2019年08月24日 18:10:07|来源:国际在线|编辑:百度互动
Women are shunning academic careers in math-intensive fields because the lifestyle is incompatible with motherhood, researchers at Cornell University found in a study to be published next month in American Scientist Magazine.康奈尔大学的研究人员发现,女性很少在数学相关领域从事学术研究工作是因为女数学教授的生活方式和母亲的身份相冲突。这一研究将于下个月在《美国科学家杂志》上发表。Universities have long been criticized for hiring and evaluation policies that discriminate against women, but the findings of this new study point to the female biological clock as a main reason why so few women end up as professors in fields such as math, engineering, physics and computer science.长期以来,大学一直因为歧视女性的聘用和考评政策而受到抨击,然而这一新研究的发现指出,女性生物钟是女性很少在数学、工程学、物理学和计算机科学等专业担任教授的主要原因。A woman who wants a family looks at the rigorous path to a tenured position and considers how old she will be before she can start a family and how little time she will have to raise her children. Many of those women opt for a more flexible career.当一个渴望拥有家庭的女性看到通往终身教授职位的道路是如此严苛,想到自己成为教授后再生育时年纪已经很大,抚养小孩的时间也很少,于是许多女性就选择了更有弹性的职业。;Universities have been largely inflexible about anything other than the standard time table, which is you kill yourself for years and only then would you consider getting pregnant,; said Wendy Williams, a human development professor at Cornell who co-authored the study with her husband, Stephen Ceci.康奈尔大学的人类发展学教授温迪bull;威廉姆斯和她的丈夫斯蒂芬bull;赛西共同撰写了这一研究报告。她说:;大学除了课程设置比较灵活外,其他很多方面都很僵化,也就是说,你要熬很多年才能得到稳定职位,才能考虑怀生子。;Williams and Ceci analyzed data about the academic careers of men and women with and without children. Before women became mothers, they had careers equivalent to or more successful than their male peers. But once children entered the equation, the dynamic changed.威廉姆斯和赛西分析了男性和女性(有孩子和没孩子)的学术生涯相关资料。在女性成为母亲之前,她们的职业和同行业的男性一样成功,甚至更成功。但是一旦有了孩子,这一态势就发生了变化。Women in other academic fields such as the humanities and social sciences face similar hurdles and often leave academia as well. But because there are so many women in those Ph.D. programs, enough ultimately stay to amount to a critical mass of female professors.在人文学科和社会科学等其他学术领域里,女性面临着同样的障碍,她们也往往因此离开学术界。但由于攻读人文社科类士学位的女性很多,所以才有足够的女性最终留下来成为女教授,使这些领域的女教授数量达到一定规模。In math-heavy fields, however, women make up a tiny minority of the graduate students. So when the rare few who make it through a Ph.D. program leave because universities are insensitive to their needs as mothers, the net result is virtually no women represented on faculty rosters, the study said.不过,在数学相关领域里,女性只占据研究生的很小一部分。因此,研究指出,当极少数获得士学位的女性又因为大学对自己生儿育女的需要漠不关心而离开,其最终结果就是,没有几位女性能跻身理科教授行列。 /201202/171942In an interview about the impact of Samsung#39;s Galaxy S4 on Apple (AAPL), Anouch Seydtaghi, deputy economics editor for the Swiss newspaper Le Temps, asked Asymco#39;s Horace Dediu what seemed like a perfectly reasonable question:就三星(Samsung)Galaxy S4对苹果(Apple)造成的影响,瑞士报纸《时报》(Le Temps)财经版副主编阿诺和?赛德塔基采访了美国数据调查机构Asymco的贺拉斯?德迪乌,而且问了一个似乎非常合理的问题:Q: Can Apple regain the lead in the smartphone market? If yes, how?问:苹果能否夺回在智能手机市场的领先地位?怎样做才有可能?Dediu responded, characteristically, with a chart:秉承一贯风格,德迪乌用一幅图表给出了回答:A: Apple had leadership in the phone market for two quarters (see graphic).答:苹果曾领导手机市场两个季度(见图表)。It#39;s a myth to think that Apple was dominant for any extended period of time. The top spot is very difficult to obtain unless a company has a large portfolio of products which are sold in all markets. Apple has less than half the operator distribution of Samsung and keeps only one new product in the market each year.认为苹果曾长期主导市场不过是错觉。除非某家公司的产品阵容庞大,而且在所有市场销售,否则要想登上头把交椅相当困难。苹果手机的运营商销售网络尚不足三星的一半,而且苹果每年仅推出一款新产品。Apple also has a very high price due to the distribution model it uses for the iPhone. The primary buyers are operators who made large volume purchase commitments a few years ago. The iPhone strategy can be summarized as ;skimming; where they pick the most profitable customers rather than ;penetration; where there is a focus on market share. It#39;s therefore very surprising that Apple was able to ship as many phones as it did.此外,苹果采用的分销模式使得iPhone的价格极高。它的主要买家是几年前做出大批量购买承诺的运营商。iPhone的定价战略可概括为“撇脂法”,只瞄准最能带来盈利的客户,而不是注重市场占有率的“渗透法”。因此,苹果能有如今这样的出货量已经很令人惊讶了。 /201303/231020China Mobile plans 100 3G launches China Mobile, the world's biggest wireless operator by subscribers, wants to introduce more than a hundred new phone models in China by the end of the year to entice more of its users to switch to third-generation services, its chairman Wang Jianzhou said.Mr Wang said China Mobile, which has a user base of 493m, “still has a lot of room to develop” value-added services, such as music and games downloads, but is stymied by a lack of advanced devices that support China's home-grown TD-SCDMA standard for 3G services.“There are some [TD-SCDMA handsets] currently but the volume is limited. What we need is millions and tens of millions [of handsets],” Mr Wang said.While still the biggest of China's three telecommunications operators, China Mobile's grip on its market has slowly slipped since Beijing restructured the sector last year. China Mobile, which in December was still signing up nine of every 10 new subscribers in China, said last week its share of new subscribers dropped to 60 per cent.This was partly because China Mobile was given a licence to operate a network using the untested TD-SCDMA technology while its two smaller rivals, China Telecom and China Unicom, were granted licences for more established international 3G standards. Mr Wang denied criticisms that technical problems with the network were hampering growth.While there are more than 7,000 phone models that support GSM, the most popular mobile phone standard, as of June there were only 50 TD-SCDMA handset models, Mr Wang said. He hopes that number will rise to 200 models by the end of the year, and is turning to Taiwanese manufacturers to fill that gap.China Mobile will work with Taiwan's HTC to develop smartphones and will fund part of the research and development costs, Mr Wang said. HTC is the world's biggest maker of phones using Microsoft's Windows Mobile platform.HTC is expected to release a customised version of the Magic, a smartphone running on Google's Android platform, in China this year. Mr Wang said China Mobile planned to launch five more HTC models next year.Mr Wang also said he “has great expectations of MediaTek”, Taiwan's chip design company, the biggest supplier of mobile phone chips to China. MediaTek plans to launch its first chips for smartphones soon.China Mobile also announced that it would launch smartphones made by Dell, the world's number two computer maker, and Lenovo, China's biggest PC maker. Mr Wang said China Mobile was keen to launch more netbooks and electronic ers. /200908/82349

If you have ever been caught in the rain without an umbrella you should appreciate this innovative lamppost - because it doubles as a shelter.如果你曾有过下雨天忘带伞的经历,那么你一定会喜欢这款革新式的路灯:它既能照明,又能挡雨。The Lampbrella has been designed for those of us who get caught short by the elements.这款“伞灯”是专为那些被大雨淋得猝不及防而手中又没有装备的人士设计的。Naturally, the clever device would be particularly helpful in Britain#39;s unpredictable forecasts.事实上,这款设计放在以毫无征兆的降雨而闻名的英国应该尤其合适。When the canopy#39;s sensors detect rainfall the umbrella is deployed and if it is left unused for two minutes it will close again.当灯罩上的传感器感受到雨点时,伞盖便会自动展开。而当没人使用时,2分钟之后它会自动回收。The Lampbrella#39;s canopy, with a diameter of 7ft 2in and installed 6ft 5in from the ground, could comfortably shelter 10 to 12 people.“伞灯”的伞盖直径为7英尺2英寸(约合2.18米),高度为离地6英尺5英寸(约合1.96米),能轻易容纳下10-12个人。Belyaev, 27, from St Petersburg, Russia, said: #39;Once I was driving on a street in St Petersburg and saw the street lamps illuminating people trying to hide from the rain.来自俄罗斯圣彼得堡的27岁年轻人Bleyaev说道:“有次我在圣彼得堡的道路上开车时,看到街灯照射下的人们正遍地寻找可以避雨的地方,”#39;I thought it would be appropriate to have a canopy built into a streetlamp. When it starts raining, the sensors sen d a signal to the electric drive, which opens the umbrella at a safe low speed.’“于是我就想:如果能把伞罩做进路灯里就好了。当天上开始下雨的时候,传感器向电驱动发送信号,从而能缓缓地展开雨伞。”#39;The umbrella then closes when a 360-degree motion sensor doesn#39;t ‘see#39; any people under the canopy for 2 minutes.#39;“而当这个360度的全方位传感器发现伞下没有路人避雨时,便会在2分钟之后缓缓关闭。”Designer Mikhail Belyaev said he may opt for an alternative button operated system as it is currently in its concept stage.设计师Mikhail Belyaev他可能会选择一个备用按钮驱动的方案。因为这项设计还处于概念状态。The freelance Russian designer has aly had interest in his product from a number of companies, and he hopes to begin production work on the Lampbrella in the next few months.很多公司已经对这位来自俄罗斯的自由设计师的想法表示了兴趣。他希望能在接下来的几个月开始将概念设计推向生产。Belyaev added: #39;I#39;d like to see Lampbella installed all over the world - but it is necessary to solve all aspects of its safety first.他说道:“我希望伞灯能遍及全世界-当然,前提是确保它的各方面安全。”#39;I think it would be useful almost in every country, but especially in rainy England perhaps - I#39;d love to see it in London.“我想它对任何一个国家来说都会很有用,尤其是在多雨的英国——真希望伦敦也能装上它们。”#39;From the comments I have received, people really like it, I didn#39;t expect good such reaction.#39;“从收到的来看,人们很欢迎这个设计。说实话我自己都没料到它会这么受欢迎!” /201207/190923

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