost, apart from a few buckets of paint and a little computer work, if the government’s information page and the sign at Heathrow — and all Britain’s entry points — said “Welcome to the UK”?这些问题都很重要。但如果英国政府的信息页面以及希思罗机场(乃至英国所有入境口岸)的标记都写上“欢迎来英国”,除了几桶油漆以及少量电脑工作以外,还需要付出什么代价呢?The overwhelming majority of those visiting have no intention of committing crimes or using UK hospitals. They want to do business or have a good time.绝大多数前往英国的游客无意犯罪或利用英国的医院。他们是为了做生意或者玩的开心。But these visitors have been lumped with immigrants. I do not object to immigrants; I am one. But large numbers of Britons do. The Conservatives went into the election repeating their commitment to reduce annual net migration to tens of thousands and they won a majority.但这些游客被英国政府与移民归为一类。我并不反对移民;我就是一个移民。但很多英国人反对。英国保守党在竞选期间再度承诺将每年净移民数量降至数万人,结果该党赢得了议会多数席位。But this government is committed to business too — and tourism is one of the UK’s most important. The industry accounted for 9 per cent of gross domestic product and 10 per cent of employment in 2013, according to figures cited in a Commons committee report in March.但英国政府还致力于商业,而旅游业是英国最为重要的行业之一。根据下议院一个委员会3月一份报告所援引的数据,旅游业占英国2013年国内生产总值(GDP)的9%,就业的10%。Almost one-third of UK jobs created over the past three years have been in tourist-related businesses.在英国过去3年创造的就业中,有近三分之一是在旅游相关企业。Tourists have a choice of countries to visit, and they are put off by being told they are not welcome. Some in the previous and current Tory administration understand this. Battles over the balance between controlling immigration and attracting tourists have pitted top Conservatives against each other.游客是可以选择自己要去哪个国家的,如果被告知自己不受欢迎,他们会产生反感。英国前任和现任保守党政府的一些人明白这点。围绕控制移民与吸引游客之间平衡的分歧,致使保守党高层人物互相对立。For years, the argument was over visas for Chinese visitors. Tourists from China can apply for a Schengen visa, which gives them the right to travel to 26 European countries. They need a separate visa for the UK, which is not party to the Schengen border-free travel agreement.多年来,他们的辩论以中国游客的签申请为焦点。中国的游客可以申请申根签(Schengen),这种签赋予他们在26个欧洲国家旅游的权利。他们需要另外申请一个签才能来英国,英国没有加入取消边境控制的《申根协定》。It is a hassle. Of Chinese travellers to Europe, 94 per cent apply for a Schengen visa only, Paul Barnes of the UK China Visa Alliance lobbying group told me. The group asked the government to agree to joint UK and Schengen visa applications. In 2012, the Financial Times reported that David Cameron and George Osborne, the chancellor, were frustrated that Theresa May, then — as now — home secretary, had not made progress on this.这是个麻烦。游说组织——英国对华签联盟(UK China Visa Alliance)的保罗#8226;巴尔内斯(Paul Barnes)告诉我,在前往欧洲的中国游客中,有94%只申请申根签。该组织促请英国政府同意英国/申根签合并申请。2012年,英国《金融时报》报道称,戴维#8226;卡梅伦(David Cameron)和财政大臣乔治#8226;奥斯本(George Osborne)失望地发现,时任(现在仍担任此职)内政大臣特里萨#8226;梅伊(Theresa May)没有在这方面取得进展。She eventually budged. Chinese tourists can now fill in one form, but they still have to make a special visit to a UK-appointed company to be photographed and fingerprinted.她最终做出了让步。中国游客现在只需填写一张申请表格,但他们仍需专门拜访一家由英国指定的公司进行拍照和录指纹。Ms May also proposed visa restrictions for Brazilians, which she put on hold after protests from cabinet members and Robert Halfon, Tory MP and co-chairman of the British-Brazil parliamentary group.梅伊还曾提议对巴西人实行签限制,在内阁成员以及保守党议员、英国巴西议会组织联合主席罗伯特#8226;哈尔丰(Robert Halfon)提出抗议后,她搁置了该提议。In addition, she abandoned a scheme for a #163;3,000 bond for visitors from India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Kenya, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh.此外,她还放弃了对印度、尼日利亚、巴基斯坦、肯尼亚、斯里兰卡和柬埔寨的游客收取3000英镑押金的计划。All these proposals left a residue of hurt, as have the government’s policies on foreign students at UK universities — like tourism, a sector of great importance to the British economy.所有这些提议都留下了伤痕,就像英国政府针对在英国大学就读的外国留学生的政策那样。与旅游业一样,教育产业对于英国经济也非常重要。The government has included foreign students in its immigration target, in spite of representatives from every corner of UK business asking it not to.英国政府将外国留学生纳入其移民限制目标,尽管英国商界各行各业的代表都请求政府不要这么做。It also restricted the right of foreign graduates to work for a limited period after their degrees. The all-party parliamentary group on migration, which includes Conservatives, said some students were instead going to university in Australia.英国政府还限制了外国毕业生在取得学位后工作一段时间的权利。英国议会跨党派移民小组(包括保守党成员)表示,一些学生转而选择申请澳大利亚的大学。In January, we reported that Mr Osborne had quashed plans by Ms May to clamp down further.今年1月,本报报道称,奥斯本阻止了梅伊提出的进一步限制计划。What will the new government’s direction be? John Whittingdale, the new culture secretary whose brief includes tourism, chaired the committee that produced the report explaining the sector’s importance. Both Mr Osborne and Ms May would like to succeed Mr Cameron. The battles are likely to continue.英国新政府的政策将往何处去?职责范围涵盖旅游业的新任文化大臣约翰#8226;惠廷戴尔(John Whittingdale)曾担任一个委员会的主席,该委员会发表的报告解释了文化产业的重要性。奥斯本和梅伊都希望成为卡梅伦的继任人。角力可能会继续。 /201505/376327

More than 25 million years ago, India, once a separate island on a quickly sliding piece of the Earth’s crust, crashed into Asia. The two land masses are still colliding, pushed together at a speed of 1.5 to 2 inches a year. The forces have pushed up the highest mountains in the world, in the Himalayas, and have set off devastating earthquakes.2500多万年前,印度还是一个快速滑动的板块上的独立岛屿,它与亚洲大陆发生了碰撞。这两个板块仍在继续相撞,每年以1.5到2英寸(约合3.81厘米)的速度相互挤压。这些力量令喜马拉雅山脉形成世界最高的山峰,并引发灾难性的地震。Experts had warned of the danger to the people of Katmandu for decades. The death toll in Nepal on Saturday was practically inevitable given the tectonics, the local geology that made the shaking worse and the lax construction of buildings that could not withstand the shaking.数十年来,专家一直警告加德满都人民要注意这种危险。鉴于地质构造、令地震震动加剧的地质情况,以及建筑物的构造不严谨、抗震能力差,尼泊尔在周六出现的惨重伤亡实际上是不可避免的。GeoHazards International, a nonprofit organization in Menlo Park, Calif., that tries to help poorer, more vulnerable regions like Nepal prepare for disasters, had noted that major earthquakes struck that region about every 75 years.设在加州门洛帕克的非营利组织国际地质灾难协会(GeoHazards International)是一家试图帮尼泊尔等较为贫穷、脆弱的地区为应对灾难做准备的机构。该机构指出,每隔75年,这里就会发生一次大地震。In 1934 — 81 years ago — more than 10,000 people died in a magnitude 8.1 earthquake in eastern Nepal, about six miles south of Mount Everest. A smaller quake in 1988 with a magnitude of 6.8 killed more than 1,000 people.81年前的1934年,在尼泊尔东部距离珠峰大约6英里(约合10公里)的地方发生8.1级地震,共有1万余人丧生。1988年,共有逾1000人在一次规模较小的6.8级地震中丧生。Brian Tucker, president and founder of GeoHazards, said that in the 1990s, his organization predicted that if the 1934 quake were to happen again, 40,000 people would die because of migration to the city where tall, flimsily built buildings would collapse.国际地质灾难协会的总裁兼创始人布莱恩·塔克(Brian Tucker)说,上世纪90年代,他所在的组织曾预测,倘若1934年的地震再次发生,就会造成4万人死亡——这是因为人口在向这座城市迁移,高大而脆弱的建筑物将会坍塌。In an update just this month, GeoHazards wrote, “With an annual population growth rate of 6.5 percent and one of the highest urban densities in the world, the 1.5 million people living in the Katmandu Valley were clearly facing a serious and growing earthquake risk.”国际地质灾难协会在本月的更新信息中写道,“这里的年均人口增长率为6.5%,而且城市密度位于世界最高之列;在这种情况下,住在加德满都谷的150万人明显面临着严重而且越来越大的地震风险。”The organization helped set up a local nonprofit to continue preparations, including the reinforcement of schools and hospitals.该组织协助成立了一个本地非营利组织,以继续进行准备工作,其中包括学校和医院的加固。Saturday’s earthquake occurred to the northwest of Katmandu at a relatively shallow depth, about nine miles, which caused greater shaking at the surface, but at magnitude 7.8, it released less energy than the 1934 quake.周六的地震发生在加德满都西北地区,震源相对较浅,约为9英里,所以地表的震动更加强烈。但是由于震级为7.8级,所以释放的能量比1934年的少。Roger Bilham, a professor of geological sciences at the University of Colorado who has studied the history of earthquakes in that region, said that the shaking lasted one to two minutes, and the fault slipped about 10 feet along the rupture zone, which stretched 75 miles, passing under Katmandu.科罗拉多大学(University of Colorado)地质学教授罗杰·比尔汉姆(Roger Bilham)曾研究过该地区的地震历史,他说,震动持续了一到两分钟,断层沿着断裂带滑动了约10英尺,断裂带长达75英里,从加德满都穿过。The earthquake “translated the whole city southward by 10 feet,” Dr. Bilham said.这场地震“让整个城市向南移动了10英尺”,比尔汉姆士说。Aftershocks as large as magnitude 6.6 have occurred mostly to the northeast of Katmandu.最高达6.6级的余震多数发生在加德满都的东北部。It is possible that the Saturday quake is a preface to an even larger one, but Dr. Bilham said that was unlikely.周六的地震有可能只是更大地震的前奏,但比尔汉姆说可能性并不大。Katmandu and the surrounding valley sit on an ancient dried-up lake bed, which contributed to the devastation. “Very, very soft soil, and the soft soil amplifies seismic motion,” Dr. Tucker said.加德满都和周围的山谷坐落在一个古老而干涸的湖床上,这也是该地区在地震中受到严重损毁的原因之一。“非常非常软的土壤,松软的土壤放大了震动,”塔克士说。Steep slopes in the area are also prone to avalanches like the one that the quake triggered on Mount Everest on Saturday.该地区的陡峭山坡也很容易发生雪崩,就像周六的地震在珠穆朗玛峰上引发的雪崩一样。Katmandu is not the only place where a deadly earthquake has been expected.并非只有加德满都预计会发生致人死亡的地震。Dr. Tucker said Tehran; Haiti; Lima, Peru; and Padang, Indonesia, were similarly vulnerable. In those places, nearby tectonic faults are under strain, and building standards and disaster preparations are seen as inadequate.塔克说,德黑兰、海地、秘鲁利马,以及印度尼西亚巴东同样容易发生地震。这些地方附近的构造断层都处在紧张状态,但建筑标准和灾难预防则似乎不够充分。But not everywhere has been complacent. Over the past 76 years, many earthquakes have occurred along a fault in northern Turkey, starting in the eastern part of the country and progressing west, toward Istanbul. An earthquake in 1999 killed more than 17,000 people, mostly in the city of Izmit, east of Istanbul. The expectation is that the epicenter of the next big earthquake will be in or around Istanbul.不过,并非所有地方都这样麻痹大意。过去76年,土耳其北部的一个断层附近发生了许多地震,该断层从该国的东部开始,朝着伊斯坦布尔的方向,向西部延伸。1999年的一场地震曾导致超过1.7万人遇难,多数遇难者位于伊斯坦布尔东部的伊兹米特市。人们的预期是,下一次大地震的震中将在伊斯坦布尔或其周围。“Istanbul is the place that has been most aggressive in enforcing building codes,” Dr. Tucker said. “I think Istanbul has been doing a good job.”“伊斯坦布尔是执行建筑规范最积极的地方,”塔克说。“我认为伊斯坦布尔做得很不错。” /201504/372169

NEW YORK — A doctor in New York City who recently returned from treating Ebola patients in Guinea tested positive for the Ebola virus Thursday, becoming the city’s first diagnosed case.纽约——一位曾在几内亚医治埃拉病人、近日才回国的纽约医生,周四化验得出埃拉病毒呈阳性,成为纽约市第一个临床诊断病例。The doctor, Craig Spencer, was rushed to Bellevue Hospital Center on Thursday and placed in isolation while health care workers sp out across the city to trace anyone he might have come into contact with in recent days. A further test will be conducted by the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to confirm the initial test.这位名叫克雷格·斯潘瑟(Craig Spencer)的医生周四被紧急送往贝尔维尤医院中心(Bellevue Hospital Center)隔离,与此同时,医护人员在全城展开搜寻,追踪近日和他有接触的人。美国疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)将做进一步的检验以确认这个初步化验结果。While officials have said they expected isolated cases of the disease to arrive in New York eventually, and had been preparing for this moment for months, the first case highlighted the challenges surrounding containment of the virus, especially in a crowded metropolis.官员此前曾预料最终会有个别病例出现在纽约,并已经为此事进行了数月的准备,但首个病例的出现仍然突显了病毒防控上的困难,尤其是在一个人口密集的大城市。Even as the authorities worked to confirm that Mr. Spencer was infected with Ebola, it emerged that he traveled from Manhattan to Brooklyn on the subway on Wednesday night, when he went to a bowling alley, and then took a taxi home.甚至就在当局确认斯潘瑟感染埃拉的时候,已知的情况是他在周三晚上曾乘地铁从曼哈顿前往布鲁克林,他去了那里的一家保龄球馆,而后坐出租车回家。The next morning, he reported having a temperature of 103 degrees, raising questions about his health while he was out in public.第二天上午,他报称自己的体温达到103华氏度(39摄氏度),这让人怀疑他出门在外时身体状况是否正常。People infected with Ebola cannot sp the disease until they begin to display symptoms, and it cannot be sp through the air. As people become sicker, the viral load in the body builds, and they become more and more contagious.感染埃拉病毒的人在出现症状前不具传染性,也不会通过空气传播病毒。随着病情恶化,病人体液内会充满病毒,传染性也就越来越强。Dr. Spencer’s travel history and the timing of the onset of his symptoms led health officials to dispatch disease detectives, who “immediately began to actively trace all of the patient’s contacts to identify anyone who may be at potential risk,” according to a statement released by the department.考虑到斯潘瑟的行程记录和症状出现的时间,卫生官员已经派出疾病侦查人员。据市卫生署的一份声明称,侦查人员“旋即开始积极追踪病人的所有联系人,以发现潜在威胁”。It was unclear if the city was trying to find people who might have come into contact with Dr. Spencer on the subway. The Metropolitan Transportation Authority directed all questions to the health department, which did not immediately respond to requests for comment on the issue.目前尚不清楚政府是否会寻找在地铁上和斯潘瑟有接触的人。大都会运输署(Metropolitan Transportation Authority)将所有问题转给了卫生署,后者没有立即对置评请求做出回应。At Dr. Spencer’s apartment in Harlem, his home was sealed off and workers distributed informational fliers about the disease. It was not clear if anyone was being quarantined.斯潘瑟位于哈林区的公寓已经被封锁,工作人员分发了有关该疾病的传单。目前尚不清楚是否有人被隔离。Health authorities declined to say how many people in total might have come into contact with Dr. Spencer while he was symptomatic.卫生部门拒绝透露斯潘瑟出现症状以后一共接触过多少人。Mayor Bill de Blasio, speaking at a news conference Thursday evening before the diagnosis, said Dr. Spencer has given health workers a detailed accounting of his activities over the last few days.周四晚间在做出诊断前,市长白思豪(Bill de Blasio)在一次新闻发布会上说,斯潘瑟已经向医护人员详细回忆了过去几天的活动。“Our understanding is that very few people were in direct contact with him,” Mr. de Blasio said.“据我们了解,和他有过直接接触的人非常少,”白思豪说。Dr. Spencer had been working with Doctors Without Borders in Guinea, treating Ebola patients, before returning to New York City on Oct. 14, according to a city official.据一位市政府官员称,斯潘瑟一直在几内亚与无国界医生组织(Doctors Without Borders)合作治疗埃拉病人,直到10月14日回到纽约。He told the authorities that he did not believe the protective gear he wore while working with Ebola patients had been breached but had been monitoring his own health.他对当局说,他不认为他在治疗埃拉病人期间穿戴的防护装备出现了问题,但是一直在监测自己的健康状况。Doctors Without Borders, in a statement, said it provides guidelines for its staff members on their return from Ebola assignments, but did not elaborate on those protocols.无国界医生组织在一份声明中说,该组织会向结束埃拉任务后返回的成员提供指导意见,但没有具体说明规程的细节。“The individual engaged in regular health monitoring and reported this development immediately,” the group said in a statement.“该成员进行了定期的健康监测,并在发现状况后立即上报,”该组织在声明中说。Bellevue doctors have prepared for an Ebola patient with numerous drills and tests using “test patients” as well as actual treatment of suspected cases that turned out to be false alarms.贝尔维尤的医生针对收治埃拉病人已经进行过多次演练,对“模拟病患”进行化验,同时还对疑似病例进行了实际的治疗,但后来明这些病例都是虚惊一场。A health care worker at the hospital said that Dr. Spencer seemed very sick, and it was unclear to the medical staff why he had not gone to the hospital earlier, since his fever was high.一位医院的医护人员说,斯潘瑟看上去病情很严重,医护人员不清楚他为什么没有更早入院,因为他烧得很厉害。Dr. Spencer is a fellow of international emergency medicine at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center, and an instructor in clinical medicine at Columbia University.斯潘瑟是纽约长老会医院(New York -Presbyterian Hospital)/哥伦比亚大学医疗中心(Columbia University Medical Center)的国际急救医疗研究员,并在哥伦比亚大学(Columbia University)任临床医学讲师。“He is a committed and responsible physician who always puts his patients first,” the hospital said in a statement. “He has not been to work at our hospital and has not seen any patients at our hospital since his return from overseas.”“他是一位专注而负责的医师,一贯把病人摆在第一位,”医院在一份声明中说。“从国外归来后,他未曾回到我院工作,也没有在我院为任何病人看过病。”Even before the diagnosis, the Centers for Disease Control dispatched a team of experts to assist in the case, before the test results were even known.在诊断作出前,疾控中心就已经派出一个专家组为该病例提供协助,当时还不知道化验结果。The authorities have been on high alert ever since Thomas Eric Duncan traveled to the ed States in September from Liberia, and was later given a diagnosis of Ebola.自九月托马斯·埃里克· 邓肯(Thomas Eric Duncan)从利比里亚来到美国,随后被诊断感染埃拉以来,当局一直保持高度警惕。Mr. Duncan died at a Dallas hospital this month.邓肯本月在达拉斯一家医院病逝。Several days after his death, a nurse who helped care for Mr. Duncan learned she had Ebola. Two nurses who treated Mr. Duncan fell ill but have since recovered.在他去世几天后,一位曾参与看护邓肯的护士得知她感染了埃拉。两名参与邓肯治疗的护士也染病,后得以康复。That single case led to hundreds of people being quarantined or being asked to remain isolated from the general public..那一个病例导致数百人被隔离,或被要求不要进入公共场所。The missteps by both local and federal authorities in handling the nation’s first Ebola case raised questions about the ability of health care workers to safely treat those with the disease.地方和联邦当局在全国第一宗埃拉病例的处理上出现的问题,让人们怀疑医护人员是否有能力在应对该疾病时确保自身安全。In the New York City region, hospitals and emergency workers have been preparing for the appearance of the virus for months.在纽约市地区,医院和急救人员已经为病毒的出现做了数月的准备。Dr. Irwin Redlener, the director of the National Center for Disaster Preparedness at Columbia University and a special adviser to Mayor de Blasio, said that the risk to the general public was minimal, but depended on a city moving swiftly.哥伦比亚大学国家疾病准备中心主任、白思豪的特别顾问埃尔文·瑞德雷纳(Irwin Redlener)说,目前对公众构成的威胁微乎其微,但这座城市需要迅速行动起来。“New York has mobilized not only a world-class health department, but has full engagement of many other agencies that need to be on the response team,” he said.“纽约不只是动员了一个世界级的卫生署,反应团队中的很多其他部门也是全力投入的,”他说。 /201410/338309

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