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来源:ask信息    发布时间:2020年01月23日 10:03:36    编辑:admin         

Finance and Economics;Spain and the markets;The Spanish patient;财经;西班牙及市场;西班牙患者;A full bail-out of the euro areas fourth-largest economy is looming;对欧元区第四大经济体的全面纾困正在逼近;If Spain were a patient, the mood in the hospital ward would be tense. Every attempt by local specialists advised by renowned European consultants to treat the sickness brings no more than temporary relief. Even more worrying, the relapses after each dose are happening sooner and sooner. Spains chances of avoiding intensive care—a full bail-out—are receding to near vanishing-point.如果西班牙是一名患者,那么在医院病房里的气氛是非常紧张的。由欧洲著名顾问建议,并由当地专家所实施的为治疗疾病所做的每个努力都只带来了短暂的缓解。更令人担忧的是,每次药后病情的复发一次比一次提前。如此看来,西班牙想要避免重病特别护理——一次全面的纾困——的希望开始变得遥不可及。The symptoms of Spanish sickness are manifest in ten-year government bond yields touching 7.75% on July 25th; previous bail-outs of Greece, Ireland and Portugal occurred not long after rates had surpassed 7%. Even more perturbing, two-year yields also briefly went above 7%, in effect foreclosing the governments ability to borrow at anything but short maturities.西班牙的症状主要表现为10年期的政府债券收益率在7月25日达到了7.75%;而先前对希腊,爱尔兰和葡萄牙的的纾困正是在债券收益率超过了7%后不久发生的。更令人感到不安的是,2年期的收益率也曾在短时期内突破了7%,这就实际上排除了政府有能力发行长期债券的可能而只能发行短期债券。No isolation ward is possible in the financially integrated euro area and Spains sickness quickly infected other countries. The Italian ten-year bond yield went above 6.5%, its highest since January. European stockmarkets retreated and Italys fell to a euro-era low. Sentiment was further soured by a report from Moodys, a ratings agency, saying that Germany, Luxembourg and the Netherlands might lose their cherished triple-A status. The prognosis was based in part on fears about the public-debt burden that northern countries might have to assume if bail-outs sp.在金融一体化的欧元区是没有隔离病房的,于是西班牙的病情很快就感染了其它国家。意大利10年期的债券收益权超过了6.5%,为1月以来最高。欧洲股市回落,意大利股市降到了欧元区的最低点。一份来自穆迪公司——一家评级机构的报告说,德国、卢森堡和荷兰有可能会失去它们宝贵的AAA评级地位,这就使得股市更加敏感。这种预测部分是根据人们对于公共债务负担的恐惧——人们担心一旦纾困蔓延开来,北欧国家可能需要承担责任。The market funk was the more troubling since a Spanish government with a lot going for it had appeared to be getting a grip. Public debt is rising fast, but at 69% of GDP last year was far lower than Italys 120%—and less even than Germanys 81%. The budget deficit is high (8.9% of GDP in 2011), but only a week before the market panic Mariano Rajoy, the prime minister, announced more tough austerity measures. And on July 20th European finance ministers sanctioned the first tranche of a partial bail-out worth up to EURO100 billion (Dollor121 billion) for Spanish banks.由于仍需努力的西班牙政府似乎开始掌控局面,这种市场恐惧就更令人感到不安了。公共债务快速上升,但去年西班牙公共债务占GDP的69%这一比例远远低于意大利的120%——甚至还低于德国的81%。预算赤字居高不下(2011年占GDP的8.9%),但就在市场恐慌一周前,西班牙总理马里亚诺.拉霍伊还宣布了更多严厉的紧缩措施。7月20日,欧洲财政部长批准为西班牙提供价值1000亿欧元(1210亿美元)的第一批纾困资金。So why are investors in such a cold sweat about Spain? One reason is that Mr Rajoy flunked hard choices at the outset, notably the cleansing of the banks. Despite a low starting-point for public debt, deficit overshoots have revealed insufficient central control over the 17 regions that are responsible for a big chunk of spending. Investors fret that more regions may follow Valencia, which applied for aid on July 20th. They are in any case sceptical that Spain can meet its targets for cutting the deficit in the teeth of a recession that is harsher than expected.那为什么投资者对西班牙市场感到如此惶恐不安?原因之一是拉霍伊总理在一开始的艰难抉择中就失败了,尤其是在清理方面。尽管公共债务一开始很低,但赤字的快速上升表明了中央政府对17个地区的管理不足,这些地区占据了出的很大一部分。巴伦西亚于7月20日申请了救助,而投资者担心会有更多的地区跟随巴伦西亚的步伐。他们怀疑西班牙能否面对超出想象的经济衰退,达成削减赤字的目标。The biggest worry is Spains external debt. Spain ran hefty current-account deficits in the first decade of the euro. As a result, its liabilities to foreign investors exceeded the assets that its residents own abroad by 92% of GDP last year, among the highest in the euro area. The problem for Spain is that foreign capital has been fleeing over the past year. That has weakened the banks and the economy and left the Spanish government shunned by foreign investors for its own financing needs.人们最大的担忧是西班牙的外债。西班牙进入欧元区的第一个十年就背负了大量的往来账户赤字,其结果是去年西班牙的外债超过其居民在国外拥有的资产,其差额相当于GDP的92%,这位于欧元区前列。西班牙的问题是在过去的一年中,外国资本在不断外流,这就使得和经济情况不断恶化,并使得西班牙政府在融资方面吸引不了外国投资者。The European summit in late June offered a flicker of hope but it is guttering. Euro-area leaders agreed that the European Stability Mechanism (ESM), their new permanent rescue fund, would be able to inject funds directly into banks rather than via loans to the government. That perked markets up since it promised to sever the link between weak banks and weak sovereigns. But before long the deal looked less solid: the ESM cannot come into force until September, when Germanys constitutional court will rule on its legality. Assuming it passes that test, the ESM cannot be used for direct bank recapitalisation until a European supervisor is put in charge.六月底的欧洲峰会为人们带来了一丝希望,但这个希望却正在逐渐破灭。欧元区领导人同意欧洲稳定机制(ESM)—— 新的永久救助基金,可以直接为各注入资金而无需通过政府。这个消息让市场振奋不已,因为它承诺断开脆弱的和脆弱的国家之间的联系。但没过多久这个协议便看起来不那么可靠:欧洲稳定机制直到九月才生效,到时德国宪法法庭会对其合法性进行裁决。即使这个机制通过了考验,在欧洲监督机构成立之前,它依然不能直接用来对进行资金重组。Spain may yet be able to fend off a bail-out for some time. It has some cash reserves and can still borrow at short maturities. The euro area also has its temporary rescue fund, which will lend the Spanish government the initial sum of money for the banks. But even if Spain survives a hot summer, the markets are signalling that it will need a full bail-out later this year.西班牙可能仍可抵挡纾困计划一段时间,它还有一些现金并能发行短期债券。欧元区也有临时救助资金,它可以把首批贷款借给西班牙政府以对其进行重组。但即使西班牙能安然度过这个夏天,市场表明其在年底依然需要一次全面纾困。That would be a nightmare, and not just for Spain. The Spanish government must borrow EURO385 billion until the end of 2014 to cover its budget deficit and other needs such as bond redemptions, according to economists at Credit Suisse. Even if the IMF chips in a third as in previous bail-outs, European lenders would have to find EURO250 billion or so. They have aly committed EURO100 billion to rescuing Spanish banks, so for other emergencies they would have only EURO150 billion of the EURO500 billion now in their rescue kitties.这将是一场噩梦,不仅仅对于西班牙来说。瑞士信贷的经济学家们称,在2014年底之前,西班牙政府必须借入3850亿欧元来填补其预算赤字以及满足其它一些需要,如债务偿还。即使国际货币基金组织能和之前的纾困中一样提供三分之一救助资金,欧洲领导人也依然需要筹集2500亿欧元左右。他们已经承诺用1000亿欧元来拯救西班牙,那么一旦出现其它状况,5000亿欧元的救助资金中他们便只剩1500亿欧元来应对。The course of events is eerily similar to what happened a year ago. Then European leaders appeared to have secured their summer holidays with a “breakthrough” summit. But things soon fell apart. Nerves about Italy and Spain were calmed only when the European Central Bank (ECB) started buying their bonds. The central bank was never keen on this and it has not been buying bonds for several months. Even if the ECB were to resume purchases they might be less effective than before, because its refusal to share in the pain of the Greek debt restructuring in March frightened bondholders elsewhere.事件的发展过程和去年的极为诡异地相似。欧洲领导人似乎以“突破性”的峰会保住了他们的暑期,但事情很快又分崩离析。只有在欧洲中央开始购买意大利和西班牙的债券后人们的紧张情绪才得以缓解。中央从未对此如此热情并且已多月未购买债券。但即使欧洲中央重新开始购买债券,效果也大不如从前了,因为3月份希腊债务进行重组时,欧洲中央拒绝承担其债务,这让其它国家的许多债券持有人感到恐慌。The awkward truth is that the Spanish government is not alone in flunking hard choices. The plight of Spain and the danger of its sickness sping to Italy call for a decisive countermove by Germany and the ECB. One being discussed would be to give the ESM a banking licence, which would magnify its resources by allowing it to borrow from the central bank. The graver the euro crisis gets, the bigger the response has to be—and the harder it is to sell to sceptical northern electorates.令人尴尬的事实是,西班牙政府并不是唯一一个在艰难抉择中不及格的政府,西班牙的困境及病情已扩散到意大利,这就需要德国和欧洲中央采取果断应对措施。已经讨论过的措施之一是给欧洲稳定机制发一个执照,允许它从中央贷款,从而扩大其资源。欧元危机一旦变得更加严重,所需做出的回应也更大—— 想要说持怀疑态度的北欧选民也就更加困难。 /201301/222738。

Turkey’s cultural ambitions土耳其的文化雄心Of marbles and men大理石和人Turkey gets tough with foreign museums and launches a new culture war土耳其对外国物馆采取强硬态度,并发动一场新的文化战争IN THE spring of 1887 a Lebanese villager named Mohammed Sherif discovered a well near Sidon that led to two underground chambers. These turned out to be a royal tomb containing 18 magnificent marble sarcophagi dating back to the fifth century . The Ottoman sultan, Abdul Hamid II, ordered the sarcophagi exhumed, placed on rails and carried down to the Mediterranean coast, where they were sent by ship to Istanbul. The largest sarcophagus was believed to contain the remains of Alexander the Great. The coffin is not Turkish and Sidon is now in Lebanon, but the sarcophagus is regarded as Istanbul’s grandest treasure, as important to the archaeology museum there as the “Mona Lisa” is to the Louvre.1887年春,一个名叫穆罕默德·谢里夫的黎巴嫩村民在西顿附近发现一口通向两个地下室的井。这是一座建造于公元前五世纪的皇家墓室,里面有18尊雕刻精美庄严肃穆的大理石棺。奥斯曼帝国苏丹阿卜杜勒?哈米德二世下令发掘这些文物,它们被装上火车运到地中海沿岸,在那里这些石棺被装船运到伊斯坦布尔。人们相信最大的石棺里安放着亚历山大大帝的遗体。这些棺材不是土耳其的,而且西顿现在属于黎巴嫩,但是这些大理石棺被看做伊斯坦布尔最伟大的宝藏。考古物馆对它们的重视,丝毫不亚于卢浮宫看重“蒙娜丽莎”。The mildly Islamist government of Recep Tayyip Erdogan, led by the Justice and Development (AK) party, likes to think of itself as the heir of the Ottoman sultans. The Turkish authorities have recently launched a wave of cultural expansionism, building new museums, repairing Ottoman remains, licensing fresh archaeological excavations and spending more on the arts. A grand museum in the capital, Ankara, is due to open in time for the centenary of the Turkish republic in 2023. “It will be the biggest museum in Turkey, one of the largest in Europe; an encyclopedic museum like the Metropolitan or the British Museum (BM),” boasts an aide to Ertugrul Gunay, the culture and tourism minister. “It’s his baby, his most precious project.”伊斯兰正义发展党领导的温和伊斯兰政府(总理雷杰普?塔伊普?埃尔多安)喜欢以奥斯曼帝国苏丹的继承人自居。最近土耳其当局掀起一波文化扩张的浪潮,建造新的物馆,修复奥斯曼时代的遗迹,准许新的考古发掘,在艺术方面加大投入。2023年首都安卡拉的一座雄伟的物馆会向土耳其公众开放。“它会是土耳其最大的物馆,是欧洲最大的物馆之一,是类似于大都会艺术物馆或大英物馆的百科全书式的物馆”文化旅游部部长图鲁尔?居纳伊的助手豪情满怀地说道,“这是他的孩子,是他最看重的工程。”Turkey’s cultural plans at home are coupled with an unprecedentedly bold campaign to bring back treasures that it believes were stolen, which now sit in Western museums. These plans enjoy political support across the spectrum and the backing of all Turkey’s museum directors. The campaign targets many more objects and museums than the government has so far let on. “We are not waging a battle,” says Mr Gunay. “But this is definitely a struggle in the field of culture. And we are determined to boost our efforts in a more determined and more persistent way.”土耳其国内的文化布局伴随着一场空前激烈的战斗,目的是要收回他们认为以前被盗走现在收藏于西方物馆的珍品。这个计划得到了各阶层的政治持并受到土耳其各个物馆馆长的力挺。这场活动瞄准的文物和物馆比迄今为止政府宣称的还要多。居纳伊说:“我们不是在发动战争,然而这的确是文化领域的斗争。我们将义无反顾,我们的努力将会更坚定,更持久。”The Turkish authorities are using a mix of entreaty and threats to ensure they get what they want. They are refusing to lend treasures abroad, dragging their feet on licensing foreign archaeological digs and launching public campaigns they hope will shame Western museums.土耳其当局用恳求和威胁的手段确保得到他们想要的东西。他们现在拒绝把文物借给外国,拖延颁发外国考古发掘的许可,而且挑起了旨在让西方物馆羞愧的公众运动。201205/184826。

Science and Technology科技Bacteria and behaviour细菌和行为学Gut instinct肠道反应Tantalising evidence that intestinal bacteria can influence mood诱人的据表明,肠道细菌可以影响人的情绪A GOOD way to make yourself unpopular at dinner parties is to point out that a typical person is, from a microbiologists perspective, a walking, talking Petri dish.一个让你自己在晚宴上不受欢迎的好方式就是,从微生物学家的角度指出,一位有代表性的人就是一个会走动并会说话的皮氏培养皿。An extraordinary profusion of microscopic critters inhabit every crack and crevice of the typical human, so many that they probably outnumber the cells of the body upon and within which they dwell.每位有代表性的人的裂纹和缝隙里生活着无数的微小生物,它们的数目如此之多可能超过它们所依靠并栖息的人体细胞。Happily, these microbes are mostly harmless.幸运地是,这些微生物大部分都是无害的。Some of them, particularly those that live in the gut, are positively beneficial, helping with digestion and keeping the intestines in good working order.其中一些,特别是那些生活在消化道里的微生物,实际上是有益的,不仅有助于消化还保持肠道良好的工作秩序。That is no surprise—bacteria as much as people have an interest in keeping their homes in sound condition.这毫不奇怪——细菌和人一样也喜欢保持家园状态完好。What is surprising is the small but growing body of evidence which suggests that bacteria dwelling in the gut can affect the brain, too, and thereby influence an individuals mood and behaviour.奇怪的是,虽然数量不多,但越来越多的据表明,生活在肠道的细菌也可能影响大脑,继而影响个人的情绪和行为。The most recent paper on the topic, published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, reports (like much of the research in this field) on results in mice.本周有关该主题的论文刊登在《美国国家科学院院刊》上的一篇文章报道(像这个领域的许多研究一样)了应用小鼠的实验结果。The researchers, led by Javier Bravo of University College, Cork, split their rodent subjects into two groups.科克大学学院的哈维尔?布拉沃(Javier Bravo)带领下的研究人员将这些啮齿目动物分成两组。One lot were fed a special broth containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus, a gut-dwelling bacterium often found in yogurt and other dairy products.一组以一种在酸奶和其它乳制品中经常发现的含乳酸杆菌属鼠李糖乳杆菌(学名为Lactobacillus rhamnosus)的特别液体培养基喂食。The others were fed an ordinary diet, not fortified with microbes.另一组则以不用微生物强化的一般食物喂食。The team then subjected the mice to a battery of tests that are used routinely to measure the emotional states of rodents.然后,研究组人员对小鼠进行了一套测试。这套测试经常用于衡量啮齿类动物的情感状态。Most (though not all) of these tests showed significant differences between the two groups of animals.大部分(虽然不是所有的)测试表明,两组动物之间有着显著的不同。One test featured a maze that had both enclosed and open tunnels.一个测试是以封闭和敞开的隧道迷宫为特点。The researchers found that the bacterially boosted mice ventured out into the open twice as often as the control mice,研究人员发现,喂食了李糖乳杆菌的小鼠更经常冒险进入敞开的隧道,而且次数是对照小鼠的两倍之多。which they interpreted to mean that these rodents were more confident and less anxious than those not fed Lactobacillus.他们的解释意味着这些啮齿类动物比那些没有喂食李糖乳杆菌的小鼠更有信心而且焦虑更少。In another test the animals were made to swim in a container from which they could not escape.在另一组测试中,研究人员让这些动物在一个无法逃脱的容器内游泳。Bacteria-fed mice attempted to swim for longer than the others before they gave up and had to be rescued.在这些小鼠放弃游泳并不得不被救出之前,李糖乳杆菌喂养的小鼠试图游泳的时间比其它小鼠更长。Such persistence is usually interpreted by students of rodent behaviour as evidence of a more positive mood.这种持久性经常被研究啮齿类动物行为的学生解释为更积极情绪的据。Direct measurements of the animals brains supported the behavioural results.对这些动物大脑的多次直接测量结果持了行为学方面的效果。Levels of corticosterone, a stress hormone, were markedly lower in the bacteria-fed mice than they were in the control group when both groups were exposed to stressful situations.当两组小鼠进行应激实验时,喂食李糖乳杆菌的小鼠体内的应激激素皮质甾酮含量比那些对照组的小鼠体内要明显低地多。The number of receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid, a natural chemical messenger that helps dampen the activity of certain nerve cells, varied in statistically significant ways between the brains of the two groups, with more in some parts of the treated animals brains and fewer in others.γ-氨基丁酸是有助于抑制特定神经细胞活动的自然化学信使。两组小鼠的大脑中γ-氨基丁酸感受器的数目以统计学上显著的方式改变。γ-氨基丁酸感受器在处理过的小鼠大脑的一些部分出现较多些,而在没有处理过的小鼠大脑内则少些。Most intriguing of all, when Dr Bravo cut the animals vagus nerves-which transmit signals between the gut and the brain-the differences between the groups vanished.最引人注目的是,当布拉沃士(Dr Bravo)切断这些动物的迷走神经---传输肠道和大脑之间的信号---两组小鼠间的差异突然消失了。The idea that gut-dwelling microbes can affect an animals state of mind may strike some people as outlandish, and there are certainly loose ends still to be tied up.这个想法---生活在肠道里的微生物能够影响动物的精神状态---可能给一些人留下稀奇古怪的印象,而且肯定还有一些零星问题有待解决。Beyond their evidence that the vagus nerve is crucial to the relationship, for example, Dr Bravo and his colleagues do not yet know the precise mechanisms at work.他们手头的据无法明迷走神经对动物之间的关系至关重要,比如,布拉沃士和其同事至今还不知道其起作用的明确机制。There is also an obvious follow-up question: whether a similar thing is going on in people.况且还有一个明显的后续问题:人类是否也有类似的情况。A few previous studies have hinted at the possibility.以前的几个研究已经暗示这种可能性。For example, bacterial treatments may help with the mental symptoms of illnesses such as irritable-bowel syndrome.例如,细菌的治疗方法可能有助于改善诸如肠易激综合症疾病的精神症状。All this is forcing a reassessment of peoples relationship with the bacteria that live on and in them, which have long been regarded mainly as a potential source of infections.所有这一切正在迫使人类重新评估自身与这些栖居于人体而且人类依靠它们维持生命的细菌之间的关系。An editorial in this weeks Nature raises the possibility that the widesp prescription of antibiotics-which kill useful bacteria as effectively as hostile ones-might be one factor behind rising rates of asthma, diabetes and irritable-bowel syndrome.长期以来,这些细菌主要被认为是潜在的感染源。本周《自然杂志》的社论提出了一种可能性,广泛使用的抗生素处方---抗生素杀死有益菌的有效性就像杀死不利的细菌一样---可能是哮喘,糖尿病和肠易激综合症比例上升的真正因素之一。If Dr Bravos results apply to people, too, then mood disorders may end up being added to this list.假如布拉沃士(Dr Bravo)的结果也应用于人类,那么情感障碍可能最终被添加到这个目录上。 /201211/208228。

Science and Technology科技Materials science材料科学Dont slag it off废渣别融掉How to make bricks out of industrial waste怎样用工业废渣制造砖块BUILDING houses and offices out of toxic waste sounds like a pretty eccentric idea.用有毒废料建造住房和办公室的点子听起来真怪。Yet it may become commonplace if Ana Andres of the University of Cantabria in Spain has her way.但是如果西班牙坎塔布里亚大学的Ana Andres成功的话,这项技术就会广泛应用。For Dr Andres and her colleagues suggest, in Industrial amp; Engineering Chemistry Research, that the humble brick need not be made of pure clay.Ana Andres士和她的同事们在《工业与工程化学研究》中提出,一般的砖不需要全用粘土烧制。Instead, up to 30% of its weight could be slag—the toxic gunk left over when steel is made.反而,高达30%的重量可以是矿渣,这是一种在制钢过程中产生的有毒废料。Waelz slag, to give its technical name, is composed mainly of silica but is also undesirably rich in poisonous metals like lead and zinc.学名是威尔兹的废渣主要由硅土组成,也不可避免的含有诸如铅和锌之类的有毒金属。Getting rid of it safely is thus a problem. Getting rid of it usefully might sound like a miracle.如何安全的去除这些金属是一个问题。能够去除听起来就是个奇迹。But that is what Dr Andres proposes.但这正是Andres士打算解决的。A series of experiments she has conducted over the past three years suggests this is not only possible but will make bricks cheaper and more environmentally friendly.再过去的三年中,她所做的一系列实验表明,安全去除有毒物质不仅可行,还可以降低制砖成本,更加环保。Her research started after she of previous work which had shown that many ceramics suffer no loss of integrity when the clay used to make them is mixed with other materials, and that the molecular structure of some ceramics acts to trap atoms of toxic heavy metals.一些研究表明,在用于烧制的粘土中添加了其他材料后,陶瓷整体的性质没有减弱,一些陶瓷的分子结构捕捉有毒重的金属原子,读到这些后,士开始了她的研究。She wondered whether these things might be true of brick clay and Waelz slag, and she began experimenting.她想知道这些原理对制砖粘土和威尔兹废料是否同样适用,她开始实验。The answer, she found, was that they are.发现是,同样适用。Bricks show no loss of useful mechanical properties even when 20-30% of their content is slag. Nor do they leak.就算20-30%的是废料,砖的力学性能也没有降低。有毒物质也没有泄露。To check that, Dr Andres and her team ground their bricks into powder and soaked them in water, shook them in special machines for days at a time, and even tried to dissolve them in nitric acid.为了验这一点,士和她的科研小组将砖头打成粉末,浸泡在水里,在特殊装置里几天不停地摇晃,甚至在硝酸中溶解粉末。The pollutants stayed resolutely put.污染物没有一丝一毫泄露。Moreover, adding slag to the clay reduced by a third the amount of carbon dioxide each brick released during its manufacture, because wood pulp is added to clay before it is fired, and less clay means less pulp is needed.而且,通过在砖头中增加废料,可以在制砖的过程中减少三分之一的二氧化碳排放,因为添加在粘土中的木浆没有经过燃烧,粘土越少,需要的木浆越少。The cost, too, fell, because slag is free, whereas clay costs money.成本也有所降低,因为废料是免费的,只有粘土需要用钱购买。There is, of course, the problem of customers.当然,消费者是个问题。Whether people will be willing to live and work in structures that double as waste dumps is moot.人们是否愿意住在工作在砖头含有有毒物质,但面积增加一倍的建筑物中还不得而知。But for those who want to make an eco-point, what better way could there be than, literally, to build their green credentials?但是对于那些想做点对生态有益的人,说实话,什么会比建造环保建筑这一绿色明更好的方式呢? /201211/209660。

Several years ago, I was standing at a bus stop when suddenly a couple emerged from a nearby alley, arguing loudly. More or less in unison, we at the bus stop all turned and looked them.几年前,我站在公交车站,突然有一对情侣从附近的巷子冒出来大声争吵。在公交车站的人全都不约而同地转头看他们。Then the man grabbed the woman by the shoulders and, yelling, began to shake her till she was about to fall to the ground.之后男子抓住女子的肩膀大声咆哮,并开始摇晃她,直到她几乎要跌倒在地。I walked quickly to the couple and called out, ;Please, sir, please stop doing that. Youre hurting her.;我迅速走向那对情侣,并大声说:“先生,请你住手。你伤到她了。”The man did stop. His mouth agape, he stared me down and let go of the woman. Two things then occurred. The group of strangers at the bus stop turned and looked away as if nothing had happened. And, a moment later, the man and woman sauntered arm in arm back into the alley.那男子停手了。他目瞪口呆,用目光盯着我使我不敢与他对视,然后他放开了那个女人。之后发生了两件事情。公交站旁的人群转过脸去,看向别处,仿佛什么事情也没发生一样。过了一会儿,男子和女子手挽着手悠闲地走回了那条巷子。It is not easy to discern when to hold back and when to get involved in a potentially sticky situation. When should we say ;Enough is enough,; and stick our noses into something that is not ours? I can understand a person being afraid to get involved in someone elses problem because they fear first, physical danger, secondly, financial damage, and thirdly, general inconvenience.面对一个可能很棘手的情况,要辨别何时该忍,何时又该介入并不容易。我们该何时说出“够了”,然后介入到与自己无关的事情中去?我理解人们之所以害怕介入别人的事原因有三:第一,害怕身体上的危险;第二,担心财物损失;第三,怕惹麻烦。I still feel I did the right thing that day. Would I do it again today? I hope so.我仍然觉得那天自己做了该做的事。要是在今天我还会这样做吗?我想是的。原文译文属!201209/198097。

Books and Arts; Book Review;Fiction from Argentina;The price of love;文艺;书评;阿根廷小说;爱的代价;The juntas policy of eliminating its enemies still fascinates Argentinas novelists;军政府清除异己的政策至今仍吸引着阿根廷小说家;Purgatory. By Tomás Eloy Martínez. Translated by Frank Wynne.《炼狱》,Tomás Eloy Martínez著,Frank Wynne译。An Open Secret. By Carlos Gamerro. Translated by Ian Barnett.《公开的秘密》,Carlos Gamerro著,Ian Barnett译。Open Door. By Iosi Havilio. Translated by Beth Fowler.《敞开的门》,Iosi Havilio著,Beth Fowler译。7 Ways to Kill a Cat. By Matías Néspolo. Translated by Frank Wynne.《杀死一只猫的7种方式》,Matías Néspolo著,Frank Wynne译。It seems appropriate now that Argentinas investigation into the fate of its desaparecidos—the 8,960 people officially known to have “disappeared” under the military dictatorship of 1976-83—was headed by a writer. Ernesto Sábato, who died in April at the age of 99, described his task as a “slow descent into hell”. Ever since “Never Again”, his 1984 report on the “dirty war”, generations of Argentine novelists have followed Sábato into the inferno.1976-83年,在这段军事独裁时期阿根廷有8960人被官方确认为 “失踪”,对这些失踪者命运的调查,可以说走在最前沿的是一位作家。Ernesto Sábato,今年4月逝世,终年99岁,他将这项工作描述为“缓缓沉入地狱”。自从他对这场“肮脏战争”的报道《再也不会》(Never Again)于1984年发表后,一代代阿根廷小说家跟随Sábato走入这段地狱般的历史。For Argentine society, the chapter never closes. Continuing revelations about hundreds of adopted children who were abducted with their parents, or born in custody, have resulted in DNA tests and legal challenges by a campaigning group, “Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo”. Two of these fine recent novels revisit events during the junta. The others—both exceptional debuts—focus on a disturbing present, yet are haunted by unexplained disappearances.对于阿根廷社会来说,这一篇章永不会结束。当年数百儿童随父母一同遭到绑架,有的或出生在拘留所中,这些儿童随后被他人收养。随着他们身世不断被揭开,一个名为“五月广场祖母协会”的人权组织呼吁进行DNA鉴定,并质疑法律的公正性。最近一批优秀小说中有两部回顾了军政府时期的事件。其余几部均是杰出的处女作小说,故事围绕现代生活展开,但人们同样被不明原因的失踪事件困扰,终日惶惶不安。Tomás Eloy Martínez (pictured above), a prominent journalist, novelist and academic who spent years in exile and died in 2010, is known for his explorations of the psychology of Peronism, among them “Santa Evita” (1995). In “Purgatory” (2008), his last novel, an Argentine cartographer in suburban New Jersey senses that her husband has returned to her, no older than when he disappeared 30 years earlier. After years of searching, she remains impervious to evidence of his death as it would confirm that her father, a cheerleading propagandist for the junta, connived in his killing. The novel alludes to the mixture of hypocrisy and collusion that characterised that period, and the banal sentimentality of its distractions—flying saucers, soap operas, fatherland and fútbol (the infamous 1978 World Cup hosted and won by Argentina). The heroines state of denial and her ghostly and erotic delusions mirror a country still struggling with reality.托马斯·埃洛伊·马丁内斯(Tomás Eloy Martínez)(见上图)是一位杰出的新闻工作者、小说家和学者,曾度过数年流亡生活,在2010年去世。他以庇隆主义心理学研究著称,代表作《圣埃维塔》(Santa Evita)(1995)。《炼狱》(Purgatory)(2008)是马丁内斯的最后一部小说。家住新泽西郊区的阿根廷制图师终于与丈夫重聚,但她发觉丈夫和30年前失踪时一样年轻。这些年她不停寻找,虽有据明丈夫的死亡,但她始终不为所动,因为这也可能实她的父亲,一名军政府高级参谋,参与了这起谋杀。小说影射了当时社会的伪善,人与人相互勾结,精神生活和日常消遣平庸乏味——飞碟、肥皂剧、谈论国事和足球(由阿根廷举办并夺冠的不甚光的1978年世界杯)。小说中的女主角拒绝接受现实,终日魂劳梦断,反应出一个国家仍在与现实抗争的社会现状。Craven complicity is at the heart of Carlos Gamerros “An Open Secret”, a literary thriller first published in 2002 that has the makings of a classic. The perfect crime is “one committed in the sight of everyone—because then there are no witnesses, only accomplices.” A veteran of the war in the Falklands (or Malvinas as they are known in Argentina) returns in the 1990s to his hometown in the pampas to probe the disappearance in custody of a troublesome young journalist during the weekend of Diego Maradonas football debut 20 years earlier. He finds a “conspiracy of chattiness” rather than of silence, over a murder the whole town was in on.懦弱的同谋是Carlos Gamerro小说《公开的秘密》(An Open Secret)的中心内容,该书最早出版于2002年,是一部有实力成为经典作品的惊悚小说。完美的犯罪是“众目睽睽之下的犯罪——因为这样没有目击者,只有同谋。”一位参加过福克兰群岛(阿根廷称之为马尔维纳斯群岛)战争的老兵上世纪90年代回到他在潘帕斯草原的家,对一起事件进行调查:20年前迭戈·马拉多纳首次登场比赛,就在那个周末,一个被拘留的麻烦缠身的年轻记者莫名失踪。他发现这并不是一场沉默的阴谋,而是“人人都在谈论的阴谋”,这起谋杀在全城人尽皆知。Mr Gamerro, who was born in 1962, departs from a previous generations reverence for eyewitness testimony and memorialising the dead. The tone is hard-boiled, its cynicism alleviated by rare lyrical flights, and the desaparecido emerges as a spoilt mamas boy and unsavoury womaniser. The “involuntary martyr” is no hero. The perspective is that of a generation seeking the unadulterated truth about their parents and grandparents during the “dirty war”—and hence their own identity. Amid the torrential self- justification of the townsfolk, from barbers to bankers, the subject becomes language itself, which is used to excuse and obfuscate. The stark epigraph is from William Burroughs: “To speak is to lie/To live is to collaborate.”Gamerro出生于1962年,对于历史见者的言和对死者的纪念方式,他没有像上一代人那样完全表现出敬畏。小说语调冰冷,偶有的情感抒发使文章少了些愤世嫉俗之感。失踪者被塑造成受妈妈宠爱的男孩的形象,喜欢拈花惹草,令人反感。“非自愿的牺牲者”绝非英雄。作者将视角投向一代人追寻真相,探查“肮脏战争”期间父辈和祖父辈最真实的经历——同时这也是对自己身份的探寻。从理发师到家,市民们自我辩护的话语铺天盖地而来,人人自顾开脱,令真相扑朔迷离,而这部分语言也构成了小说的主体。书中令人警醒的题词源自威廉·柏洛兹(William Burroughs)的语句:“语言即谎言/生存即勾结。”The bereaved mother in “An Open Secret” appears mad, though the madness is all around her. In “Open Door” by Iosi Havilio, who was born only in 1974, Argentina resembles an asylum. A young veterinary assistant relates how her female lover went missing. She fears that she may have seen her commit suicide off a bridge in Buenos Airess old port. Between trips to the morgue to identify corpses, she visits a pampas village named Open Door, after the psychiatric hospital that was founded there in 1898 as an “agricultural work colony”. In the countryside she moves between two partners: an ageing gaucho—whose name is the same as his ailing horse, Jaime—and an amoral, druggie country girl with plaits.《公开的秘密》中失去儿子的母亲显得有些精神失常,事实上这种荒诞不经充斥于她周边。《敞开的门》(Open Door)作者Iosi Havilio,是一位出生于1974年的年青作家。在阿根廷,open door被视为精神病院。故事中一个年轻的兽医助理在叙述她的女朋友失踪的情形。她似乎看到她从布宜诺斯艾利斯旧港口的一座桥上跳了下去,她很担心。在几次前往太平间辨认遗体的过程中,女主角拜访了一个潘帕斯小镇。小镇名叫敞开的门,是以1898年在此建成的精神病院得名,这里一直是“农业耕种殖民地”。在乡下她往返于两个情人之间:一个是老成的高楚牧人——名字和他的病马一样,Jaime;另一个是梳着辫子,不明事理、吸毒成瘾的乡下女孩。As sexual encounters unfold in the womans alienated voice, the characters merge with the village “loonies”. Events, like interchangeable lovers, have equal weight, from a stable fire to the brewing of maté tea, in an ambiguous tale that verges on dark comedy. A suspected UFO turns out to be the spotlit film set for a commercial. In an asylum without walls, there is “nothing to limit the illusion of absolute liberty”; ultimate control is when people no longer feel they are being coerced. With skill and subtlety, the novel hints that a whole society might labour under an illusion of liberty, manipulated by forces outside the frame.故事在女主角迷茫的声音中继续上演,浪漫情事随之展开,书中人物逐渐加入到小镇“疯子”的行列。对于女主角和各位情人之间发生的各种故事,作者给予了同等的笔墨,从描写马厩的热火到冲泡马黛茶的情节,整个故事寓意隐晦,充满黑色喜剧味道。一个疑似UFO的物体原来是为商业广告设置的聚光灯。在没有围墙的精神病院,“可以无限幻想绝对自由”;当人民不再感到压迫,即是统治的最高境界。小说巧妙地暗示了整个社会都在一种自由的假象下劳作,而操纵这一切的是的势力。What those malign forces might be is more explicit in “7 Ways to Kill a Cat” by Matías Néspolo, another debut novelist of Mr Havilios generation. His shantytown tale from southern Buenos Aires, which recalls the “City of God” slum in the Rio favelas, is set during Argentinas 2001 financial crash, with protesters defying tear gas, from teachers to lorry drivers. It opens in a barrio at the “wolfs mouth”, where the asphalt and streetlights give out, with two peso-less youths butchering a cat for meat. As they become embroiled in a lethal turf war between drug lords, the narrator, Gringo, probes the mystery of his mothers disappearance, and that of his cousin—a reformed gangster turned pavement hawker.这些邪恶势力究竟是什么,《杀死一只猫的7种方式》(7 Ways to Kill a Cat)对此进行了详尽的记述。作者Matías Néspolo,与Havilio是同时代人,也是一位初次亮相的作家。小说以2001年阿根廷经济危机为时代背景,当时从教师到卡车司机,都参与到抗议者队伍中,公然反抗警察镇压。这部窝棚区故事取材于布宜诺斯艾利斯南部,让人想到位于里约贫民窟的“上帝之城”贫民区。故事在有着“狼口”之称的地区展开,这是柏油路和路灯的尽头,两个身无分文的青年为了填饱肚子正在宰杀一只猫。之后他们卷入与毒枭争夺地盘的致命斗争,故事的叙述者Gringo对两起神秘失踪事件展开调查,一位是他的母亲,另一位是他的表兄——曾是一个恶棍,改过自新后成了街边小贩。Gringo, torn between moral scruples and the need to “look after number one”, learns that there are only two ways to kill a cat: civilised or savage. A police crackdown on the marchers prompts him to retaliate in what he sees as a “seriously civilised fashion”. One of the characters in “An Open Secret” claims bitterly that in Argentina, “the winners make history and the losers write it.” To judge from these novels that scour the past and mourn the future, it seems nobody won.Gringo在道德和“一己私欲”之间倍受折磨,他意识到杀死一只猫只有两种方式:文明的方式或野蛮的方式。警察对游行者的镇压迫使他以一种自认为“极度文明的方式”展开报复。《公开的秘密》中有人曾悲愤地说,在阿根廷“胜利者创造历史,失败者记录历史。”纵观这些追寻过去、忧心未来的小说,这里似乎并没有赢家。 /201301/219189。