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2020年02月26日 01:42:51 | 作者:安心共享 | 来源:新华社
There are three crises afflicting Europe. Two are on the borders of the EU: a warlike Russia and an imploding Middle East. The third emergency is taking place inside the EU itself where political, economic and diplomatic tensions are mounting.目前有三场危机困扰着欧洲。其中两场危机发生在欧盟(EU)边上:好战的俄罗斯和内乱的中东。第三个危机情况正在欧盟内部上演——政治、经济和外交紧张与日俱增。The past month has seen all three crises facing Europe intensify. The terrorist attacks in Paris heightened fears about the potential spillover of violence and religious tensions from the Middle East. Russian-backed separatists have renewed their offensive in Ukraine. And Syriza’s victory in Greece means that for the first time since the euro crisis broke out a radical left party has won an election in an EU country.在过去一个月里,欧洲面临的这三场危机均有所加剧。袭击巴黎的恐怖分子,加深了人们对中东暴力和宗教紧张产生溢出效应的担忧。俄罗斯持的分裂势力在乌克兰再度发起进攻。激进左翼联Syriza)在希腊大选中获胜意味着,极左政党在一个欧盟国家赢得选举——自欧元区危机爆发以来,这还是头一回。The problems in Russia, the Middle East and theeurozone have very different roots. But, as they worsen, they are beginning to feed on each other.俄罗斯、中东以及欧元区危机的根源差异很大。但是,随着形势恶化,它们开始相互助燃。The economic slump in much of the EU has encouraged the rise of populist parties of the right and left. The sense of insecurity on which the populists feed has been further encouraged by the spillover from the conflict in the Middle East whether in the form of terrorism or mass illegal migration. In countries such as Greece and Italy, the inflow of migrants from (or through) the Middle East has heightened the atmosphere of social crisis, making immigration almost as controversial as austerity.欧盟大部分国家出现经济低迷,促进了右翼和左翼民粹主义政党的崛起。民粹主义者赖以壮大的不安全感,受到中东冲突溢出效应(无论是恐怖主义还是大规模非法移民)的进一步推动。在希腊和意大利等国,来自(或经由)中东地区的移民大量涌入,强化了社会危机氛围,使得移民问题几乎与紧缩政策一样备受争议。Meanwhile, Russia’s military intervention in Ukraine presents the EU with its biggest foreign policy challenge since the cold war. Mishandled, it could lead to military conflict. The EU, marshalled by Germany, has managed to unite around a reasonably toughpackage of sanctions. But the rise of the political extremes within Europe threatens EU unity on Russia making it more likely that the Kremlin will be emboldened and that the crisis will escalate.与此同时,俄罗斯对乌克兰的军事干预,给欧盟带来冷战结束后最严峻的外交政策挑战。若处置不当,可能会导致军事冲突。在德国的推动下,欧盟迄今成功地团结起来,对俄罗斯实施了一套合理严厉的制裁方案。但是,欧洲内部政治极端主义的崛起,对欧盟在俄罗斯问题上的团结构成威胁——使克林姆林宫更有可能壮胆,也使危机更有可能升级。One emotion that seems to unite the far-left and the far-right in countries such as Greece, Germany and France is a soft spot for Vladimir Putin’s Russia. The far-right likes Mr Putin’s social conservatism, his emphasis on the nation state, his authoritarianism and his hostility to America and the EU. The extreme left seems to have retained its traditional affinity for Moscow.对弗拉基米尔#8226;普京(Vladimir Putin)领导的俄罗斯抱有好感,似乎是希腊、德国和法国等国极右翼和极左翼的共同情结。极右翼欣赏普京的社会保守主义、他对民族国家的注重、他的威权主义以及他对美国和欧盟的敌意。极左翼似乎保留着对莫斯科的传统亲切感。It makes perfect sense for Russia to cultivate the political extremes inside the EU. If the unity of the EU breaks down, the sanctions regime that has helped to isolate Russia will also begin to dissolve. Mr Putin has fostered ties with the far-right National Front in France, as well as Syriza in Greece. The first foreign dignitary received by Alexis Tsipras, the new Greek prime minister, was the Russian ambassador. Athens immediately voiced its opposition to further EU sanctions on Russia.俄罗斯完全有理由煽动欧盟内部的政治极端主义。如果欧盟的团结瓦解,有助于孤立俄罗斯的制裁机制也将开始解体。普京已经与法国的极右翼政党国民阵线(National Front)和希腊的激进左翼联盟加强了联系。希腊新总理亚历克西#8226;齐普拉斯(Alexis Tsipras)会见的首位外宾便是俄罗斯大使。希腊随即表明反对欧盟对俄罗斯出台进一步制裁措斀?For Angela Merkel, the German chancellor and Europe’s dominant political figure, the problems are crowding in. She is under domestic pressure to be tough with Greece but under international pressure to cut a deal. Greece’s flirtation with Russia has added a geopolitical angle to the euro crisis, making it likely that the Americans will press Germany to keep the Greeks within the EU family. (Historians might recall that the Truman doctrine of containment of the Soviet Union was rolled out in 1947, as Washington moved to keep Greece from falling into Moscow’s orbit.)对于欧洲领头的政治人物、德国总理安格#8226;默克Angela Merkel)而言,麻烦正接踵而至。她面临的国内压力要求她对希腊采取强硬态度,但国际间的压力要求她达成某种交易。希腊与俄罗斯之间的暧昧关系,给欧元区危机添加了一个地缘政治维度,可能会促使美国施压德国,要求让希腊留在欧盟大家庭内。(历史学家也许会回想起1947年为遏制苏联而推出的“杜鲁门主义Truman doctrine),当时华盛顿努力确保希腊不落入莫斯科方面的轨道。)The intensification of the fighting in Ukraine presents the German chancellor with another set of stark choices. The clamour to arm the Ukrainians is growing in the US and parts of the EU. But the Russians are issuing dire warnings about the consequences of such a decision that are likely to alarm the pacifistic German public. The rightwing German parties that are calling for toughness towards Greece and softness towards Russia, are also linked to the “anti-Islamisationdemonstrations that have broken out in German cities.乌克兰冲突加剧给德国总理带来又一波严峻的选择。在美国,在欧盟一些地方,向乌克兰方面提供军火的呼声日益高涨。但是俄罗斯对此类决定的后果发出严重警告,很可能让和平主义的德国民众震惊。呼吁强硬对待希腊、温和对待俄罗斯的德国右翼政党,还与德国多座城市爆发的“反伊斯兰化”游行有牵连。Ms Merkel’s government at least has the advantage of reasonably favourable economic conditions at home. Unemployment is low and Germany can borrow at rock-bottom rates. By contrast, there is a strong sense of social and economic crisis in other key EU countries. Unemployment is in double-digits in Spain, Italy and France and Greek-style revolts against economic austerity and the EU are distinctly possible.默克尔领导的政府在国内至少具备经济状况相当有利的优势。失业率维持低位,德国能以极低利率借款。相比之下,欧盟其它大国充满强烈的社会和经济危机感。西班牙、意大利和法国的失业率盘踞在两位数高位,完全可能出现针对经济紧缩政策和欧盟的希腊式反抗。Worryingly, none of Europe’s three crises look like improving. In the Middle East, Syria and Libya are in a state of near-collapse and the situation is also bleak in Yemen and Iraq. Russia’s behaviour is becoming more, not less, threatening. And although optimists continue to argue that it is inevitable that Greece and the EU will strike a debt deal, the early signs are unpromising and confrontation is looming.令人担忧的是,欧洲的三场危机似乎没有好转迹象。在中东,叙利亚和利比亚正处于濒临崩溃的状态,也门和伊拉克的形势也十分黑暗。俄罗斯的行为正变得更具威胁性,而没有放缓的意思。尽管乐观主义者仍然认为,希腊和欧盟难免会达成债务协议,但早期迹象不容乐观——对抗的乌云正在聚集。All of this looks like a formula for a further fracturing of the political centre in Europe. Loose parallels are being made with the politics of the 1930s when economic depression, combined with an unstable international political environment, led to the rise of political extremism and, ultimately, war.这一切看上去都可能导致欧洲的政治版图进一步破裂。有人将现在的格局0世纪30年代进行粗略类比:当时经济萧条,加上不稳定的国际政治环境,导致政治极端主义兴起,最终引发战争。Fortunately, comparisons with the interwar years still seem far-fetched. Europe back then was a continent still traumatised by the mass killing of the first world war. European states lacked welfare systems which meant that a prolonged slump quickly translated into mass destitution.幸运的是,与两次世界大战之间那个时期的类比似乎仍然牵强。那时的欧洲尚未从一战的大规模杀戮恢复元气,而且欧洲各国缺少福利体系——这意味着持续低迷很快转化为大规模贫困。Modern Europe has an economic and political resilience, as well as a bedrock of wealth, that was simply not there in the 1930s. All the same, the current atmosphere in the continent is as unstable and unpredictable as anything that I can remember in my adult lifetime.现代欧洲拥有经济和政治上的韧性,也拥有财富基础,这些都0世纪30年代根本不存在的。不过在我的记忆中,目前的欧洲大陆,正处在自我成年以来最不稳定,且最难以预料的氛围之中。来 /201502/358686The Organisation for Economic Co- operation and Development is a body that frequently feels as cumbersome as its name. It contains an eclectic mix of data collection, research and economic forecasting, and serves as a forum for international policy making.经济合作与发展组OECD)经常给人的感觉是,它就像自己的名称一样笨拙。它的职能繁多,包括数据收集、研究与经济预测,以及充当一个国际政策制定论坛。Much of its work is valuable, some elements more than others. Yet it requires renewed impetus. The OECD needs not just to increase its impact but to bring more emerging market governments into what was set up as and still feels like a club of rich countries.经合组织的大部分工作是有价值的,有些工作比另一些更有价值。不过,该机构需要注入新动力。它需要的不仅仅是提升自身影响力,而是要接纳更多新兴市场政府——它在建立之初就像一个富国俱乐部,现在仍给人这种感觉。Angel Gurría, the former Mexican finance minister and current OECD secretary-general, is in his second term of office, which expires next year. Although the institute has made some important progress recently, it needs new blood to speed up its development. The OECD needs a leader with both the intellectual firepower to lead policy debates and the political heft to broker international deals over policy with sensitive implications for its members.墨西哥前财长、经合组织现秘书长安赫尔#8226;古里Angel Gurría)目前处于第二任期,他的任期将于明年结束。尽管近年来该机构取得了一些重要进步,但它需要注入新鲜血液来加快自身发展。经合组织需要这样一位领导人:他不但要具有引导政策辩论的智慧,而且要有政治份量,能在对成员国产生敏感影响的政策方面促成国际协议。Some of what the OECD does in particular macroeconomic analysis and forecasting duplicates work done elsewhere, such as the International Monetary Fund. Its research capability really adds value by collecting and analysing micro data on a host of different issues health systems, development aid, labour market institutions and others.经合组织的部分工作——尤其是宏观经济分析和预测——与国际货币基金组织(IMF)等其他机构的工作有所重合。经合组织的研究能力确实增加了价值——收集并分析有关大量不同问题(如卫生保健制度、发展援助、劳动力市场制度等)的微观数据。These numbers and analysis can inform pivotal debate. For example, while the OECD cannot supplant the IMF in setting conditions for bailouts, having a second opinion over the structural reform demanded of countries such as Greece is a valuable role.这些数据和分析可以为关键辩论提供有价值的信息。例如,尽管经合组织不能在设定纾困条件方面取代IMF,但在希腊等国必须实行什么结构性改革的问题上提出不同观点,也是在发挥有价值的作用。In the case of development aid, OECD data collection and analysis also form the basis for improving the quality of assistance, such as reforming damaging “tied aidrules that compel recipients to spend the money on exports from the donor country.在开发援助方面,经合组织的数据收集与分析也为提高援助质量打下了基础,比如改革具有危害性的“限制性援助”规则——这些规则强迫援助接受方必须用援助款购买援助提供方的出口产品。来 /201504/371238U.S. lawmakers have expressed a mix of reactions to President Barack Obamas State of the Union address, with a particular focus on his economic policies and the ongoing international negotiations on Irans nuclear program.美国国会议员们对奥巴马总统的国情咨文演讲反应不一,而奥巴马的经济政策以及围绕伊朗核项目的国际谈判是议员们的关注焦点。After the speech Tuesday night at the Capitol in Washington, House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi called Mr. Obamas speech a ;powerful vision of opportunity and prosperity; for American families, and highlighted his plans to help those in the middle class.奥巴马星期二晚间结束在华盛顿国会山的演讲后,国会众议院少数党领袖佩洛西说,奥巴马在演讲中极其关注为美国家庭提供机会和繁荣,并强调他计划帮助中产阶级。But Republicans in the Senate, who reclaimed a majority this year, questioned how the president would fund those initiatives.但今年赢得多数席位的共和党参议员们对奥巴马如何为实施有关计划提供资金提出质疑。Senator Cory Gardner expressed opposition to raising money through new taxes.参议员加德纳表示,反对通过增税筹集资金。On Iran, Mr. Obama said enacting new sanctions would ;all but guarantee; the negotiations would fail, but some members of Congress are pushing for more economic pressure.奥巴马在谈到伊朗问题时说,对伊朗实施新制裁几乎等于宣告谈判失败,但一些议员主张对伊朗施加更大经济压力。Senator Gardner said the current effort has given too many concessions to Iran, while not getting enough in return.加德纳说,目前的做法对伊朗做出太多让步,同时却没有从伊朗得到足够的回报。Democratic Representative Eliot Engel also wants more sanctions, which have hurt Irans economy during the past few years.民主党参议员恩格尔也主张对伊朗实施更多制裁。几年来,制裁使伊朗经济受到损害。Representative David Scott, a Democrat, expressed similar dissatisfaction with the presidents counterterror policies.民主党众议员斯科特也表示,对奥巴马的反恐政策感到不满。Others backed Mr. Obama, including Democratic Senator Barbara Boxer, who said he ;showed his leadership when he talked about America leading a united world in confronting the threat of terrorism.;一些议员持奥巴马,包括民主党参议员克瑟。她说,奥巴马在谈到美国领导团结一致的国际社会对抗恐怖主义威胁时,展示了领袖风范。来 /201501/355719An explosion near a metro station in Istanbul, Turkey Tuesday injured at least five people and brought the transport system to a halt.星期二,土耳其伊斯坦布尔一个地铁站附近发生了爆炸事件。这起事件至少造成五人受伤,并导致地铁运输系统暂时停止运作。A local official in Istanbul said that the explosion in the evening rush hour at an overpass near the citys Bayrampasa station was caused by a pipe bomb.土耳其当地一位官员表示,这起爆炸事件发生在当地时间星期二晚间上下班高峰时段,地点是拜拉姆贝沙站附近的天桥,是由一个管道炸弹引爆的。Atilla Aydiner, the mayor of Istanbuls Bayrampasa district, also said that a number of vehicles were damaged in the blast, including a bus and a car.拜拉姆贝沙市长奥迪内尔表示,这起爆炸事件同时还造成至少一辆公交车和一辆轿车的损坏。Authorities deployed riot police to secure the perimeter of the site in case of a second blast.爆炸事件发生后,当地政府立即派遣防爆警察到现场和周边地区,以防第二波袭击。No claim of responsibility has been made.到目前为止,还没有任何一方声称对这起爆炸事件负责。Earlier, Istanbuls governor, Vasip Sahin, said that the cause of the blast was not known and that authorities were assessing every possibility. Turkey is currently on alert for attacks after more than 100 people were killed on October 10 when two suicide bombers detonated themselves in the middle of a crowd of peace activists in the capital, Ankara.今年10月初,土耳其首都安卡拉曾发生了一起爆炸规模更为瞩目的爆炸事件。当时,有两名自杀爆炸人士在和平集会的人群当中引爆了绑在自己身上的炸药,造成一百余人丧生。来 /201512/413257

Two Hong Kong property tycoons have gone on trial for allegedly bribing a top government official, in the biggest corruption case in the Chinese territory.两位香港房地产大亨因被控行贿政府高官而受审,这是香港最大的一起腐败案件。Brothers Thomas Kwok and Raymond Kwok, co-chairmen of Sun Hung Kai Properties, one of the world’s largest real estate groups, are accused of providing cash, loans and the free use of two apartments to Rafael Hui, the former chief secretary in the Hong Kong government.新鸿基地Sun Hung Kai Properties)联席主席郭炳Thomas Kwok,见上图)及郭炳联(Raymond Kwok)被控向香港前政务司司长许仕仁(Rafael Hui)提供现金、贷款和两个公寓单位的免费使用权。新鸿基是世界最大的房地产集团之一。The Kwok brothers, Mr Hui and two other co-defendants arrived in court yesterday for the first day of a trial that is expected to last more than two months. Mr Hui, who is accused of accepting HKm (.4m) in financial inducements, faces eight charges including “misconduct in public officeand providing false information. The Kwok brothers both pleaded not guilty as did Mr Hui and the other two men.郭氏兄弟、许仕仁和另两位被告昨日抵达法庭参加首日庭审,庭审预计将持续超过两个月。许仕仁被控接受3400万港元(40万美元)的贿赂,面临8项指控,包括“公职人员行为不当”和提供虚假信息。郭氏兄弟、许仕仁和其他两人均不认罪。Several charges accuse Mr Hui of being “favourably disposedtowards Sun Hung Kai Properties and/or its affiliated companies in return for payments from the Kwok brothers and companies in the property group. Mr Hui is the highest level official to be arrested by Hong Kong’s Independent Commission Against Corruption.几项指控称许仕仁“照顾”新鸿基地产或其附属公司,换得郭氏兄弟和新鸿基旗下公司付的贿赂。许仕仁是香港廉政公Independent Commission Against Corruption)逮捕的最高级别官员。According to Bloomberg Billionaires index, the Kwoks are the world’s 153rd and 154th richest people, each worth about .3bn.彭(Bloomberg)亿万富豪指数显示,郭氏兄弟是全球53和第154富有的人,个人身家均3亿美元左右。来 /201405/296539

Chinese investors have ignored efforts by the securities regulator to curb downward pressure on the country’s tumbling stock market, with bourses in Shanghai and Shenzhen registering hefty declines on Thursday.中国券监管机构已采取多项举措,试图减轻不断下跌的中国股市的下行压力,但中国投资者对此却并不买账。周四,上海和深圳股市出现大幅下跌。Moves by the China Securities Regulatory Commission late on Wednesday to relax collateral rules on margin loans failed to staunch market losses on Thursday, with the Shanghai Composite Index falling as much as 5.5 per cent deepening Wednesday’s 5.3 per cent decline while Shenzhen was down 5.8 per cent.周三晚,中国监会采取行动,放宽了融资融券担保物规定,但这并没能阻止股市在周四继续下跌:上综指下跌.48%,收912.77点,深综指则收.55%。Margin finance has been a major driver of the rally that propelled Chinas main stock index to a seven-year high on June 12, but the market has since tumbled more than 20 per cent due in part to worries about a clampdown on leveraged bets.融资交易是这轮上涨行情的主要推动力之一。在这轮行情中,中国主要股指曾在62日触年高点,但在那之后累计下跌了0%,部分原因是人们担心监管机构打压杠杆交易。The China Securities Regulatory Commission said late on Wednesday that brokerages are free to set their own rules for demanding more collateral from clients when stocks bought with borrowed money fall in value. Previous rules required clients to add assets to their accounts when their collateral ratio dropped below 130 per cent, or else liquidate their positions.周三晚,中国监会表示,券商可以自行制定要求客户追加担保物的相关规定,这种要求追加担保物的情况发生在客户用所借资金买入的股票发生贬值时。此前的规定要求,当客户担保比例低于130%时,就必须向其账户补充资产,否则就会遭遇强行平仓。“The new CSRC rules to stop forced liquidation have hit the nail on the head and will calm the market for now,Hao Hong, research director at Bocom International, wrote in a note.交银国际(Bocom International)研究总监洪灏在一份报告中写道:“监会的新规定停止强平盘击中了问题要害,将暂时使市场平静。”Stock exchange data show that after surging to a high of Rmb2.27tn (6bn) on June 18 from Rmb401bn a year earlier outstanding margin loans have fallen Rmb236bn. But Mr Hao also warned that the relaxation may sow the seeds for a future crisis.券交易所数据显示,中国股市融资余额在68日激增至2.27万亿元人民币(一年前010亿元人民币)之后,已减少2360亿元人民币。但洪灏表示,放宽担保物规定可能为未来的危机埋下种子。“Beyond the short term, we believe margin call is a necessary risk management mechanism for brokers. The premise of margin trades is that asset prices will rise perpetually. It simply cannot be true,he said.他说:“展望未来,我们认为追加保金是券商的一个必要的风险管理机制。融资交易的前提是资产价格将永远上涨。然而,这是不可能的。”In addition to loosening collateral requirements, the new rules allow margin loans to be extended for longer than the previous six-month limit, and eliminate the requirement that margin clients must have assets in their securities account worth at least Rmb500,000.除了放宽担保物要求,新规还允许融资融券合约展期至此前的限制(个月)以上,并取消了融资融券客户券账户资产的价值不得低0万元人民币的规定。The CSRC first proposed the changes on June 12 in the form of draft rules open for a month-long public comment period. But in its statement on Wednesday the regulator said that “because the situation is specialthe rules would now take effect immediately.这些改革举措是中国监会2日以草案形式首次提出的,并启动了为时一个月的征求公众意见期。不过,在周三发布的这份声明中,该会表示“因情况特殊”,规定会尽快实斀?Also late on Wednesday, the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges as well as the state-backed clearing house lowered transaction fees on stock trades by 30 per cent, from 0.0696 per cent to 0.0487 per cent. China Securities Depository and Clearing, the state-backed clearing house, also cut its transfer fee by about a third.同样在周三晚,沪、深券交易所和中国券登记结算公China Securities Depository and Clearing)将A股交易经手费下调30%,从0.0696%降至0.0487%。此外,中国券登记结算公司还把A股交易过户费下调了大约三分之一。The finance ministry and stock exchanges have traditionally used taxes and fees to influence the market, either to boost flagging sentiment or to cool an overheated rally. Many analysts also expect the finance ministry to follow with a reduction in the stamp tax, which is also levied on stock transactions.传统上,中国财政部和券交易所会以税费为手段影响市场,或为提振低迷的市场情绪,或为过热的上涨势头降温。许多分析师还预计,中国财政部随后会降低印花税。In another effort to buoy the market the securities regulator issued rules expanding finance options for securities brokerages. A pilot project that allowed 20 large brokerages to sell bonds on the stock exchange will be expanded to the entire industry.另一项托市的举措是,中国监会发布规定,扩大了券商的融资渠道。此前推出的一个允0家大型券商在股市出售债券的试点项目,将推广至整个行业。Brokerages will also be permitted to securitise their margin loans, boosting their ability to expand margin lending without burdening their own balance sheets.此外,券商还被允许将其融资融券收益权资产券化,从而在不为其资产负债表增加负担的同时,提升其发放保金贷款的能力。来 /201507/383920

In the past 10 years, CD stores have more or less disappeared from the American landscape. Tower Records had hundreds of locations across the U.S., and was once the place for American music fans to go if they wanted a deep selection from their favorite artists. But that all went up in smoke in 2006, when the company filed for bankruptcy and closed all of its U.S. stores.过去十年间,CD店基本上已在美国本土销声匿迹。淘儿唱片公司(Tower Records)曾在美国各地设有数分店。对美国乐迷来说,如果想深入地淘一些自己心爱歌手的唱片,这个连锁唱片店一度就是他们非去不可的圣地。不过到006年,该公司申请破产并关掉了美国所有分店,往日的盛况顿时化为过眼云烟。But as a recent New York Times article points out, Tower Records is alive and well in some countries, especially Japan. The piece describes the Japanese as “CD loving,noting:但正如《纽约时报New York Times)近期刊发的一篇文章所指出的那样,在有些国家,尤其是日本,淘儿唱片不仅没有消亡,而且还经营得相当不错。这篇文章将日本人称为“CD爱好者”,它写道:Japan may be one of the world’s perennial early adopters of new technologies, but its continuing attachment to the CD puts it sharply at odds with the rest of the global music industry. While CD sales are falling worldwide, including in Japan, they still account for about 85 percent of sales here, compared with as little as 20 percent in some countries, like Sweden, where online streaming is dominant.日本可能一直都是全世界最早采用新技术的国家之一,但日本国民对CD持之以恒的热爱却让这个国家成为全球音乐产业中的异数。尽管全球各地(包括日本)的CD销量都在持续下滑,但日本的CD销量还是占据各类音乐总销量约85%的比重,而在瑞典这类流媒体音乐已占据主导地位的国家,CD销量只占音乐总销量的20%。The article offers other statistics that purport to show the Japanese love for CDs, noting that there are still 85 Tower Records stores in the country that pulled in 0 million in business last year. But, of course, large revenue doesn’t say anything about the health of the business. In 2005, the final year that a Tower Records was open in the U.S., it operated 89 stores and did 0 million in sales. The next year, there were no Tower Records in the U.S. whatsoever.该文还提供了其他数据,旨在表明日本人对CD是如何情有独钟。它指出,日本全国仍5间淘儿唱片连锁店,去年的销售额高达5亿美元。不过,我们当然不能根据这些巨额收入明音乐产业的健康指数005年,也就是淘儿唱片在美国运营的最后一年,它在全美还有89间连锁店,销售额高达4.3亿美元。但到了第二年,淘儿唱片就在美国无影无踪了。Meanwhile, CD sales in Japan continue to decline at a double digit pace, falling 17% from last year. What’s unique about Japan is not so much that they like buying their music in physical form, but that buying music digitally, either in mp3 form or through streaming services, never really caught on. That likely has more to do with the Japanese music industry’s stubborn refusal to make buying music or subscribing to streaming services easy.与此同时,日本的CD销量也一直在以两位数的速度下跌,去年就下跌7%。日本乐迷的独特之处其实并不在于他们喜欢购买有物理载体的音乐产品,而在于数字音乐,无论是mp3还是流媒体,从来就没有在这个国家真正流行过。这可能主要是由于日本的音乐产业始终固执地拒绝让乐迷轻松方便地购买数字音乐或订阅流媒体音乐。iTunes launched in Japan in 2005—four years after its U.S. debut, and Sony Music Japan didn’t allow its titles to be sold via iTunes until 2012. That means until just two years ago, a large section of what the Japanese would want to buy online couldn’t be purchased on the world’s most popular digital music store. Meanwhile, the big, global players in streaming, like Spotify, Deezer and rdio, have all been unable to reach agreements with the Japanese record industry to offer their services there. Some domestic streaming services are now starting to pop up—total streaming service revenue in Japan was up 204% last year—but the streaming industry is still playing catch up with the West because of its late start.iTunes005年正式登陆日本,此时距离这个音乐平台在美国亮相已过了整整四年,但直到2012年,日本索尼音乐公司(Sony Music Japan)才允许该公司出品的专辑通过iTunes发售。这意味着,仅仅两年前,日本人还无法在全球最流行的数字音乐商店里购买他们心仪的相当大一部分音乐专辑。与此同时,像Spotify、Deezer和rdio这些全球流媒体音乐巨头始终无法跟日本唱片产业达成协议,从而无法在日本提供务。一些日本本土流媒体音乐公司现在刚开始冒头——去年日本流媒体音乐销售增长了204%——但由于起步晚,它们还需要加倍努力,才有可能追赶上西方同行。Meanwhile, the practice of renting CDs is still quite popular in Japan, as copyright law there makes such an industry legal there, unlike in the U.S. This makes it quite easy for listeners to rent an album at 10% of the price of buying it and just rip it to their computer. And, of course, just like in the West, music piracy is very popular in Japan. The Japanese record industry estimates that for every song legally downloaded in the country, 10 are stolen. The problem is so bad that in 2012, Japan passed one of the strictest anti-piracy laws in the world, in which violators can be subject to a 10-year prison sentence and a roughly 0,000 fine.与此同时,许多日本人依然保持着租赁CD的习惯。这是因为,与美国不同,日本的版权法允许这一行业合法经营。在这种背景下,乐迷只需花上买张专辑10%的钱就能租到它,再把音乐轻松地存入电脑。当然,跟美国一样,盗版音乐在日本非常普遍。日本唱片业估计,在日本,每合法下载1首歌,就会出现大0首盗版。由于这种情况过于猖獗,日本012年通过了全球最严格的反盗版法,该法规定,盗版者可被判0年徒刑,罚款0万美元。And finally, we shouldn’t look past the fact that Japan has the highest median age in the world. Even in much younger America, it’s the older folks who buy most of the CDs. As people age, they tend to become set in their ways when it comes to purchasing decisions. And since Japan has a higher percentage of older people than any other country, it follows that it would have a larger market for physical music.最后,我们不应忽略一个事实,即日本是全球中位数年龄最大的国家。就算在人口结构年轻得多的美国,绝大多数CD也是被年龄较大的人买去的。一般来说,随着年龄增大,人们在购买决策上更容易墨守成规。由于日本的老龄人口远多于其他国家,它拥有最大的实体音乐市场也就不足为怪了。But make no mistake about it, Japan’s music industry is shrinking, just like the one in the U.S. The convenience of listening to music online is too great, and with the ease of streaming songs on YouTube for free, or outright stealing it, the Japanese public is increasingly questioning why it should pay for CDs. The Japanese record industry might have helped keep CD sales higher than in other developed nations for a few years longer by resisting digital music sales and streaming services, but it can’t delay the inevitable forever.不过不要被这一现象所迷惑,其实日本的音乐产业也和美国一样,正在不断萎缩。网上听音乐实在太方便了,在YouTube上免费下载或直接盗版流媒体音乐也很容易,因此越来越多的日本民众也开始质疑,为何要花钱买CD呢。通过抵制数字音乐销售和流媒体音乐务,日本的唱片业也许能让CD销量比其他发达国家更高的情况再延续几年,但它无法永远阻挡这一无可逆转的历史潮流。来 /201410/331986

China will loan Venezuela bn to boost oil output, the Venezuelan president said in a televised broadcast from Beijing, in a show of continued support for the troubled Latin American economy from one of its main creditors.委内瑞拉总统尼古拉斯氠岚Nicolas Maduro)在发自北京的电视画面中表示,中国将向委内瑞拉提供50亿美元贷款,以提高其石油产量。此举表明,这个陷入困境的拉美经济体继续得到中国的持。中国是委内瑞拉的主要债权国之一。China has lent bn to Venezuela in oil-backed loans secured under former president Hugo Chávez but has become much less enthusiastic about adding to its exposure as the Venezuelan economy has worsened. Venezuela is the eighth-largest oil supplier to China, primarily of heavy crude that trades at lower than benchmark prices.中国已向委内瑞拉提供00亿美元以石油作担保的贷款,这些贷款是在委内瑞拉前总统乌戈查韦Hugo Chávez)任内敲定的。然而,随着委内瑞拉经济发生恶化,中国扩大对委投资的热情已大大降低。委内瑞拉是中国第八大石油供应国。该国供应的主要是重质原油,价格比基准油价要低一些。Nicolas Maduro, Venezuelan president, said in a broadcast aired in his home country on Tuesday evening that the deal would “increase oil production in a gradual way in coming months Mr Maduro is visiting China ahead of a military parade on Thursday to celebrate the end of the second world war in Asia.周二晚,在委内瑞拉播出的电视节目中,马杜罗表示,这笔交易将“在今后几个月里逐步提高石油产量”。马杜罗眼下在中国访问。周四,北京将举行纪念二战亚洲战事结束的阅兵式。Analysts said Venezuela’s economic woes combined with a global slide in oil prices posed China with a dilemma over its dealings with the Latin American country.分析人士表示,委内瑞拉遭遇的经济困境以及全球油价的下滑,令中国在与这个拉美国家打交道时左右为难。“There are two points of view in China said Lin Boqiang, energy expert at Xiamen University and an adviser to state oil company PetroChina. “One is that ‘they are on the rocks, don’t lend moreand the other is that oil prices are so low, it’s an opportunity to secure supply because we know the price will surely go up. You can’t say that either view is incorrect.”厦门大Xiamen University)能源专家、国有石油企业中国石PetroChina)的顾问林伯强表示:“在中国有两种观点。一种认为,‘他们已经破产了,别再借钱给他们’。另一种则认为,油价这么低,正是搞定供应的良机,因为我们知道油价肯定会涨。这两种观点哪种你也不能说是错的。”Venezuelan production has slipped steadily because of chronic under-investment in the country’s ageing and complex oilfields, despite their importance to its economy and export revenues. Crude oil sales account for 96 per cent of Venezuela’s exports, and every drop in the price of oil equates to a 0m hit to government revenues.委内瑞拉的石油产量持续下滑,原因是该国老化而复杂的油田长期投资不足,尽管这些油田对该国经济和出口创收非常重要。原油出口收入占委内瑞拉出口收入6%,油价每下跌1美元,该国政府收入就减少7亿美元。Mr Maduro said Venezuela currently sent about 700,000 barrels a day of oil to China.马杜罗表示,目前委内瑞拉每日向中国输送约70万桶原油。A drop in oil prices to six-year lows has eroded Venezuelan state revenues as well as its ability to meet its payments on debt from China. Beijing extended the schedule for payment late last year, in the face of falling crude prices.油价跌至6年低点不仅侵蚀了委内瑞拉的政府收入,还降低了该国向中国偿债的能力。去年底,面对原油价格的不断下跌,中国政府延长了委内瑞拉的还款期限。来 /201509/397106

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