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A class act佼佼者Freedom and discipline go together in an innovative school在一所革新的学校,自由和纪律同行Innovation in schools学校改革 THE scene is enough to appal those teachers steeped in ideas about child-centred education and learning through play. At the Durand Academy, a large primary school set amid tough housing estates in south London, a class of four-year-olds files into the corridor. Dressed in navy blue uniforms, the children silently divide, boys lining up against one wall, girls by the other. Following rules laid down by the watching boss of the school, Greg Martin—a man of firm convictions, once compared to Stalin by trade-union activists—the children stand with one finger to their lips, as a reminder to be quiet. 这个场景足以让那些整日浸淫于“教育要以孩子为中心”和“寓教于乐”等思想的教师们感到震惊。杜兰德专科学校坐落于南伦敦贫困居民区中,是一家大型小学,一个4岁班的同学们依次来到走廊里,他们穿着深蓝色的校,默无声息地分成两组,男生靠一边的墙排成一队,女生靠另一边墙排成一队。根据监事校董格雷格?马汀(他具有坚定的信念,曾被工会活动分子比作斯大林)的规定,孩子们站在那里,用手指指着嘴唇,提醒自己保持安静。 Durand pupils are trained to move about the school in hushed crocodiles. Their work is marked strictly, with low scores carefully explained. Teachers'lesson plans must be approved by senior staff. Classes are filmed for use in training. 杜兰德学校的学生们要接受这样的训练,排成纵队在校园中静静地走动。他们的表现要进行严格的打分,如果分数低的话,还要认真地说明原因。普通教师的授课计划必须征得高级教师的批准。课堂要拍下来以备训练使用。 Mr Martin is one of a vanguard of senior teachers endeavouring—with support from Michael Gove, the education secretary—to put discipline at the heart of teaching. But this does not involve a lurch back to past ferocities. His school feels secure and calm rather than strict. “I'm four today,” a small girl whispers in the corridor, before popping her finger back on her lips, eyes agleam with birthday excitement. Her classmates wriggle happily as their teacher praises them for “lining up so beautifully”. 马汀先生是高级教师先锋之一,在教育大臣迈克尔?戈夫的持下,他努力把纪律摆在教学的中心位置,但这并不是说又一下子回到过去的简单粗暴。在这个学校天,能感受到的是安全、宁静,而不是严格。“我今天4岁了。”走廊里,一个小女孩低声说道,然后迅速把手指重新放在嘴唇上,眼睛里闪着过生日才会有的兴奋。老师表扬同学们 “队列排得真整齐”,他们愉快地缓缓前行。 At a recent seminar on school discipline, Mr Gove and a clutch of star head teachers who have turned around failing (indeed out-of-control) schools discussed how firm, consistent rules are a tool for social mobility, enabling children from deprived backgrounds to escape the effects of often chaotic home lives. Mr Martin noted how many new pupils arrive unprepared for learning: unable to sit still and listen, or not toilet-trained. Half his 968 pupils receive free school meals (a marker for family poverty). Most are from black African or Caribbean backgrounds. Before the formal skills, all are taught something simpler: that they are constantly making choices, which have consequences. 在最近一次的学校纪律研讨会上,戈夫先生和一些曾使差校(实际上处于失控状态)发生改观的明星校长们展开讨论:怎样才能使严格的、一贯的纪律成为社会流动的工具,使贫穷的孩子们能够摆脱那些常常是乱糟糟的家庭生活的影响?马汀先生记下了入学但没有为学习做好准备的学生数量:他们不能静静地坐下来听课,甚至连用卫生间都不会用。他的968名学生,有一半得到了免费的校餐(这是家庭贫困的标志),他们大多是非洲或加勒比地区的移民后代。在学习正式的技能之前,首先要学习那些更简单的事情:他们常常做出选择,这也产生了一定效果。 Mr Martin's approach combines the traditional virtue of discipline with the extended freedoms offered to ambitious heads by the coalition government. He has been innovating on the same site for 25 years, taking advantage of each new reform that offered greater autonomy. Last year Durand secured academy status, gaining new powers to shape its curriculum and to recruit and pay staff on its own terms. Mr Martin shows off two smart, indoor swimming pools. Swimming lessons, he explains, teach the very smallest to undress and dress themselves, which many have never tried. The larger pool is open to the paying public after midday, and forms part of a private enterprise (also including a gym and a block of flats) that subsidises organic lunches, smaller than average classes and after-school care. 马汀先生的方法,既注重遵守纪律的传统美德,又充分利用联合政府给予他们这些胸怀改革雄心的校长们扩展了的自由。25年来他一直致力于这一学校的改革,利用每一次新改革所赋予的更大自主权。去年,杜兰德获得了专科学校的身份,使他们有新的力量制定自己的课程,按照自己的条件招聘员工并付报酬。马汀向我们展示了两个整洁的室内游泳池。他解释说,游泳课程教给那些最小的孩子如何穿衣脱衣这些很多学生从未尝试的事情。大游泳池午后对公众有偿开放,就像一个私营企业的一部分(还有一个体育馆和一片公寓),可以资助有机午餐,比一般的班级和课外看护机构的规模要小。 The experiments seem to be working. Durand is rated “outstanding” by Ofsted, the schools inspectorate. When they arrive, its three-year-olds, chosen non-selectively by catchment area, are well behind the national average. By final tests at 11, the children are in the top 2% in the country. Achievement and calmness follow each other says Mr Martin. Disruptive behaviour is “usually about fear”, triggered when children (especially boys) do not know how to do something. 实验似乎正在发生作用,学校的监察机构“英国教育标准局” 将杜兰德学校的工作评定为“杰出”级。实验开始时,学校接收的是本学区三岁的孩子,这无可选择,他们的入学水平远远落后于全国的平均水平。到11岁毕业测试时,他们的成绩已跃居全国的前2%。马汀先生说,成绩与平静相互促进,捣乱性的行为通常和害怕有关,多在孩子们(特别是男孩)不知道一件事如何做时发生。 The school's boldest experiment lies ahead. Tired of watching Durand’s high-achieving, happy 11-year-olds sink or fall prey to bad influences at their next schools, Mr Martin is opening a middle school and, in 2014, a weekly boarding school for 600 pupils from 13 to 18, on land Durand has bought in West Sussex. The education department has promised up to £17.3m for the new buildings. Existing state boarding schools charge for food and lodging. This one will be entirely free. 学校最大胆的实验还在后面。马汀先生不想看到那些得了高分、快快乐乐的11岁的孩子们今后堕落成学习中不良影响的牺牲品,他开办了一所中学。2014年,一所面向13到18岁孩子、可以容纳600名学生的寄宿制学校将在西埃塞克斯郡开办。教育部门许诺将为新校舍提供1730万英镑的资金。现在的寄宿制学校食宿是收费的,而这所学校却是完全免费的。 Nothing quite like it has been tried before; Whitehall officials cannot guarantee that it will succeed. But to Mr Gove's team, experimental risk is not the downside of setting schools free (more than 1,000 have gained academy status since 2010): it is the point. Parents will choose those schools that work. Durand, currently a remarkable exception, may be just the start. 此前还没有过类似的实验,白厅官员并不能保它一定会成功。但对于戈夫先生的团队来说,实验的风险不是学校自由度的缩小(2010年以来,1000多所学校获得专科资格):这才是问题的关键所在。家长将选择那些运转良好的学校。杜兰德专科学校,现在已是一个非凡的另类,也许这只是开始。201111/160923As Japan's new Prime Minister Naoto Kan took power Tuesday, he received an unexpected boost from online sales of T-shirts bearing his picture and the message "Yes we Kan".While Kan was being sworn in by Japan's Emperor Akihito, Japanese retailer ClubT said it had sold more than 100 T-shirts online with the catch phrase, a reworking of US President Barack Obama's election motto "Yes We Can".Meanwhile sales of shirts poking fun at his scholarly predecessor Yukio Hatoyama, who stepped down last week, were also surging as people snapped up memorabilia of the premier who carried the moniker "The Alien".A Washington Post columnist in April called Hatoyama hapless and "increasingly loopy" over his contradictory comments in a dispute over a US airbase that badly strained ties with Washington and finally led him to resign.Hatoyama later conceded in parliament he may indeed be described as loopy, leading ClubT to print a T-shirt that : "Self-professed loopy Hatoyama"."When Hatoyama went into office, his T-shirts didn't sell but they soared after he resigned," company executive Tomohiro Miyake said."On the other hand Kan's T-shirt is selling well on his inauguration. It's a sign that the quality of the two leaders' level of popularity is different."【Notes】catch phrase:a phrase in wide or popular use, especially one serving as a slogan for a group or movement(口头禅,警句)poke fun at: to ridicule or mock, esp. covertly or slyly(取笑)snap up:to acquire quickly(抢购)201006/106194I, robot-manager人与机器人的管理Management thinkers need to ponder more about homo-robo relations 管理思想家需要考虑更多关于人与机器人的关系ROBOTS have been the stuff of science fiction for so long that it is surprisingly hard to see them as the stuff of management fact. A Czech playwright, Karel Capek, gave them their name in 1920 (from the Slavonic word for “work”). An American writer, Isaac Asimov, confronted them with their most memorable dilemmas. Hollywood turned them into superheroes and supervillains. When some film critics drew up lists of Hollywood’s 50 greatest good guys and 50 greatest baddies, the only character to appear on both lists was a robot, the Terminator.机器人已经被认为是科幻的东西太久了以至于把他们看做管理事实的东西惊人地难。一为捷克剧作家Karel Capek在1920年给他们取了名字(来自斯拉夫语意为“工作”)。一位美国作家以撒·阿西莫夫让他们面对他们最难忘的困境。好莱坞把他们变成了超级英雄和超级大坏蛋。当一些电影家写出好莱坞50只最好的人和50只最坏的人的名单时,唯一一位同时出现在两份名单上的角色是终结者。It is time for management thinkers to catch up with science-fiction writers. Robots have been doing menial jobs on production lines since the 1960s. The world aly has more than 1m industrial robots. There is now an acceleration in the rates at which they are becoming both cleverer and cheaper: an explosive combination. Robots are learning to interact with the world around them. Their ability to see things is getting ever closer to that of humans, as is their capacity to ingest information and act on it. Tomorrow’s robots will increasingly take on delicate, complex tasks. And instead of being imprisoned in cages to stop them colliding with people and machines, they will be free to wander.现在管理思想家是时候赶上科幻作家的脚步了。自20世纪60年代起机器人已经在生产线上做杂活了。世界上已经有超过100百万的工业机器人。现在机器人变得更聪明更廉价的比率也在增长:一个爆炸性的组合。机器人正在学着对他们周围的世界作出回应。他们看东西的能力逐渐接近人类,他们摄取信息的容量以及对其作出反应。以后的机器人逐渐能够从事精致与复杂的工作。代之把他们关进笼子以防与人类和机器对抗,机器人将会自由漫步。America’s armed forces have blazed a trail here. They now have no fewer than 12,000 robots serving in their ranks. Peter Singer, of the Brookings Institution, a think-tank, says mankind’s 5,000-year monopoly on the fighting of war is breaking down. Recent additions to the battlefield include tiny “insects” that perform reconnaissance missions and giant “dogs” to terrify foes. The Pentagon is also working on the EATR, a robot that fuels itself by eating whatever biomass it finds around it.美国的武装力量已经在这里开拓了一条路。他们现在有不下12000只机器人务于他们的队伍。智囊团布鲁金斯学会的彼得·辛格说,人类在战争上5000年的垄断正在被打破。最近增加到战场的包括执行侦察任务的小“昆虫”和吓唬敌人的大“”。五角大楼正在研发强动力自动战术机器人,一种通过吃任何在它周围找到的生物质来补充能量的机器人。But the civilian world cannot be far behind. Who better to unclog sewers or suck up nuclear waste than these remarkable machines? The Japanese have made surprisingly little use of robots to clear up after the recent earthquake, given their world leadership in this area. They say that they had the wrong sort of robots in the wrong places. But they have issued a global call for robotic assistance and are likely to put more robots to work shortly.但是平民的世界不能落后。谁通下水道或者吸收核废料的功力能比这些非凡的机器要好?日本人在最近一次地震后的清理中用到的机器人惊人地少。他们说他们在错误的地方选择了错误的机器人。但是他们已经在全球范围内发布了关于机器人助理的声援而且貌似马上会投入更多的机器人。201104/133840Obama Faces 100 Days Test奥巴马白宫百日:善于与民众沟通 President Barack Obama is going through a rite of political passage this week - he is marking his first 100 days in office. The significance of the 100 days marker goes back to the presidency of Franklin Roosevelt, who assumed power at the height of the Great Depression in 1933, and his first priority was reassuring the public that better days were ahead.这个星期是奥巴马总统上任100天的重要日子,这是政治历程中的一个重要阶段。100天这个标志的重要性是从富兰克林.罗斯福总统开始的。富兰克林.罗斯福是在1933年大萧条最严重的时期担任总统的。当时他的首要任务是向公众保,前途是光明的。"You people must have faith. You must not be stampeded by rumors or guesses. Let us unite in banishing fear," he said. 他说:“你们必须有信心,绝不要被流言和猜测所吓倒。让我们团结起来驱散恐惧。”Roosevelt was a master communicator and the first president to make effective use of the radio to build public support.罗斯福很善于和民众沟通,他是第一位有效地利用广播来获取公众持的总统。Roosevelt's ambitious legislative program aimed at reviving the economy and his decisive leadership style remain the gold standard for how a new president takes charge in the first 100 days in office.罗斯福雄心勃勃的振兴经济的立法项目和他果断的领导作风,至今仍然是衡量一位新总统如何在就职100天里行使权力的最高标准。Other presidents had to cope with domestic and foreign policy stumbles in their first 100 days.有的总统不得不在就职后的100天里应对国内和外交政策上的失误。In 1961, President John Kennedy took responsibility for the disastrous Bay of Pigs invasion involving U.S.-supported Cuban exiles trying to overthrow the government of Fidel Castro.1961年,约翰.肯尼迪总统为猪湾入侵的灾难性后果承担责任。那次事件涉及在美国持下的古巴流亡者企图推翻菲德尔.卡斯特罗的政府。For Kennedy, it was an early political setback for a president untested on the world stage.肯尼迪当时是一位在世界舞台上还没有受到考验的总统,这一事件是他早期遭遇的政治挫折。"On that unhappy island, as in some many other arenas in the contest for freedom, the news has grown worse instead of better," he said.肯尼迪说:“从那个不幸的岛屿上传来的消息,就像为争取自由而斗争的许多其他地方一样,越来越糟,而不是越来越好。”President Barack Obama faced an incredibly daunting economic situation in his first 100 days in office.巴拉克.奥巴马总统在就职后的100天里面临一个极为棘手的经济局面。In some ways, Mr. Obama has modeled his initial approach in office on that of Franklin Roosevelt, mindful of Roosevelt's ability to communicate with the public and convey harsh realities and hope at the same time.从某些方面来说,奥巴马上任初期的做法是以富兰克林.罗斯福为表率的,他注意到罗斯福与公众沟通的能力,在向他们指出严酷现实的同时也让他们抱有希望。"By no means are we out of the woods just yet. But from where we stand, for the very first time, we are beginning to see glimmers of hope," he said.奥巴马说:“我们现在还没有走出困境。但是就目前的情况来说,我们头一次开始看到了希望的曙光。”Journalists and political experts are spending a lot of time evaluating Mr. Obama's first 100 days in office, even though many of them acknowledge the 100 days mark is an arbitrary number.新闻记者和政治专家花了很多时间来评估奥巴马就任总统后100天内的政绩,尽管他们中的很多人承认,用100天来衡量是很武断的。Stephen Hess is a political scholar at the Brookings Institution in Washington:史蒂芬.赫斯是华盛顿布鲁金斯学会的一位政治学者。"It is a useful way to assess each individual president, not in historical terms, but just looking back and saying how have they gotten off the ground," said Hess.他说:“这是评估每一位总统行之有效的方法,不是从历史的角度来评估,而只是回顾一下他们上任后是怎么开始执政的。”Political analyst Stuart Rothenberg says the president's early and continuing popularity is in large part due to Mr. Obama's ability to convince voters that he is willing to tackle the nation's economic problems head-on.政治分析人士罗腾伯格说,奥巴马总统之所以能在早期,以致持续深得民心,主要是因为他能让选民相信他愿意毫不含糊地处理美国的经济问题。"You have to say the one thing that he has done is he has brought a fresh spirit to the American public, a sense of at least partial relief that the government is trying to turn the economy around, is hands-on, understands people's problems, and that is really important," Rothenberg said.他说:“你不得不承认他做到了一件事情:那就是在美国公众间振奋人心,至少让公众的情绪放松了一些,使他们感到政府正在努力扭转经济局面、正在着手处理问题,而且政府理解人民的难处,那的确相当重要。”Opposition Republicans accuse the president of wanting to follow a far-left economic and social agenda, and they warn that his government spending plans will result in a huge jump in the national debt.反对党共和党人指责奥巴马总统遵循极左的经济和社会方针,他们还警告说,奥巴马的政府预算计划将导致国家债台高筑。But analyst Rothenberg says so far, Mr. Obama has been able to deflect some of the partisan criticism.但是分析人士罗腾伯格说,迄今为止,奥巴马一直能转移反对派对他提出的批评。"The strengths are clearly his personal ability to communicate with people, to communicate with the American public and to motivate and to change the mood in the country. And he has done a good job, I think, in trying to reach out to all Americans and not running a particularly partisan presidency, at least in rhetoric," he added.他说:“显然他个人的人际交流能力是力量的源泉,也就是他和与美国公众的交流、调动积极因素并改变国内民众情绪的能力。他干得最出色的是设法和各界美国人民接触,不单纯从党派立场来执政,至少在口头上是如此。”But Republicans also complain that Mr. Obama has so far failed to follow through on his campaign promise to change the political tone in Washington and reach out to the opposition party.但是共和党人仍然在抱怨奥巴马到目前为止还没兑现自己改变华盛顿政治气氛并联合反对党的竞选承诺。That complaint may be highlighted in the next 100 days and beyond as the president moves to tackle politically divisive issues like health care reform and energy independence.那种抱怨可能在今后的100天或者更长的时间里更为突显,因为奥巴马总统要采取步骤处理具有政治分歧性的医疗改革和能源独立问题。Brookings Institution expert Stephen Hess says Mr. Obama should push as much of his agenda as he can early on to maximize his political leverage.布鲁金斯学会的专家赫斯说,奥巴马应当及早全力以赴地推动自己的议程,以便充分利用他的政治优势。"This is a good way to proceed because a president is never as popular and never has as much public support as when he first gets elected, otherwise it's like an hourglass with the sand running out, so take advantage of that honeymoon knowing full well that you are not nearly going to get all that you propose," he said.他说:“这是取得进展的好办法,因为一位总统在刚当选时期往往最深得民心、他的公众持率也是最高的。反过来说,就像一个沙漏,随着时间的推移沙子逐渐漏失,所以务必抓紧蜜月时机,而且要明白你所提出的建议不会全部通过的。”President Obama enjoys solid public support as he marks his first 100 days in office. The latest New York Times-CBS News poll shows his approval rating at 68 percent, while a Washington Post-A News poll registered his approval at 69 percent.奥巴马总统上任100天,他享有相当高的公众持率。最近纽约时报和哥伦比亚广播公司新闻节目的民调结果显示,他的持率为68%,而华盛顿邮报和美国广播公司新闻节目的民调结果是,他享有69%的持率。04/68367McCain Offers New Economic Plan美总统候选人承诺帮助中产阶级  Republican presidential candidate John McCain has unveiled a new economic plan. 美国共和党总统候选人约翰.麦凯恩公布了一项新的经济计划。Senator John McCain announced a series of steps he would take if elected that are intended to help middle-class Americans cope with the ongoing financial crisis. 参议员麦凯恩宣布了一系列措施,如果他能够当选,他将帮助美国的中产阶级应付目前的财政危机。McCain said he would eliminate taxes on unemployment benefits and would have the government take additional steps to protect against bank failures.  麦凯恩说,他将取消对失业福利的税收,同时政府将采取更多的步骤,以防止倒闭。"On my orders, the Department of the Treasury will guarantee 100 percent of all savings accounts for a period of six months," McCain said. "This will calm the understandable fears of widesp bank failure, while also restoring rational judgment to the choices of the market."  麦凯恩说:“根据我的命令,财政部将在六个月内百分之百地担保所有储蓄账户,这将能够平静对倒闭的普遍担心,同时也能够对市场的选择恢复理性的判断。”Behind in public-opinion polls with three weeks to go until election day, McCain is trying to find ways to address voter concerns about the economy, the number-one issue in the campaign. 由于离美投票还有三个星期的时间,而麦凯恩在民意调查中落后,他正努力寻找办法来解决选民关注的经济问题,这已经成为这次选举的头号议题。In his latest speeches, McCain has backed off from some of the personal attacks aimed at Senator Obama. 麦凯恩在最新讲话中不再对参议员奥巴马进行人身攻击。Instead, McCain recalls his experience as a prisoner of war during the Vietnam War and urges voters to fight for their beliefs.  麦凯恩转而回顾他在越南战争中曾经当过战俘的经历,并敦促选民应该为他们的信仰而奋斗。"I know what fear feels like," McCain said. "It's a thief in the night who robs your strength. I know what hopelessness feels like. It is an enemy who defeats your will. I felt those things once before. I will never let them in again. I'm an American and I choose to fight!"  麦凯恩说:“我知道恐惧的感觉。那种感觉就像窃贼在夜间剥夺了你的力量。我知道无望的感觉,就像你的敌人摧垮了你的意志。我以前曾经有过一次那样的感觉,我永远不会让他们再来。我是一个美国人,我选择战斗!”McCain's focus on the economy came one day after Senator Obama outlined his own plan to help Middle America. 就在麦凯恩把重点放在经济问题上的前一天,参议员奥巴马概述了他自己的帮助美国中产阶级的计划。Obama would also suspend taxes on unemployment benefits and would place a 90-day moratorium on home foreclosures. 奥巴马也将暂停对失业福利征税,并对由于付不出分期贷款而导致房屋被拍卖的家庭实行为期90天的宽限。Obama also said he would provide tax breaks for businesses to create new jobs.  奥巴马还表示,他将提供税收优惠,以鼓励企业创造新的就业机会。"It is a plan that begins with one word that is on everybody's mind, and it's easy to spell. J-O-B-S, jobs! Senator McCain may be worried about losing an election, but I am worried about you losing your jobs," Obama said. "I am worried about you losing your homes. I am worried about you losing your life savings."  奥巴马说:“这是一个计划,这个计划以一个单词开始,并在每一个人的头脑里,这个单词也很容易拼写,那就是J-O-B-S, 就业机会!参议员麦凯恩可能担心在这次总统大选中失败,但我担心的是你会不会失去你的工作。我担心的是你会不会失去你的房屋,我担心的是你会不会失去你一生的积蓄。”Obama took the day off to prepare for the third and final presidential debate on Wednesday. The economy will be the focus of the debate, which will be held at Hofstra University in New York. 奥巴马休假一天,准备第三次也是最后一次总统候选人辩论。美国经济将是这次辩论的重点,辩论将于星期三在美国纽约州的霍夫斯特拉大学举行。The debate may present one of the last opportunities to change the trajectory of the presidential race. 这次辩论可能是改变总统竞选势头的最后机会之一。Recent national polls give Obama a lead of between six and 10 points over McCain. 最新的全国民意调查结果显示奥巴马领先麦凯恩6至10个百分点。In addition, polling by Quinnipiac University in Connecticut shows Obama pulling away from McCain in key battleground states including Colorado, Wisconsin, Minnesota and Michigan.  此外,奎尼匹克大学在康涅狄克所做的民调显示,奥巴马正在赢得双方争夺的关键的州,包括科罗拉多州、威斯康星州、明尼苏达州和密西根州。Polling experts say historically it can be difficult for candidates trailing this late in a presidential campaign to come from behind and win on Election Day.But Gallup pollster Frank Newport told MSN television that Senator McCain could take encouragement from the 1980 election race between President Jimmy Carter, a Democrat, and Republican challenger Ronald Reagan. "Another example, however, is in 1980 when our polling showed Jimmy Carter, the incumbent, ahead by as much as six points just a week or two before the election," Newport said. "Then they had a debate, the dust settled, and Reagan won the popular vote by 10 points." Recent polls also show that voters regard the economy as the top issue in the campaign by a large margin over other topics such as national security, the war in Iraq, and health care.200810/52849

G-20 Agrees on Huge Stimulus, Tough Regulations to End Economic Crisis各国首脑赞峰会 并力一向战衰退 Leaders of the world's 20 major developed and emerging economies have agreed on huge spending measures to boost world economies and implement tougher financial regulations to try avoid such crises in future. 全世界20个主要发达和新兴经济体领导人同意采取大规模开措施,振兴全球经济,并且实施更严格的金融管理,以避免今后发生类似的危机。Coming out of their full day meeting in London, G-20 leaders spoke of success, unprecedented consensus and historic compromises. 20国集团各国领导人结束了在伦敦举行的一整天会议,他们谈到会议的成功、达成的前所未有的一致、以及具有历史意义的妥协。They pledged trillion for the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and other global institutions for individual countries to draw on to restore credit, economic growth and jobs.  与会各国领导人保向国际货币基金组织、世界等国际金融机构提供1万亿美元,以便这些机构向各国提供贷款,帮助这些国家恢复信贷、经济增长和就业。U.S. President Barack Obama described the summit as a turning point.  美国总统奥巴马认为这次首脑会议是一个转折点。"In an age when our economies are linked more closely than ever before, the whole world has been touched by this devastating downturn," said President Obama. "And today, the world's leaders have responded with an unprecedented set of comprehensive and coordinated actions." 奥巴马说:“各国经济比以往如何时候都更加密切相连,在这种时代,全世界都受到这种毁灭性衰退的影响。今天,世界领导人对这次衰退采取了一系列全面和协调一致的前所未有的行动。”President Obama said lessons of the past had been learned. 奥巴马说,我们吸取了过去的一些教训。"Faced with similar global economic challenges in the past, the world was slow to act, and people paid an enormous price," said Mr. Obama. "That was true in the Great Depression [of the 1930s], when nations prolonged and worsened the crisis by turning inward, waiting for more than a decade to meet the challenge together." 奥巴马说:“以往面对类似全球性经济难题时,世界反应迟缓,人们付出了巨大代价。上个世纪30年代大萧条时期的情况也是如此,当时各国采取关闭大门的措施,等了10多年各国才一致应对挑战,因此拖长了那场危机的时间,使它更加恶化。”Summit host, British Prime Minister Gordon Brown said the world had come together with a united plan to combat the global recession. 这次20国集团首脑会议东道国英国的首相布朗表示,世界已经团结在一起,拿出了一项共同方案,以战胜这次全球性经济衰退。"We believe that in this new global age, our prosperity is indivisible," said Gordon Brown. "We believe that global problems require global solutions. We believe that growth to be sustained must be shared and that trade must once again become an engine of growth." 布朗说:“我们相信,在这个新的全球化时代,我们的繁荣是不可分割的。我们认为全球性问题要拿出全球性解决方案。我们认为,持续经济增长必须由各国分享,国际贸易必须再次成为带动增长的引擎。”The summit's emphasis clearly was on coordinated action. G-20 leaders said they will maintain their current stimulus plans and expansionary policies as long as needed. 这次首脑会议的重点显然是要采取协调一致的行动。20国集团领导人表示,它们将继续执行现有的刺激方案和扩大开的政策,需要多久就执行多久。Again, Prime Minister Gordon Brown  布朗首相还说:"Together, these actions give us confidence that the global economy can return to growth even faster than the International Monetary Fund is now predicting," he said. “这些行动集合在一起,让我们坚信,全球经济能够恢复增长,而且时间会比国际货币基金组织现在预期得要快。”There were vows against protectionism and for tougher measures to regulate banks, credit rating agencies and hedge funds, and a crackdown on tax havens.  这次20国集团首脑会议还保反对贸易保护主义,采取更严格措施约束、信贷评级机构和对冲基金,打击逃税港。"The banking secrecy of the past must come to an end," said Britain's prime minister. 布朗说:“以往实行的保密制度必须取缔。”The measures announced are wide ranging. But economic analysts say that what is just as crucial is that the leaders project a united front and a commitment to coordinate efforts to combat the crisis. 这次首脑会议宣布的措施涉及面很广。不过经济分析人士认为,最关键的是与会各国领导人让世界看到了一个统一阵线,并保进行协调一致的努力,战胜危机。One after the other, the G-20 leaders seemed intent on doing just that. French President Nicolas Sarkozy said the summit exceeded his expectations and German Chancellor Angela Merkel spoke of a very good, almost historic compromise. 20国集团每一位领导人看来都非常愿意那样做。法国总统萨科齐表示,这次首脑会议超过了他的预期;德国总理默克尔说这次首脑会议非常成功,与会者做出了几乎是具有历史意义的妥协。No one, it seemed, was going to bring up the differences within the G-20. The ed States and Britain had wanted more government stimulus spending while Germany, France and most other European nations wanted tougher regulation of the financial sector. Some of the poorer nations wanted to ensure they were not forgotten and the bigger emerging economies, such as China and India, were intent on having a bigger say at the summit. 似乎没有人想在20国集团内部提出意见分歧。美国和英国希望各国政府增加对经济起刺激作用的出,而德国、法国等欧洲国家希望对金融部门制定更严格的法规。一些比较贫穷的国家希望确保它们没有被遗忘,而中国和印度等比较大的经济体希望在这次首脑会议上有更大发言权。Throughout the meetings, a wide variety of protesters turned out to make their voices heard. On Wednesday, thousands of demonstrators took to the streets of central London - including anti-war, anti-poverty and anti-globalization groups as well as environmentalists and anarchists. While most of the marching resembled a giant street party, there were clashes with police and some arrests. On Thursday, the demonstrators who turned up around the ExCel Center, where the G-20 leaders met, were reported in the hundreds. 整个首脑会议期间,各类示威者走上街头表达自己的心声。星期三,数千名示威者在伦敦市中心举行抗议,包括反战、反贫困和反对全球化的团体以及环保人士和无政府主义者。大多数游行好像是大型街头聚会,也发生了示威者跟警察的冲突,一些示威者被逮捕。星期四,到20国集团首脑会议开会的艾格色中心周围示威的人数据说只有数百人。04/66332

Bruce Lee 'Lost' Interviewan unedited 25 minute interview with Bruce Lee (1940-1973) on the Pierre Berton Show. Recorded on 9th December 1971 in Hong Kong, Bruce Lee ... all raquo; is seen being himself, speaking candidly and informally about his life, his martial art beliefs and philosophy. Through the programme Bruce's supreme confidence, charisma and focus provide a tremendous insight into the young Bruce Lee - the man behind the legend.Well, I mean, definitely, in the beginning, I had no intention or whatsoever, that what I was practising and what I’m still practising now would lead to this, [Yeah, I know] to begin with. But martial art has a very, very deep meaning as far as my life is concerned because as an actor, as a martial artist, as a human being, all these I have learned from martial art.Maybe for our audience who doesn’t know what it means, you might explain exactly (All right) what you mean by martial art. Right. Martial art include all the combative arts like karate, judo, Chinese kung fu, or Chinese boxing whatever you call it , all those, you see like aikido. I can go on and on and on. But it’s a combative form of fighting, I mean it’s not, some of them became sport but some of them are still not, I mean, they are used, for instance, kicking to the groin, jabbing fingers in the eyes and things like that.No wonder you are successful in it. Chinese movies are full of this kind of action anyway. They needed a guy like you could....[Violence man]So you didn’t have to use a double when you moved in the motion picture role here, you did it all yourself? Can you break five or six pieces of wood with your hand or your foot?I’ll probably break my hand and foot.But tell me a little bit, you set up a school in Hollywood, didn’t you? For people like James Gardner, Steve McQueen and the others.[Yes.] Why would they want to learn Chinese martial art, because of a movie role? Not really, most of them, you see, to me, at least the way that when, I mean, when I teach it, all type of knowledge ultimately means self knowledge. So therefore they’re coming in to, I mean, for, and ask me to teach them not so much of how to defend themselves or how to do somebody in. Rather, they want to learn to express themselves through some movement, be it anger, be it determination or whatsoever. So in other words, what I'm saying therefore is that he’s paying me to show him in combative form the art of expressing the human body.Which is acting in a sense,[Well..] or it would be a useful tool for an actor to have?It’s, I mean, I might, it might sound too philosophical, but it’s unacting acting or acting unacting, if you...You’ve lost me.I have, so what I’m saying, actually you see, I mean, is a combination of both, I mean here is the natural instinct, and here is control. You are to combine the two in harmony, not, if you have one to the extreme, you’ll be very unscientific.02/62420

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