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2019年07月20日 16:30:11|来源:国际在线|编辑:城市面诊
So, you know, it is what it is, but Americans are totally annoyed by the use of "whatever" in conversations.也许你知道,这就是事实——美国人对日常交谈中“无所谓”这句口头禅最为反感。The popular slacker term of indifference was found "most annoying in conversation" by 47 percent of Americans surveyed in a Marist College poll.一项由美国圣母学院开展的民调显示,47%的受访者认为这个带有漠不关心意味的流行词是“交谈中最令人讨厌的用语”。"Whatever" easily beat out "you know," which especially grated a quarter of respondents. The other annoying contenders were "anyway" (at 7 percent), "it is what it is" (11 percent) and "at the end of the day" (2 percent)."Whatever" 轻松击败"you know(你知道)"位居榜首,另有四分之一的受访者称最讨厌后者。其它入选最惹人厌的用语还包括"anyway(总之;反正)(7%)","it is what it is(这就是事实)"(11%),以及"at the end of the day(到头来)"(2%)。"Whatever"--pronounced "WHAT'-ehv-errr" when exasperated--is an expression_r_r with staying power. Immortalized in song by Nirvana ("oh well, whatever, nevermind") in 1991, popularized by the Valley girls in "Clueless" later that decade, it is still commonly used, often by younger people."Whatever"是一个带有忍耐意味的表达,在语气加重时,它常被说成"WHAT'-ehv-errr"。涅磐乐队于1991年演唱的一首歌曲使whatever这个词被人们记住(其中出现歌词oh well, whatever, nevermind)。而在同一年代的后期,影片《独领风骚》中的山谷女孩又使这个词广为流行。如今,这一词汇仍然很常用,它在年轻人中尤为流行。It can be an all-purpose argument-ender or a signal of apathy. And it can really be annoying. The poll found "whatever" to be consistently disliked by Americans regardless of their race, gender, age, income or where they live."Whatever"可在结束争论时使用,或者可用来表示漠不关心,这个词的确令人反感。调查发现,无论种族、性别、年龄、收入以及居住地,美国人无一例外地讨厌这个词。 /200910/86608《赛末点》红唇撩人【男女主角】“亨利八世”乔纳森·梅耶斯VS“性感新贵”斯嘉丽·约翰逊【双语台词】Chris Wilton: Has anyone told you you have very sensual lips? 克里斯:有没有人说过你的嘴唇很性感?【哄人要点】并不是所有女生都爱听这样露骨的褒奖。如果你认为自己有“亨利八世”的迷离眼神,对方有斯嘉丽的性感气质,那么就请便咯。 /200905/69738Women may be better at sniffing out biologically relevant information from underarm sweat, a US study suggests.美国一项研究显示,女性通过腋下气味识别生物性相关信息的能力很可能更强。Researchers found it was difficult to mask underarm odour when a woman was doing thesmelling, but quite easy to do so when it was a man.研究人员发现,用其它气味来蒙蔽女性对腋下气味的识别是比较困难的。相比之下,男性则更好蒙骗。They speculate that a woman's highly attuned smell radar might help her select a mate.研究人员由此猜测,女性敏锐的嗅觉可能有助于她们选择适合自己的伴侣。The study, by Philadelphia's Monell Center, appears in Flavour and Fragrance Journal.由费城蒙尼奥研究中心组织的这项研究成果已经在《香料与香味杂志》上发表。 In the study, women and men rated the strength of underarm odours, both alone and in conjunction with various fragrances.参与试验的女性和男性分别用鼻子去闻两组腋下气味,一组是独立的腋下气味,另一组是腋下气味与其它多种香味混合而成的气味。The fragrances were selected to test their ability to block underarm odour through a method known as olfactory cross-adaptation.研究人员利用嗅觉交叉适应的方法来测试他们辨别腋下气味的能力。This occurs when the nose adapts to one odour, and then also becomes less sensitive to a second odour.采用这种测试方法是因为一旦鼻子对第一种气味适应之后,它对第二种气味的判断灵敏度就减弱了。 Sniffed alone, the underarm odours smelled equally strong to men and women.当男女在闻独立腋下气味的时候,男女的辨别能力旗鼓相当。 But when fragrance was introduced, only two of 32 scents successfully blocked underarm odour when women were doing the smelling.但是当腋下气味中混合了其它香味的时候,32种气味中只有两种腋下混合气味让女性无法成功识别。 /200904/67511

The brain can store a vast number of memories, so why can't we find these memories when we need to? A new study provides insights into this question.By Edward K. Vogel and Trafton DrewOur brains are crammed with a massive amount of memories that we have formed over a lifetime of experiences. These memories range from the profound (who am I and how did I get here?) to the most trivial (the license plate of the car at a stoplight). Furthermore, our memories also vary considerably in their precision. Parents, for instance, often know the perils of a fuzzy memory when shopping for a birthday gift for their child: remembering that their son wanted the G.I. Joe with Kung Fu Grip rather than the regular G.I. Joe could make an enormous difference in how well the gift is received. Thus, the “fuzziness” of our memory can often be just as important in our daily lives as being able to remember lots and lots of information in the first place.Different Levels of Detail for Different Types of Memory?In the past several decades, cognitive psychologists have determined that there are two primary memory systems in the human mind: a short-term, or “working,” memory that temporarily holds information about just a few things that we are currently thinking about; and a long-lasting memory that can hold massive amounts of information gained through a lifetime of thoughts and experiences. These two memory systems are also thought to differ in the level of detail they provide: working memory provides sharp detail about the few things we are presently thinking about, whereas long-term memory provides a much fuzzier picture about lots of different things we have seen or experienced. That is, although we can hold lots of things in long-term memory, the details of the memory aren’t always crystal-clear and are often limited to just the gist of what we saw or what happened.A recently published study by Timothy F. Brady, a cognitive neuroscientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and colleagues suggests that these long-term memories may not be nearly as fuzzy as once thought, however. In their work, the researchers asked subjects to try to remember 3,000 pictures of common objects—including items such as backpacks, remote controls and toasters—that were presented one at a time for just a few seconds each. At the end of this viewing phase, the researchers tested subjects’ memory for each object by showing them two objects and asking which one they had seen before. Not surprisingly, subjects were exceptionally good (more than 90 percent correct) even though there were thousands of objects to remember. This high success rate attests to the massive storage ability of long-term memory. What was most surprising, however, was the amazing level of detail that the subjects had for all of these memories. The subjects were just as good at telling the difference between two pictures of the same object even when the objects differed in an extremely subtle manner, such as a pair of toasters with slightly different slices of b.If It’s Not Fuzzy, Why Do We Still Forget Things?This new work provides compelling evidence that the enormous amount of information we hold in long-term memory is not so uncertain after all. It seems that we actually hold representations of things we’ve seen in a fairly detailed and precise form.Of course, this finding raises the obvious question: if our memories aren’t all that fuzzy, then why do we often forget the details of things we want to remember? One explanation is that, although the brain contains detailed representations of lots of different events and objects, we can’t always find that information when we want it. As this study reveals, if we’re shown an object, we can often be very accurate and precise at being able to say whether we’ve seen it before. If we’re in a toy store and trying to remember what it was that our son wanted for his birthday, however, we need to be able to voluntarily search our memory for the right answer—without being prompted by a visual reminder. It seems that it is this voluntary searching mechanism that’s prone to interference and forgetfulness. At least that’s our story when we come home without the Kung Fu Grip G.I. Joe.Are you a scientist? Have you recently a peer-reviewed paper that you want to write about? Then contact Mind Matters editor Jonah Lehrer, the science writer behind the blog The Frontal Cortex and the book Proust Was a Neuroscientist. 大脑能够储存巨大数量的记忆,那么为什么在需要的时候我们会回忆不起来呢? 一项新的研究为这一问题提供了见解。作者Edward K. Vogel and Trafton Drew我们的大脑里填满了在我们整个人生经历中形成的大量记忆。 这些记忆可以很深奥(我是谁还有我怎么来到这的?)也可以是最琐碎的(红灯停车时看到的某辆车的牌照)。 此外,我们记忆的准确度在相当程度上也存在着分别。 打个比方,父母们大多都明白在给他们的孩子买一份生日礼物时,如果记忆不清楚会有什么不良后果。 记得他们的孩子更想要的是耍功夫把式的G.I. Joe(眼镜蛇部队),而非普通的G.I. Joe,会显著影响孩子接受礼物的乐意程度。 因此,在日常生活的大多数情况下,我们记忆的“模糊性”与一开始就能够记住很多很多信息是同等重要的。不同类型的记忆有不同的细节水平?过去的几十年中,认知心理学家们已经确定,在人类大脑中主要存在着两种记忆系统。 一种短期的,或者“工作”的记忆短暂地储存了我们正在想着的少数事情的信息;另一种长期的记忆能够储存通过一生思考和经历得到的海量信息。 在提供细节的水平上,这两种记忆也被认为是不同的。 工作记忆给出的是有关我们当前正在思考的少数事情的清晰细节,而长期记忆给出的则是有关我们曾经见过或经历过的大量事情的,更加模糊的图像。 这就是说,虽然我们在长期记忆中储存了很多东西,但其记忆细节并不总是清晰透彻,而是经常只限于我们所见或已发生事情的要点梗概。然而,在最近发表的一项研究中,麻省理工学院认知神经学家蒂莫西·布莱迪及其同事们提出,这些长期记忆并非如之前所认为的那么模糊。 研究中,研究人员要求实验者们尝试记住3000幅普通物件的图片——包括如背包、遥控器和烤面包片机等物品——一张每次就看几秒钟。 观看环节结束时,研究人员考察了实验者的记忆:向他们展示了两个物品,并问哪一个是之前见过的。 毫无意外,实验者们的表现格外优秀(超过90%正确),尽管要记住的有数千件物品。 如此高的成功率应了长期记忆的巨大存储能力。 然而,最出乎意料的是,实验者们的这些记忆中表现出来的令人惊异的细节水平。 实验者们在区分两张同种物品的图片之间的差别上做的相当不错,即便这种区别极其细微,例如两个只在所放面包薄片上差别微小的烤面包片机。如果并不模糊,为什么我们仍然忘记事情?我们在长期记忆中储存的大量信息归根到底并不是那么不确定的,这项新研究为此提供了引人注目的据。 看起来,我们对曾见过事情的再现实际上是相当详细和精确的。当然,这项发现也提出了显而易见的问题。 如果我们的记忆并非都那么模糊,那为什么我们老是忘记我们所要记住事物的细节呢? 一个解释是,尽管大脑保存了大量不同事件和物品的细节表象,但我们并不是总能在需要的时候把那信息找出来。 就如这次研究所显示的,如果给我们看一个物品,我们大多能够非常精确、准确无误地说出我们之前是否见过它。 然而如果当我们身在玩具店,试着记起儿子想要的生日礼物是什么样的时候,我们就需要能够自动地在记忆中搜索正确——而不是受到视觉上能提醒你的物品的推动。 看来,似乎是这个自动的搜索机制使我们易于受到干扰和健忘。 至少这也是我们没有带着耍功夫的眼镜蛇部队回家的一个借口。 /200811/55456

Fathers will be able to share parental leave to care for babies and will have greater access to their children after couples divorce, under government plans.根据英国政府的计划,英国的父亲们将能共享产假,照看宝宝,离婚后也将获得更多陪伴孩子的机会。David Cameron and Nick Clegg promised “unprecedented support for parents” with a new Children and Families Bill, which also contained measures to make it easier to adopt, and more support for children with special needs.英国首相大卫#8226;卡梅伦和副首相尼克#8226;克莱格承诺将颁布一项儿童与家庭新法案,“为父母们提供前所未有的持”。法案中还包含让收养孩子变得更容易、以及对有特殊需要的孩子提供更多持的举措。Parents’ groups “cautiously welcomed” the proposals but business leaders warned that making parental leave more flexible would impose complex “burdens” on employers.父母群体对这一提案“有所保留地表示欢迎”,但企业主们警告说让产假变得更灵活将给雇主们带来复杂的问题,造成负担。Officials said current rules on maternity and paternity leave were “outdated” because they presumed that women will do the “vast majority” of caring for infants.政府官员称,当前的产假规定已经“过时了”,因为旧法规想当然地认为女性将承担照顾婴儿的“绝大部分工作”。A spokesman for the Department for Business said: “Parents should be able to choose their childcare arrangements for themselves.”英国商业部的一位发言人说:“父母应该能自主安排谁来照顾小孩。”There were few details about how the new flexible parental leave arrangements could work. Possible options include allowing mothers to return to work and transferup to nine months of a year’s parental leave to fathers.关于灵活的新产假相关安排如何运作,并未透露多少细节。也许会允许母亲回到工作岗位,并且最多能将9个月的假期转让给父亲。However, business groups criticised the move. John Longworth, director generalof the British Chambers of Commerce, warned that companies would face ;endless” legal challenges and grievances resulting from “gender-neutral” parental leave.但是,商业群体批评了这一举动。英国商会的总会长约翰#8226;朗沃斯警告说,公司将会因“不分性别的”产假而面临“无休止的”法律挑战和申诉。;Ministers have chosen to ignore the fact that a complex new system of shared parental leave bringsfiendish complexity and huge uncertainty for employers,” he said. “These proposals will hit business at precisely the time ministers are asking companies to create jobs and spur growth.他说:“复杂的产假共享新体系将给雇主们带来极其糟糕的复杂状况和非常大的不确定性,而部长们选择忽视这一事实。就在部长们让企业创造就业机会、刺激经济增长的同时,这些提案却会对企业造成打击。”;While most businesspeople identify with the idea of gender-neutral parental leave, they’ve warned time and again that the Government’s proposals areunwieldy, difficult to understand and fraught with potential complications.”“尽管大多数商界人士认同产假不分性别的想法,但他们已经屡次得到告诫,知道政府的提案施行起来很麻烦,难以理解,而且暗藏许多纠葛。”Simon Walker, Director General of the Institute of Directors, also warned that allowing parental leave to be shared risked adding to the burden on companies.英国董事学会的总会长西蒙#8226;沃克也警告说,让父母亲共享产假将可能增加企业的负担。;The Government should be careful not to use this as an opportunity to increase levels of leave,” he said. “Sharing the allowance is fine, but putting heavier burdens on business in these tough times would not be a sensible move.”他说:“政府应该注意别让这个新产假方案成为人们增加休假的机会。共享产假很好,但是在这样的艰难时期让企业背上更沉重的负担不是一个明智之举。” /201206/185609

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