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2019年06月26日 08:55:09 | 作者:安热点 | 来源:新华社
It didn#39;t take long for Brad O#39;Neill to get back in the game.时隔不久,布莱德·奥尼尔又回来了。It was late 2007, and StumbleUpon -- the popular content discovery service and his highest-profile investment at the time -- had just a few months earlier been scooped up by eBay (EBAY) for million in cash. O#39;Neill, an angel investor for the company, could have easily sat back and enjoyed the return on what one reporter called ;your typical dot-com Cinderella story.; Instead, he started another company.那是在2007年末,几个月前StumbleUpon(热门的内容发现网站,也是当时他最受关注的一项投资)刚刚被eBay (EBAY)以7,500万美元现金收购。StumbleUpon的天使投资人奥尼尔本可就此收手,坐享这笔丰厚的投资回报,有位记者将此称为典型的互联网灰姑娘故事。但是,他转而创立了另一家公司。;I had just sold StumbleUpon to eBay with Garrett Camp and Geoff Smith and was starting to think about a new problem to go solve,; O#39;Neill says. ;My technical co-founder Steve Norall and I were talking. He was working as an industry analyst and overwhelmed with all the writing he had to do. And we were talking about how content automation was becoming increasingly possible. I was in the British Virgin Islands on vacation and ruining it by Skyping with Steve and brainstorming what would become TechValidate.;“我和盖瑞特o坎普、杰夫o史密斯将StumbleUpon卖给eBay不久,就开始考虑一个新的、要解决的问题,”奥尼尔说。“我在和懂技术的共同合伙人史蒂夫o诺埃尔谈。他是一位行业分析师,总是为必须要写的东西忙得晕头转向。我们讨论的是内容自动化正在如何变得越来越有可能。当时我在英属维尔京群岛度假,结果却变成了与诺埃尔在Skype上聊天并酝酿后来成为TechValidate的种种设想。”O#39;Neill describes TechValidate#39;s namesake product as a ;software-as-a-service content automation platform for B2B companies.; Custom content has become a popular approach to marketing, but corporate teams are too busy to create content targeted enough to be effective, O#39;Neill says. TechValidate#39;s tool imports content it deems relevant for verified customers of B2B companies from its library. Marketers then review it in private and publish it across platforms, whether in a marketing automation platform, in a customer relations management tool, on social media channels, or on the web.奥尼尔将TechValidate的同名产品描述为“B2B公司软件即务的内容自动化平台”。奥尼尔表示,自设内容已成为受欢迎的营销手段,但企业团队很忙,难以提供足够的定向内容来保有效性。TechValidate的工具可以从资料库中导入它认为对于B2B公司认用户重要的内容。营销人员审核后可在不同平台上发布,包括营销自动平台、客户关系管理工具、社交媒体渠道、网页等等。;We invented the space. Nobody was doing it before we showed up,; he says.;We built a content robot that is designed to make it simple for a marketing team that is aly overstretched to build targeted content -- so targeted that a human couldn#39;t do it.;“我们开创了这个市场空间。我们出现之前没有人做过这件事,”他说。“我们打造了一个内容机器人,简化了营销团队的工作,以前他们总是为打造定向内容而忙得晕头转向——工具实现的定向性是人类难以企及的。”TechValidate introduced its product in the middle of 2008 and now counts GE (GE), Hewlett Packard (HP), IBM (IBM), Dell, Hitachi, CA Technologies (CA), SAP (SAP), and Intel (INTC) as customers. O#39;Neill says the company -- which did not accept outside investment -- made million in revenue in 2013 and is on track to make million, profitably, this year.TechValidate于2008年年中推出了产品,如今通用电气(GE, GE)、惠普(Hewlett Packard, HP)、IBM、戴尔(Dell)、日立(Hitachi)、CA Technologies (CA)、SAP (SAP)和英特尔(Intel, INTC)都已经是它的客户。据奥尼尔称,这家不接受外部投资的公司2013年实现营收500万美元,今年有望达到1200万美元,实现盈利。;Steve and I had a very conscious decision that we weren#39;t going to seek venture money for this,; O#39;Neill says. ;We kept comparing ourselves to SurveyMonkey, which also has these very positive feedback loops. If we#39;re charging the right amount of money, we won#39;t need venture money. We turned profitable in our first year and we still are.;“诺埃尔和我做出了一个非常清醒的决定,这家公司我们不打算寻求风险投资,”奥尼尔说。“我们总是将自己与在线调查网站SurveyMonkey相比,后者也有这样的正反馈回路。如果我们收取的价格合理,我们不需要风险投资。我们第一年就实现了盈利,目前仍是如此。”Josh Kopelman of First Round Capital, which invested in StumbleUpon, says O#39;Neill and Norall have the right approach. ;I don#39;t believe many teams could have accomplished what Brad has without outside investment. We just don#39;t see too many bootstrapped businesses getting to scale in enterprise software. It#39;s a viable path, but uncommon.;First Round Capital的约什o考普曼曾经投资StumbleUpon。他说,奥尼尔和诺埃尔的做法是对的。“我认为,很少有团队能像奥尼尔那样不借助外部投资就取得这样的成就。我们很少看到创业公司能在企业软件领域达到规模化。这是一条可行的道路,但不常见。”On Tuesday, the company announced a partnership with Oracle (ORCL) to integrate its service into Eloqua, that company#39;s marketing automation software. O#39;Neill describes the deal as a way to make it easier for the 35% of his customers who use Eloqua and TechValidate together, but the arrangement also exposes his company to a larger audience through its presence in the EloquaAppCloud software hub.周二,这家公司宣布与甲骨文(Oracle, ORCL)合作,把自己的务与甲骨文的营销自动软件Eloqua相整合。奥尼尔表示,TechValidate有35%的客户同时使用Eloqua和TechValidate,整合能简化他们的工作,也能让TechValidate通过EloquaAppCloud软件枢纽到达更多受众。;The challenge they have is that they don#39;t have all this content to fill these pages,; O#39;Neill says. ;Companies have gone out and spent millions of dollars for marketing automation, and they realize that the deployment doesn#39;t achieve its objectives without content. Eloqua customers were asking for a more streamlined way to pull our assets into that environment. So now any of our joint customers have the ability to build and distribute and syndicate our content in Eloqua -- they don#39;t have to leave it.;“他们的挑战是没有这样的内容来填充页面,”奥尼尔表示。“企业已经做出了努力,花费了数百万美元实施营销自动化。他们意识到如果没有内容,这些努力并不能实现目标。Eloqua的客户要求以一种更简单的方式,将我们的内容提取至他们的工作环境。现在,我们的任何共同客户都能在Eloqua中建立、发布和集成我们的内容——无需离开Eloqua。”Just how big an opportunity is content automation? O#39;Neill would only say that his company sits in between the ;multibillion-dollar; marketing automation industry and the billion content marketing industry -- ;the single largest line item in the marketing budget.; It#39;s not a bad place to be.内容自动化蕴藏着多大的商机?奥尼尔只是说,他的公司处于“几十亿美元”的营销自动化行业与440亿美元内容营销行业之间——“营销预算中最大的单一出。”这个领域真不赖。;Because we#39;re one of a kind, it#39;s difficult to talk about a total addressable market,; he says. ;When you#39;re a unicorn it#39;s a self-serving thing. But we#39;re sitting between two wonderful trends that are both increasing.;“因为我们是其中一个,很难谈论总的可到达市场,”他说。“当你是独角兽时,这是一件不言自明的事。但目前我们处于两股令人激动的趋势之间,两股趋势都在快速增长。” /201405/301276Here are the top eight signs you’re addicted to your Smartphone.“智能手机上瘾症”的八大症状:1. You use it in the bathroom.1、上厕所也带着它。2. You feel panic when grope to the bottom of your purse.2、时常带着恐慌在口袋里四处摸索。3. When you meet people with the same phone, you can only talk about the phone.3、碰巧与人“撞机”时,除了手机你们就再没有其他的谈资了。4. You broke it and it feels like you lost a friend.4、手机坏了的话,你会如同失去朋友般难过。5. A full battery charge barely lasts the day.5、满格电池铁定会在一天内耗完。6. You’ve cut back on necessities to afford your monthly cell phone bill.6、你会节衣缩食的省下钱去付每月的话费账单。7. You about your phone on your phone.7、时刻关注你使用的手机品牌的动向。8. You have alarms telling you when to do everything in your life.8、备忘录和日程表就是你行动的指南。 /201211/209247China#39;s Huawei Technologies Co. said its smartphone shipments rose 62% in the first half of this year, helped by strong demand in overseas markets such as Latin America and the Middle East for new handsets that work on faster-speed networks.华为技术有限公司(Huawei Technologies Co., 简称:华为)称,上半年公司智能手机发货量增长62%,得益于拉美和中东等海外市场的强劲需求。这些市场对能够在更快网络上运行的新智能手机需求旺盛。The first-half results make Huawei one of the fastest-growing players in the global smartphone market. Earlier this month, market leader Samsung Electronics Co. said it expected a decline in operating profit in the second quarter due to sluggish smartphone sales.上半年的良好表现也使得华为成为全球智能手机市场上增长最快的公司之一。本月早些时候该领域领头羊三星电子(Samsung Electronics Co.)表示,受智能手机销售低迷拖累,预计第二季度营业利润将出现下滑。Huawei shipped 34.27 million smartphones world-wide in the six months through June, the company said Tuesday. Growth accelerated in the second quarter, when it shipped 20.56 million smartphones, the company said.华为周二宣布,今年前六个月公司向全球市场的智能手机发货量达到3,427万部,其中第二季度增速加快,发货量为2,056万部。While China#39;s smartphone market--the largest for Huawei#39;s handset business--is showing signs of slower growth, Huawei is expanding rapidly in emerging markets abroad. The company said its smartphone shipments in the Middle East and Africa increased more than sixfold from a year earlier, while shipments in Latin America rose nearly fourfold. In Europe and the Asian-Pacific region, excluding China, shipments more than doubled, it said.虽然华为手持设备的第一大市场中国智能手机市场增速放慢,但该公司在其他新兴市场正迅速扩张。华为称其中东和非洲智能手机销量同比增长超过五倍,而拉美增长近三倍。该公司还表示,在欧洲和不包括中国的亚太地区,智能手机销量增长超过一倍。To make its name more recognized by consumers abroad, Huawei has been spending more on international marketing, mainly through sponsorship deals with professional soccer teams in Europe, such as the U.K.#39;s Arsenal Football Club and Italy#39;s AC Milan.为提高其品牌在海外消费者中的知名度,华为一直在扩大国际营销出,主要是通过与欧洲的职业足球队签订赞助协议,比如英国的阿森纳足球俱乐部和意大利的AC米兰足球俱乐部。Huawei said it is also trying to sell more mid- to high-end smartphones, rather than selling the cheapest phones on the market. In May, Huawei launched its new flagship smartphone, the Ascend P7, which comes with a 5-inch screen and a camera feature designed specifically for taking group self-portraits. On Tuesday, Huawei said it has sold nearly two million units of the Ascend P7 so far.华为表示,该公司也在试图销售更多的中高端智能手机,而不是销售市场上最便宜的手机。今年5月,华为推出了新款旗舰智能手机Ascend P7,这款手机配有5英寸屏幕和专为集体自拍设计的照相功能。华为周二表示,该公司目前为止已经销售了近200万部Ascend P7。Shenzhen-based Huawei, whose main business is selling telecommunications equipment to carriers, is trying to sell more handsets to challenge the dominance of Samsung and Apple Inc. Even though Huawei was the world#39;s third-largest smartphone vendor in the first quarter, according to research firm IDC, its market share of 5% was still far behind those of Samsung and Apple. In China, the world#39;s largest smartphone market, Huawei faces tough competition not only from Samsung and Apple but from other Chinese handset vendors such as Lenovo Group Ltd. and Xiaomi Inc.总部位于深圳的华为主要业务是向运营商销售电信设备。目前该公司正试图销售更多的手机以挑战三星和苹果(Apple Inc.)的主导地位。研究公司国际数据公司(IDC)的数据显示,今年第一季度华为是全球第三大智能手机销售商,但其5%的市场份额仍远不及三星和苹果。在全球最大的智能手机市场中国,华为不仅面临来自三星和苹果的激烈竞争,还面临来自联想集团(Lenovo Group)和小米(Xiaomi Inc.)等中国手机销售商的竞争。Earlier this month, Richard Yu, the head of Huawei#39;s consumer business group, said in an internal memo that revenue for his group, which mainly sells smartphones, rose 30% in the first half of this year. In the memo, viewed by The Wall Street Journal, Mr. Yu also said that his group by midyear had aly achieved more than half of its 2014 profit target. Huawei has said previously that its smartphone business is profitable, but it hasn#39;t disclosed specific figures.本月早些时候,华为消费者业务集团负责人余承东(Richard Yu)在一份内部备忘录中说,今年上半年该集团收入增长30%。该集团主要销售智能手机。余承东在备忘录中还说,他所在的集团年中前已完成2014年利润目标的一半以上。《华尔街日报》(The Wall Street Journal)看过这份备忘录。华为此前说,其智能手机业务是盈利的,但一直没有披露具体数字。 /201407/316192

The television of the future could be a see-through panel which #39;vanishes#39; when you turn it off - carrying on the current trend for ever-thinner and more unobtrusive sets, The Daily Mail reported.未来的电视机将延续当下“更薄更低调”的风格,关机后会消失成为一个透明板。The technology - TOLED - actually exists, although it#39;s still fairly crude, and producing panels of this size is not currently possible.据英国《每日邮报》报道,这种透明有机发光显示屏技术虽然已经存在,但还很不成熟,并且生产那么大的透明板也还不太可能。A Loewe television using a TOLED screen, designed by Michael Friebe, was shortlisted in the 2011 iF Concept Design competition. 据了解,迈克尔#8226;弗莱比就曾利用该技术设计了一台Loewe电视机,并入围了2011年 iF概念设计大赛。 /201205/183060

While Apple#39;s iPad remains the lodestar at the center of the tablet universe, Microsoft and Google are aiming at its opposite ends. Of those two, Microsoft#39;s strategy looks like the one to get more excited about. 尽管苹果公司(Apple Inc.)的iPad仍然占据着平板电脑市场的主导地位,微软(Microsoft Corp.)和谷歌(Google Inc.)却采取了与苹果截然不同的战略。就这两家公司而言,微软的战略似乎更激动人心。 Google is going cheap, Microsoft high-end. The seven-inch, 9 Nexus 7 tablet from the search giant, released Wednesday, is set to duke it out for the bottom end of the market with Amazon.com#39;s identically sized and priced Kindle Fire. Thus far, price has been the only way rival tablets have been able to take market share away from the iPad-which commanded 63% share in the first quarter, according to Strategy Analytics. Cheaper Android tablets had 32%. So, in that sense, Google is playing it safe.相关报道谷歌推采取了低价策略,而微软则走了高端路线。谷歌周三发布了售价199美元的7英寸平板电脑──Nexus 7,这款产品将与拥有同样尺寸和定价的亚马逊公司的Kindle Fire在低端市场一决雌雄。截至目前,价格已经成了平板电脑市场竞争者与iPad争夺市场份额的唯一手段。根据市场研究公司Strategy Analytics的数据,苹果今年第一季度的市场份额为63%。售价低于iPad的安卓(Android)平板设备获得了32%的市场份额。因此,从这种意义上讲,谷歌的策略是以安全为重。 But Microsoft#39;s Surface-at least the more expensive of its two versions-may be able to carve out its own niche when released late this year or early next year. With a clever keyboard on the flip side of its magnetic cover, ports for connecting other devices and, crucially, compatibility with enterprise applications including Microsoft Office, it is the first crossover tablet that could fully replace a laptop.但是价格更贵的微软Surface(至少比谷歌的平板电脑贵)今年年末或是明年年初上市时,也许能够抢到一部分市场份额。这款电脑巧妙地在磁性保护套的反面配备了键盘,并具有多个与其他设备连接的端口,最重要的是,它可以兼容微软办公软件等企业应用程序,这些特色使之成为第一款可以完全取代笔记本电脑的多功能平板电脑。 Granted, Microsoft has a challenge to attract content and apps to its platform. But if it can do so, it may be able to flip the #39;bring-your-own-device#39; trend that has so many corporate workers bringing iPads to the office. Instead, they may bring the Surface home.毫无疑问,微软面临的挑战是,如何将内容和应用程序吸引到它的平台。如果微软能够做到这一点,它就有可能改变目前许多企业员工不得不带着自己的iPad到办公室使用的做法。相反,人们可以把办公室的Surface带回家。 Going higher-end also means Microsoft would dodge a potential threat to Amazon and Google. If, as is possible, Apple releases a cheaper, smaller iPad, the bottom of the market could gravitate its way as well.走高端路线还意味着,微软可能会避开亚马逊和谷歌的潜在威胁。如果苹果推出一款更便宜、尺寸更小的iPad(这种可能性完全存在),低端市场也许同样会向苹果倾斜。 /201206/188618

Steve Jobs, the late Apple CEO, famously said that a course in calligraphy he dropped in on at Reed College instilled in him an aesthetic that inspired the typefaces and fonts of the original Macintosh computer and eventually those of the entire PC industry.苹果公司(Apple)的已故首席执行官史蒂夫o乔布斯曾说过一段广为人知的话:他在母校里德学院(Reed College)时旁听过一门书法课,从中学到的一些美学知识启发了他在第一代Macintosh电脑中采用多种字型和字体,并最终为整个个人电脑行业采纳。“If I had never dropped in on that single course in college, the Mac would have never had multiple typefaces or proportionally spaced fonts,” Jobs said during a commencement speech at Stanford University in 2005. “And since Windows just copied the Mac, it’s likely that no personal computer would have them.” Jobs went on to say that it didn’t become apparent until much later how that single course impacted the “wonderful typography” of personal computers. “Of course it was impossible to connect the dots looking forward when I was in college,” he said. “But it was very, very clear looking backwards ten years later.”“假如我从未旁听过这门课,Mac电脑绝不会拥有多种字型或按比例间隔的字体。”乔布斯在2005年斯坦福大学(Stanford University)毕业典礼演讲中表示,“而且,自微软Windows模仿Mac之后,可能每一台个人电脑都有了这种字体界面。”乔布斯说,直到很久之后,他才意识到那一门书法课对于个人电脑“丰富多的版面式样”有着多么大的影响。“当然,我上大学时是不可能把未来的这些点串起来的。”他说,“但在十年后回顾这一切时,所有这一切都一目了然。”As Google CEO Larry Page looks backward, he’s realizing how much his musical education inspired critical elements of Google—especially his impatience and obsession with speed.当谷歌的首席执行官拉里o佩奇回顾过去时,他意识到他受到的音乐教育,特别是他对于速度的迫切和执迷,在造就谷歌的核心元素方面发挥了重要作用。“In some sense I feel like music training lead to the high-speed legacy of Google for me,” Page said during a recent interview with Fortune. “In music you’re very cognizant of time. Time is like the primary thing.”“从某种程度上,我感觉音乐训练造就了谷歌的高速传统。”最近佩奇在接受《财富》(Fortune)杂志采访时表示,“在音乐中,你需要对时间有非常清晰的认知。时间基本上是最重要的东西。”Page, who grew up in Michigan, played saxophone and studied music composition while growing up. During college at the University of Michigan, he developed a business plan for a company that would use software to build a music synthesizer. That project, which required the software to work in real time, opened his eyes to a what he saw as a flaw in the software that powers most computers.佩奇在密西根州长大,演奏萨克斯,并学习了作曲。在密歇根大学(University of Michigan)上学时,他为一家利用软件来制造音乐合成器的公司制定了一份商业计划书。在这个要求软件实时工作的项目中,他惊奇地发现了一个他认为大多数电脑软件都存在的缺陷。“It’s amazing to the extent I think that modern operating systems are terrible at being real-time,” Page said. “If you think about it from a music point of view, if you’re a percussionist, you hit something, it’s got to happen in milliseconds, fractions of a second.”“这太让人惊讶了,我发现现代操作系统在实时表现方面相当糟糕。”佩奇说,“如果你从音乐角度考虑,假如你是一位打击乐演奏者,你敲击一下后,声音要在几毫秒后才会发出。”Page’s speed obsession was baked into Google GOOG -0.28% from day one. Page believed, and later measured, that the faster Google’s search engine returned answers, the more it would be used. He fretted over milliseconds and pushed his engineers—from those who developed algorithms to those who built data centers—to think about lag times. He kept Google’s home page famously spare in its design because it would help the document load faster. To this day, atop the search results page, Google tells users how long it took to find answers to a query. Search for “Larry Page and speed” and above the first link you may see “About 21,100,000 results (0.47 seconds).”从谷歌成立的第一天起,佩奇对于速度的执迷便渗透到了公司之中。佩奇坚信,如果谷歌搜索引擎返回搜索结果的速度越快,其使用频率就越高。他随后对此进行了测量。由于不满意毫秒级的反馈速度,佩奇对工程师们(包括开发算法和构建数据中心的工程师)施压,要求他们考虑延迟时间。他维持了谷歌首页非常著名的空白设计,因为这可以帮助文件更快地加载。直至今日,在搜索结果页面顶端,谷歌仍然会告诉用户,它用多少时间找到了搜索结果。搜索“Larry Page and speed”(拉里o佩奇和速度),在第一个搜索结果的链接上方,你会看到“约21,100,000条结果(用时0.47秒)。”During product demos, Page is known to count in his head and complain if he thinks a product is slow. When Google developed the Chrome web browser, it was optimized for speed. And Page’s focus on speed had an impact well beyond Google itself. In 2010, Google began taking into account the loading speed of a website when it ranked in search results. That pushed web masters around the world to work on optimizing their pages for speed.在产品演示时,大家都知道佩奇会默默计时,如果他认为一款产品速度太慢,就会抱怨。谷歌在开发Chrome网络浏览器时对其进行了速度优化。佩奇对于速度的关注所带来的影响已远远超出了谷歌自身。2010年,谷歌在对搜索结果排序时开始考虑网站的加载速度。这迫使全世界的网站管理员对网页加载速度进行优化。The whole Internet may be faster because of him, but that doesn’t mean Page is satisfied.因为他的缘故,整个互联网可能都变快了,但这并不意味着佩奇就会满足。“It’s amazing to the extent to what software developers kind of get lazy, and they’re okay with things taking a while,” Page said. “But it’s really not okay.” After a short chuckle, Page added: ”People can process information really quickly. And if your phone is sluggish or whatever, it’s a huge problem.”“看到软件开发人员懒散的程度让人感到惊讶不已,他们觉得,软件运转需要一些时间没什么大不了的。”佩奇说,“但这的确是不能容忍的。”他笑了笑说,“人们能非常快地处理信息。如果你的电话性能不佳或有其他问题,就是一个大问题。”Page may have not relaxed his exacting demands for products to work in real time. But since he took over as CEO in 2011, he began insisting that Google focus on another critical element that was also inspired by his music education: beauty.如今,佩奇可能还没有放松要求产品实时工作的苛求。但自从2011年他接任公司首席执行官后,他开始坚持让谷歌注重另一项核心要素:美学。这也是音乐教育给予他的启迪。Page determined that beautiful design and speed no longer needed to be at odds, and he pushed his engineers and product managers to focus a new, unified, and more elegant design, for all of Google’s web products. The initial effort, internally called Project Kennedy, first focused on Google’s search page, and later touched virtually every other Google service. Since then, visual design has become an integral part of the development process, especially on mobile.佩奇相信美学设计与速度并不矛盾,他敦促工程师和产品经理为谷歌所有的网络产品推出全新统一的、更为优雅的设计。谷歌内部将这一项目称为肯尼迪项目(Project Kennedy),一开始以谷歌的搜索页面为主,后来几乎涉及到了谷歌其他所有务。自此以后,视觉设计已成为开发流程一个不可或缺的部分,特别是移动应用。“I do think there is an important artistic component in what we do,” he said. “As a technology company I’ve tried to really stress that.” Page says he learned to appreciate that “artistic component,” in part through music.“我认为,艺术是我们所做工作的一项重要组件。”他说,“作为一家科技公司,我一直在努力强调这一点。”佩奇说,他学会欣赏“艺术组件”一定程度上是因为音乐的缘故。Now, Page’s interest in music has taken a new turn. How it will impact Google, if at all, remains to be seen. “The last couple of years I’ve been trying to learn percussion a bit, which has been challenging,” he said.如今,佩奇对音乐的兴趣转向了新的领域。至于会为谷歌带来什么样的影响,仍有待观察(如有影响)。“近几年我在努力学习一点打击乐,这很具挑战性”,他说道。 /201411/344395

SAN FRANCISCO — The same tools that help millions of Americans work from home are being exploited by cybercriminals to break into the computer networks of retailers like Target and Neiman Marcus.旧金山——帮助数以百万计的美国人从家里上班的同样工具正被网络犯罪分子利用,成为侵入塔吉特百货(Target)和尼曼(Neiman Marcus)等零售商计算机网络的手段。The Homeland Security Department, in a new report, warns that hackers are scanning corporate systems for remote access software — made by companies like Apple, Google and Microsoft — that allows outside contractors and employees to tap into computer networks over an Internet connection.美国国土安全部在一份新报告中警告说,黑客在搜查企业计算机系统以发现其中的远程访问软件,这类软件由苹果(Apple)、谷歌(Google)和微软等公司提供,能让外部承包商和公司员工通过互联网进入公司的计算机网络。When the hackers discover such software, they deploy high-speed programs that guess login credentials until they hit the right one, offering a hard-to-detect entry point into computer systems.当黑客发现这种软件后,他们使用快速猜测登录信息的程序,直到碰上一个正确的,这就给他们提供了一个难以识破的打进计算机系统的切入点。The report, which Homeland Security produced with the Secret Service, the National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center, Trustwave SpiderLabs, an online security firm based in Chicago, and other industry partners, is expected to be released on Thursday. It provides insight into what retailers are up against as hackers find ways into computer networks without tripping security systems.这份报告是国土安全部与其他部门合作产生的,合作单位包括特勤局(Secret Service)、国家网络安全和通信集成中心(National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center)、总部设在芝加哥的在线安全公司Trustwave SpiderLabs,以及其他行业的合作伙伴,报告预计于周四公布。它为零售商面临的挑战提供了深入了解,黑客在寻找不触发安全系统报警的方法进入计算机网络。It is also a reminder that a typical network is more a sprawl of loosely connected computers than a walled fortress, providing plenty of vulnerabilities — and easily duped humans — for determined hackers.报告也提醒人们,典型的网络由松散连接的计算机组成,不是一个有围墙的堡垒,对有决心的黑客来说,这样的网络存在着大量的漏洞,还有容易上当的用户。“As we start to make more secure software and systems, the weakest link in the information chain is the human that sits on the end — the weak password they type in, the click on the email from the contact they trust,” said Vincent Berq of FlowTraq, a network security firm.“随着我们开始把软件和系统变得更安全,信息链中最薄弱的环节就是那些坐在用户端的人:他们键入弱密码,他们点击所信任的联系人发来的电子邮件,”网络安全公司FlowTraq的文森特·伯尔克(Vincent Berq)说。While the report does not identify the victims of these attacks, citing a policy of not commenting on current investigations, two people with knowledge of these investigations say that more than a dozen retailers have been hit. They include Target, P. F. Chang’s, Neiman Marcus, Michaels, Sally Beauty Supply, and as recently as this month, Goodwill Industries International, the nonprofit agency that operates thrift stores around the country.虽然这份报告援引不目前调查的政策为由,没有指明攻击的受害者,但两位对调查知情的人士说,有十多家零售商都受到过网络攻击,包括塔吉特百货、华馆(P. F. Chang)、尼曼、迈克尔斯公司(Michaels)、莎莉美容用品(Sally Beauty Supply),以及直到本月还受过攻击的国际好意企业(Goodwill Industries International),这是一家在美国各地的经营旧货店的非营利机构。Once inside the network, the hackers deploy malicious software called Backoff that is devised to steal payment card data off the memory of in-store cash register systems, the report says. After that information is captured, the hackers send it back to their computers and eventually sell it on the black market, where a single credit card number can go for 0.报告说,黑客一旦进入网络,他们使用一个名为Backoff的恶意软件,从店内收银器系统的内存上窃取付卡的数据。在捕获到这些信息后,黑客将其发送回自己的计算机,并最终将信息在黑市出售,一个信用卡号在黑市上可卖到100美元(相当于620元人民币)。In each case, criminals used computer connections that would normally be trusted to gain their initial foothold. In the Target breach, for example, hackers zeroed in on the remote access granted through the retailer’s computerized heating and cooling software, the two people with knowledge of the inquiry said.在每次这种攻击中,犯罪分子用的都是通常被信任的连接,让他们获得进入计算机的最初立足点。比如,在塔吉特百货的例子中,让黑客钻空子的,是该零售商计算机化的制热制冷系统软件的远程登录许可,两位了解调查情况的人表示。In an interview, Brad Maiorino, recently hired as Target’s chief information security officer, said a top priority was what he called “attack surface reduction.”在接受记者采访时,塔吉特百货最近聘请的首席信息安全官布拉德·迈奥里诺(Brad Maiorino)表示,当务之急是他称之为“减少受攻击面”的工作。“You don’t need military-grade defense capabilities to figure out that you have too many connections,” Mr. Maiorino said. “You have to simplify and consolidate those as much as possible.”迈奥里诺说,“你不需要军用级的防御能力就知道你有太多的连接。你需要尽可能地简化和合并这些连接。”The Secret Service first discovered the Backoff malware (named for a word in its code) in October 2013. In the last few weeks, the agency said that it had come across the malware in three separate investigations. Most troubling, the agency said that even fully updated antivirus systems were failing to catch it.特勤局是在2013年10月首次发现Backoff这个恶意软件的(其名称来自软件编码中的一个词)。该机构表示,在过去几周里,它已在三个不同的调查中遇到这个恶意软件。该机构说,最令人不安的是,就连全面更新的防病毒系统都未能查出这个恶意软件。Low detection rates meant that “fully updated antivirus engines on fully patched computers could not identify the malware as malicious,” the report concluded.低查出率意味着“打了所有补丁的计算机系统上的全面更新的防病毒引擎无法识别这个恶意软件是恶意的”,上述报告的结论说。Backoff and its variants all perform four functions. First, they scrape the memory of in-store payment systems for credit and debit card “track” data, which can include an account number, expiration dates and personal identification numbers, or PINs.Backoff及其变异版本都有四项功能。首先,它们从店内付系统的内存中获取信用卡和借记卡的“踪迹”数据,这些数据可能包括账户号、有效期,以及个人识别码(简称PIN)。The malware logs keystrokes, as when a customer manually enters her PIN, and communicates back to the attackers’ computers so they can remove payment data, update the malware or delete it to escape detection.这个恶意软件能记录按键动作,比如一个顾客用手输入自己的PIN这种动作,把其传回攻击者的计算机,使他们能够取得付数据,更新恶意软件或将其删除以免被发现。The hackers also install a so-called backdoor into in-store payment machines, ensuring a foothold even if the machines crash or are reset. And they continue to tweak the malware to add functions and make it less detectable to security researchers.黑客还在店内付款机上安装所谓的后门软件,确保即使在机器死机或重置后仍能进入系统。他们不断调整恶意软件,增添新功能,使其更不易被研究计算机安全的人察觉到。Security experts say antivirus software alone will not prevent these attacks. They recommend companies take what is called a “defense in depth” approach, layering different technologies and empowering security professionals to monitor systems for unusual behavior.安全专家说,杀毒软件本身并不能阻止这些攻击。他们建议公司采取所谓的“纵深防御”方法,用不同层次的技术,授权安全专家来监视系统中的不寻常行为。Among the report’s recommendations: Companies should limit the number of people with access to its systems; require long, complex passwords that cannot be easily cracked, and lock accounts after repeated login requests.这份报告的建议包括:公司应限制登录其系统的人数;要求登录者使用不能被轻易破解的长且复杂的密码,出现多次重复的登录请求后封锁帐户。The report also suggests segregating crucial systems like in-store payment systems from the corporate network and making “two factor authentication”— a process by which employees must enter a second, one-time password in addition to their usual credentials — the status quo.报告还建议,把关键系统,比如店内付系统,与企业的网络隔离,让“双重认”程序成为常态,“双重认”指的是除了通常需要的登录密码外,员工必须另外输入第二个、一次性的密码。The report also recommends encrypting customers’ payment data from the moment their cards are swiped at the store, logging all network activity and deploying security systems that can alert staff to unusual behavior, like a server communicating with a strange computer in Russia.报告还建议,从顾客在商店刷卡的那一刻起就加密客户的付数据,记录所有的网络活动,启用有异常行为时,比如一台务器与一个俄罗斯的陌生计算机通信,能提醒有关人员的安全系统。At Target, Mr. Maiorino said he planned to build a security program as tough as what was expected from military contractors.迈奥里诺说,他计划在塔吉特百货建立一个强度可达到军事承包商所要求的安全系统。“All of the same tools and techniques that nation states are using for attacks have been commoditized and are available for sale in the black market,” Mr. Maiorino said. “And for the right amount of money you can go out and create a cybercrime ring at a relatively low cost.”“与国家使用的网络攻击工具和技术相同的东西都已经商品化了,而且都在黑市上有卖的,”迈奥里诺说。“只要有足够的钱,你就可以去用相对较低的成本组建一个网络犯罪团伙。” /201408/319453

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