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玻尿酸隆鼻多少钱赣州韩美赣州俪人整形美容医院治疗太田痣怎么样赣州俪人整形美容医院日晒斑怎么样 Women smoking - they've overtaken men in the habit in the north east partly because of influences on girls which are 'more insidious than mere peer pressure'. 英国东北部的女性比男性更嗜好抽烟,部分由于女性“对社交压力更敏感”。  Their survey has just found that women smokers now outnumber men in the region, which according to Dr Andrew Russell of the uni's Institute of Hazard, Risk and Resilienceis globally rare. Stress and its worsening by recession almost certainly play a part, but why more on women? What other causes may there be? Andrew Russell. 士进行了一项“危害、风险和恢复力”的调查,调查结果发现,女性吸烟人数在该地区已经超过男性,而这一现象在全球非常罕见。由于经济不景气而造成的巨大压力是导致吸烟人数上升的一大原因,但为什么增多的吸烟者会是女性?这背后还有什么其他原因吗? A public discussion tomorrow, Tuesday, organised by the institute and Durham city's Forum for Health hopes to make some progress in finding out. It's being held at the Dales Suite, Collingwood College, Durham University and organisers are looking for leads to new empirical studies, as well as giving their own opinions and hearing others. 学院组织了一次公开讨论会,将于明天即周二展开。达拉谟城市的健康搜查论坛希望经过这次讨论会,能够对导致女性吸烟人数居高不下的原因有所发现。此次讨论会选址于达拉谟大学考林伍德学院中的Dales套房,发起者们希望能探讨出一条引领大家通往新的实研究的道路,同时也将在会议中表达各自的观点、聆听他人的想法。 Here's what Dr Russell says in advance: 下面是Russell士的事先讲话:  "Men's smoking rates have declined dramatically over the past few years in the north east and now appear to be lower than the national average. Women's have not declined nearly so fast - they appear to have plateaued at a level higher than the national average.”  “近几年,东北地区的男性吸烟率已大幅下降,目前已降至英国平均吸烟率以下。而女性吸烟率并没有这么迅速的削减,目前已大致稳定在一个高于平均吸烟率的水平。”  “Smoking rates are highest in areas of greatest economic deprivation and also go up in times of recession.We need to consider whether for some women, smoking is a response to stress in their lives,one of the few 'pleasures' that are relatively easily acquired.”  “那些经济匮乏最严重的地区往往也是吸烟率最高的地区,并且随着经济衰退吸烟率逐渐上升。我们要考虑的是,对于女性而言,她们是否将吸烟作为生活压力的一种应对方式,一种少有的又较易获得的方式。”  "but the tobacco industry has had a large part to play in encouraging more women to take up smoking by perpetuating the myth of smoking as glamorous, risqué and a form of defiance.New brands come out all the time specifically aimed at women."  "但是烟草业却在诱使更多女性吸烟方面有着很大功劳,他们素来将吸烟这一行为美化成迷人而又叛逆的。针对女性的烟草品牌也总是层出不穷地出现。”  "We're proposing a cross-cultural study looking at women's relationship to tobacco in other societies in order to understand how best to tackle the situation in the North East of England. I'll be outlining my plans at the meeting."  “我们提出了一个跨文化的课题,主要关于其他社会中女性与吸烟的关系,我们希望以此来了解怎样能最便利地解决英国东北地区的情况。届时我会在讨论中列举出我的具体计划。”  His colleague Dr Sue Lewis has meanwhile specialised on trying to find out why women and girls are getting the habit so young. She says:  同时,他的同事Sue Lewis士,正在研究女性和女孩养成这一陋习如此之早的原因。  "We need to understand the particular issues faced by young smokers – and those trying not to be smokers – in disadvantaged communities; what particular pressures they faced when they started smoking, what factors encouraged continued smoking and what makes it particularly difficult to quit. ”  “我们要了解年轻吸烟者所面临的具体问题,以及那些生活在贫困地区的不想成为烟鬼的人们。究竟是什么样的压力让他们开始吸烟?又是什么样的因素促使他们持续不断地吸?让戒烟变得如此之难?” /201110/158982赣州医院去疤痕多少钱

赣州俪人整形美容整形科Employees working at foreign-funded companies are likely to receive the highest average annual bonuses, followed by staff at state-owned enterprises, private companies, government departments and government-funded institutions, an online survey initiated by China Youth Daily has found.由《中国青年报》发起的一项网络调查显示,外企员工年终奖平均最高,其次是国企、民企、政府机关,最后是事业单位。Of all the 3,926 people surveyed, 36.2 percent said that their annual bonus is a major factor in their workplace satisfaction and helps to determine whether or not they will change jobs in the coming year.共有3926人参与了调查,其中36.2%的受访者表示,年终奖是衡量工作满意度的一个重要方面,年终奖的多少,会成为自己来年是否换工作的重要参考。 /201112/165826南康市切双眼皮多少钱 AIRLINES are wonderful generators of profit-for everyone except themselves. Even in good times their margins are as thin as a boarding pass, and in recent years they have more often lost money (see chart). Averaged over the past four decades, the net profit margin of the world#39;s airlines, taken together, has been a measly 0.1%. By contrast, other bits of the travel business that depend on the airlines-such as aircraft-makers, travel agents, airports, caterers and maintenance firms-have done very nicely.航空公司的生意带来大量的利润,但自己却所赚无几。即使在经济繁荣的时期,他们的利润空间也少得可怜。近几年来,航空公司常常亏本(见图表)。过去的四十年中,把全球航空公司算在一起,平均的总净利润率只有极其微薄的0.1%。相比之下,其他依赖航空公司生存的旅游业务却表现突出,如飞机制造商,旅行社,机场,餐饮业和负责维修的公司等。Some of the tastiest margins in the travel business are enjoyed by the ;global distribution systems; (GDSs), a fancy name for computerised-reservations services. These were originally created by several of the largest airlines to distribute their flights through travel agencies but have since become independent firms. Most flights booked through a physical or online travel agent go through a GDS, which charges the airline a fee of about per round trip, passing a few dollars of that to the travel agent. According to Take Travel Forward, an airlines#39; lobby group, the world#39;s carriers pay billion in GDS fees a year-more than double their expected net profits this year of billion.旅游生意里最丰厚的利润被;全球分销系统;(简称GDS)所独享。全球分销系统是电脑预定务,它原本由几家大型航空公司组建以通过旅行社来销售班机票务,但现已成为独立的公司。大多数的航班是由实体或网上旅行社通过全球分销系统所预定,一次往返行程要收取航空公司12美元的费用,其中要分几美元给旅行社。据航空公司的游说团体;Take Travel Forward;表示,全球的航空公司每年要付70亿美元给GDS, 这是他们期待今年达到30亿美元纯利润的一倍多。The airlines#39; chronic unprofitability is partly the result of a wave of competition-especially from new low-cost carriers-unleashed by the steady deregulation of aviation since the 1970s. But it is also due to two moves by the airlines, from the 1990s onwards, that in retrospect were strategic errors. One was to stop paying direct commissions to travel agents. The other was to set the reservation systems free to become (as the airlines see it) profit-gobbling monsters that devour their parents.长期以来,航空公司盈利少的部分原因是自20世纪70年代起取消航空规范管理所竞争的结果,尤其是来自新成立的低成本航空公司的压力。但从20世纪90年代起,航空公司自己的两大战略错误也恶化了这一局面。其一是停止直接付佣金给旅行社,其二使预订系统免费(如航空公司认为的)使其成为攫取利润的怪兽,正要吞噬它的衣食父母。At the dawn of the internet age, airlines assumed that the middlemen who came between them and their passengers were headed for extinction. Travellers would eventually buy tickets either from the airlines#39; own websites or from price-comparison engines which hooked up directly to the airlines#39; computers over the web. So why pay commissions to agents? And why continue to own reservation systems, especially since regulators had stopped them from fiddling with travel agents#39; GDS screens to place their own flights at the top? So Lufthansa, Air France and Iberia sold most of their shares in Amadeus (the largest GDS); American Airlines sold Sabre; British Airways and KLM sold out of Galileo; and so on.在互联网时代之初,航空公司认为他们和乘客之间的中间商即将出局。旅客们会从航空公司自己的网站上或从和航空公司计算机直接相连的价格比较引擎上直接购票。那么,为什么还要付给代理商佣金呢?为什么还要继续拥有自己的预订系统,特别是由于监管机构已经禁止他们与旅行社协议将自家的航班放在GDS屏幕的最上方。因此,汉莎航空、法航和伊比利亚出售其拥有的艾玛迪斯(全球最大的分销系统)的股份;美国航空公司出售Sabre,英国航空公司和荷兰皇家航空出售Galileo等等。However, the loss of direct commission from airlines made travel agents more beholden to the GDSs, which not only slip them a share of fees but also provide their back-office computing. Many online travel agencies have come to resemble physical ones, signing up with a GDS which provides a reservations system and other computing power while handing them a commission (ultimately paid by the airlines) on every booking. Despite airlines#39; efforts to make travellers bypass agents and come to their own websites, less than half of flights are booked this way.旅行社失去了从航空公司获得的直接佣金,转而更加依赖全球分销系统,这不仅使他们失去了一部分的所得,同时还要提供后台计算。许多在线旅行社都像实体店一样,和GDS签署了协议,提供预约系统和其他电脑计算,同时每有一笔订单还要交付一部分佣金(最终由航空公司买单)。尽管航空公司努力使旅客绕过旅行社直接到他们的网站预订,但不足半数的航班票是采用这种方式预订的。Some airlines have thrown in the towel and let a GDS take over the running of all their in-house systems for handling passengers-in some cases, even their websites. Bookings on BA.com, for example, are handled by Amadeus. Some low-cost carriers, such as easyJet, which had at first refused to use GDSs have relented. This is because they want to reach high-value business flyers, who often make bookings through corporate travel agents—which, in turn, use a GDS to compile their itineraries.一些航空公司已经认输,让GDS接管其内部乘客系统的运行。在某些情况下,甚至还包括他们的网站。例如,在BA.com上的预订已由艾玛迪斯运行。一些低成本航空公司,如易捷航空,在最开始拒绝使用GDS系统,而现在已经动心了。这是因为他们想要拿到高价值的商业单,这些人往往通过企业代理旅行社预订,最为交换,易捷航空现在用GDS编写行程单。Although there are some big emerging travel markets, such as Brazil and India, where the GDSs#39; grip is weaker, in others they have been successful in signing up new agents and airlines. China#39;s government is nurturing a state-owned version, TravelSky. The middlemen the airlines wanted to do away with remain comfortably entrenched.虽然,在一些大的新兴旅游市场,如巴西和印度,全球分销系统的控制力还较弱。在其他的国家,GDS已经成功地签了新的旅行社和航空公司。中国政府正在扶持一个国有的分销系统:民航(Travelsky)。航空公司希望剔除中间商的想法根深蒂固。In recent years the main hope for restoring airline profitability has been ancillaries: all those extra charges for meals, checked bags, less-cramped seats and the like. The trouble is, carriers grumble, the GDSs#39; computer systems have struggled to cope with them, which makes it hard to flog such extras to passengers who book through agents. Like other airline chiefs, Qatar Airways#39; boss, Akbar Al Baker, complains of GDSs#39; slowness in updating their systems to cope with all these options, but he admits that they cannot do without the GDSs because they provide such a big share of their reservations.近年来,航空公司一直视附加务为盈利的最大希望:在餐点、托运行李、宽敞的座位上收取额外的费用等。航空公司抱怨道,问题是,全球分销系统的电脑系统却不能满足这些选择,这就使得想在通过旅行社订票的旅客身上收取额外的费用难上加难。和其他航空公司的老板一样,卡塔尔航空公司的老板贝克尔(Akbar Al Baker)先生抱怨全球分销系统更新缓慢,不能处理这些选项,但他也承认,他们离不了全球分销系统,因为它为公司提供的订单所占份额很大。American Airlines, Air Canada and a few other carriers have tried to do so, by setting up a ;direct connect; service, by which travel agents (physical or online) can bypass the GDSs and hook up to the airline#39;s internal system to book both the basic flight and extras. To get any traction with this, the carriers are having to revert to paying agents commission-though less than they pay the GDSs. So far agents have mostly stuck with the GDSs: rebuilding their IT systems to make direct connections to airlines is expensive, and their contracts with GDSs may make it costly too.美国航空、加拿大航空和其它一些航空公司已经尝试通过设立;直接连接;的务,通过旅行社(实体店或网店)绕过全球分销系统,和该航空公司的内部系统相连,可以预定都基本航班和附加务。为此,航空公司要重新付佣金给旅行社—虽然这笔钱比付给GDS 的数额要少。但目前为止,代理商深陷全球分销系统之中:要重建他们的IT系统,和航空公司直接连接耗价巨大,但他们与全球分销系统所定的合同也价值不菲。The search is on搜索在继续Hoping to solve these problems, the airlines#39; international association, IATA, is working on a grandly titled ;new distribution capability;. One of its main elements will be a common technical standard for direct-connect services. The GDSs could make use of such services, so as to sell the airlines#39; full range of extras as well as just flights. But perhaps of more interest to the airlines is that it would become easier for travel agents to build computer systems that deal directly with airlines. It would also become easier for search engines to scour the web for flights, assemble a list of options for travellers, then let them click through to the website of their chosen airline to complete the booking—again without a GDS#39;s involvement.为了解决这些问题,航空公司国际组织:国际航空运输协会, 正致力于一个名为;新分销能力;的宏大项目。它的主旨之一是为直接联系务建立一个共同技术标准。全球分销系统也可以利用这些务,从而为航空公司销售各类附加务,或者仅仅只是提供订票务。但,也许航空公司更感兴趣的是,它使得旅行社建立电脑系统和航空公司相连变得容易了许多。同时,也使得搜索引擎可以更加容易地搜索网页上的航班信息,形成列表提供给旅客,旅客们可以通过在网站上点击经它们筛选过的航班完成预定—在这过程中,没有GDS的参与。Such a service is aly offered by Google (which has bought ITA, an airline-software firm, and Frommer#39;s, a guidebook publisher, as part of its push into the travel business). The airlines hope that common technical standards will also encourage the creation of lots of innovative new travel-search firms. Adam Wood, an analyst at Morgan Stanley, is sceptical: it would be hugely expensive for any new entrant to replicate the existing GDSs#39; heavy spending on technology: the need for such investment makes flight distribution a business that naturally tends towards an oligopoly, he reckons.谷歌现已提供此类务(Google购买了已经购买了航空软件公司ITA和指南出版商Frommer,作为进军旅游业务的一部分)。航空公司希望共同技术标准也将促进更多的新型旅行搜索公司的诞生。根士丹利的分析师亚当#8226;伍德对此表示怀疑:任何新晋企业想要复制全球分销系统,都要在技术上投入大量资金。对投资的需求会使得航班分销生意趋于寡头垄断,他做出如上预测。IATA hopes to have its new technical standards agreed by the end of the year-though as a rule, getting airlines to agree on such things is tricky. Then there would be the problem of implementation; the industry, like every other, has seen ambitious IT projects fail disastrously. Suppose that IATA does persuade hundreds of airlines to agree on the new technical standards, and successfully build computer systems that run on them. Even then, admits Gary Doernhoefer, an IATA official, the GDSs#39; grip on the industry may not change much without regulatory action to unpick their cosy agreements with travel agents.国际航空运输协会希望今年底可以通过新的技术标准。尽管这是条规则,但想获得航空公司的同意却有些棘手。随后还要面临着实施这条规则的问题:航空行业和其他行业一样,都曾经历过大型IT项目惨败的结局。假设国际航空运输协会说了数航空公司同意新的技术标准,并成功地建立了运行的电脑系统。即使这样,如若不消除航空公司和旅行社之间联系紧密的协议, 全球分销系统对整个行业的控制可能也不会发生太大的变化,国际航空运输协会官员加里承认道。Regulators are indeed looking into the issue. An investigation into the GDSs by America#39;s Department of Justice is quietly ticking over, and the European Commission is reviewing its code of conduct for them. Meanwhile, two of America#39;s big carriers have taken GDSs to court over the tactics they use to maintain their hold over travel agents. American Airlines#39; case against Sabre is due to begin in a Texas state court in October. AA has also filed suits in federal courts against Sabre and Travelport (which owns Galileo and Worldspan and part-owns Orbitz, an online travel agency), as has US Airways against Sabre.监管机构确实在调查这方面的问题。美国司法部正在调查全球分销系统,欧洲委员会也在审查他们的行为准则。同时,美国两大航空公司已经将GDS告上法庭,控告他们使用不正当手法控制旅行社。美国航空公司对Sabre的这场官司将于10月在得克萨斯州法开庭。美国航空还在联邦法院对Sabre和Travelport(拥有Galileo和Worldspan,和部分线上旅行社Orbitz的股份)提起诉讼,The GDSs, meanwhile, are lobbying America#39;s Department of Transportation to force airlines to include ;core; extras (such as bag fees and check-in charges) in the fares they e to the GDSs, to make for fairer comparisons with carriers that offer all-inclusive fares. Cory Garner, a senior executive at AA, says that in principle his airline is more than happy to provide such information, but its main worry is that the lobbying will prompt the government to lay down overly prescriptive rules on how it is provided. IATA and other airline associations fear a worse outcome: that they may be banned from offering any exclusive fares or promotions to agents which book directly rather than through a GDS. The department is expected to announce any rule changes in November.与此同时,GDS游说美国运输部强制航空公司在给 GDS的费用中加上;核心;费用(如行李费和检查费),这可以更加公平地对比航空公司之间的完全报价。美国航空高级管理人员科里#8226;加纳表示:原则上,他所在的航空公司很乐意提供这样的信息,但仍有疑虑,游说组织将促使政府下达过于规定性的条约:规定怎么提供这些方式。国际航空运输协会和航空公司担心更坏的结果:旅客直接订票而不是通过GDS来订票,它们可能会被禁止向代理结构提供任何额外的费用或者增额。运输部预计在11月份宣布变化的条规。Both sides can claim to be the consumer#39;s champion. The airlines argue that the cost of the middlemen adds to the price of tickets (though the superficial evidence suggests that it is airline shareholders who suffer). They say they want to reform the distribution system to offer flyers a wider choice and a more individually tailored service. The GDSs argue that they provide travellers, through their agents, with impartial comparisons of all available flights, allowing them to get the best value.双方都宣称选择自己是消费者的胜利。航空公司认为,中间商的成本增加了机票的价格(虽然从表面上看吃亏的是航空公司的股东)。他们表示想要改革分配制度,给旅客提供更广泛的选择和更个性化的务。GDS表示通过他们的代理人,提供给旅客所有航班的之间公平的比较,使得旅客能够获得最好的价值。Svend Leirvaag, an executive at Amadeus, argues that it#39;s a pity the airlines fixate so much on GDS fees, which at around 2% of their revenues are much less than the money the industry could save by fighting such things as ever-increasing travel taxes and the unfair subsidies that prop up some state-owned carriers. The airlines are lobbying for these things too, but they would still like to cut the cost of the middlemen.艾玛迪斯的主管斯文拉瓦格(音译Leirvaag)表示很遗憾:航空公司总是盯着GDS费用不放,但是这些费用只占航空公司总收入的2%,它们可以通过减少不断增长的航空税和不不公平的补贴来节省钱,这都比给GDS的钱要多得多。那些不公平的补贴持了一些国有的航空公司。航空公司也在为这些而游说,但是他们仍然专注于减少在中间商身上的开销。 /201209/197585赣州去黑眼圈手术哪家医院好

赣州俪人整形美容医院开韩式双眼皮怎么样 Starting the day by auditing classes at Peking University (PKU) while ending it sleeping in a tent pitched at Tsinghua University (THU), Zhao Ming (pseudonym), a student from Dongying, Shandong Province, became well known as "Brother Tent" among his more orthodox peers.白天去北大旁听,晚上回清华搭帐篷过夜,来自山东东营的大学生赵铭(化名)成了周围同学所熟知的“帐篷哥”。Zhao, 21, a former computer science and technology major at a Shandong-based university who left it after the first semester due to boredom, came to Beijing to audit classes at PKU in January last year.21岁的赵铭此前就读于山东某高校的计算机科技专业。由于觉得所学专业无聊乏味,第一学期结束后,赵铭就主动退学。去年1月份他来到北京,开始其北大旁听的生活。No regrets无怨无悔Zhao said that he doesn`t regret his decision because he has learned a lot since coming to Beijing. Classes he has attended include computer science, journalism and microeconomics.He said he has also proven that he survives rough times and has broadened his horizons.赵铭曾表示他并没有后悔自己当初的决定,因为在北京,他学到很多东西。他旁听的课程包括计算机科学、新闻学以及微观经济学。赵铭表示在求学的同时,他也明了自己能够渡过难关,眼界也随之变得开阔了。 /201101/123890赣州丽人整形美容医院做祛眼袋手术多少钱兴国县自体脂肪移植隆胸价格



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