明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年10月19日 09:00:35
Its no secret that Chinas economy is growing at a rapid pace. 众所周知,中国的经济正在飞速发展。But it may surprise you to learn that some Chinese citizens are growing, too...taller,但可能会让你大吃一惊的是一些中国人也在长高,that is, thanks to the popularity of leg-lengthening surgery.这是由于流行的腿骨延长手术所致。Thats right: were talking about a type of surgery that can make you at least two to three inches taller.是的:我们讨论的是一种能使你至少长高两到三英寸的手术。The details are pretty gruesome.但手术过程可是毛骨悚然。First, the doctor breaks the tibia and fibula--the bones of the lower leg.首先,医生折断小腿骨的胫骨和腓骨。Then, a device comprised of two metal rings connected by extendable rods--the fixator-is screwed into both ends of the broken bone through the skin.然后,一个由伸缩杆连接两个金属环组成的固定架装置通过皮肤拧入骨头折断的部分。About a week later, the stretching begins.大约一个星期后开始拉伸作业。The surgeon lengthens the fixator in small, two millimeter increments.外科医生会以2毫米的增量延长固定器。This slowly pulls the broken bones apart, allowing new bone to grow and fill in the gap.这一缓慢的过程使得折断的骨头分开,允许新骨头生长并填补其中的空白。If all goes well, the three month bone-lengthening period is followed by another three to six months of bone strengthening.如果一切顺利,为期3个月的骨延长期间后紧随而至的是另一个3至6个月的骨增强作业。During this phase the patient is confined to a wheelchair and must undergo physical therapy thats typically described on leg lengthening websites as ;extremely painful.;在这一阶段的病人要以轮椅为伴并且必须接受物理治疗,腿骨延长网站称这一治疗“痛苦之极”。But, barring complications such as infection where the fixator is attached to the bones and nerve injury, after about a year you can be back up and walking around on newly lengthened legs.但是,要是没有固定器附着在骨骼的感染等并发症和神经损伤,大约一年之后你就可以完好如初并且使用加长腿漫步了。The surgery was invented in Russia in the early 1950s to help dwarves and other abnormally short people who wanted to attain a more normal height.俄罗斯在20世纪50年代早期发明这项手术,目的在于帮助矮小人士和其他异常人士获得更为正常的身高。Recently, though, in places like China, leg lengthening surgery has become trendy for people convinced that being taller leads to better jobs and more money.不过,最近在中国这样的国家,腿骨延长手术已成为时尚,人们相信好的身高能够带来更好的工作和更多的收入。201311/265504

  We are really able to spy pretty much anywhere in this little beach here.我们会拍到的,这个小海滩,到处都是海豚。where the dolphins are and basically tell Nick and Ben to hurry up and round over there and see if they can get a shot of it.尼克和本跑到那边去,看他们能不能拍到。Stifling aly, it s gonna be about 35-40 today I reckon.真令人沮丧,我想差不多已经有35,40天了。Then up on the cliff, Eric spots a movement.悬崖上面,艾瑞克拍到了一些。Oh there comes one, just stare on the point by the see whether Berge is flying off.来了一只,就在鸟停靠的那个地方。She really closes in, so she might...now.真的靠的很近,我去告诉他们。So she looks like she might surf hydroplaning.离岸边很近,好像开始划水了。See, we can get it, come on.看能不能拍到,快点!Normally, natural history ships are a game of patience.通常拍摄自然影片需要很大的耐心。This one is turning into a chase, in 40 degree eat.这次就是在40度高温下奔跑。201407/315405


  Business商业报道Golden parachutes金色降落伞Rip-cord economics打开经济降落伞Pay-offs for the boss need to be better designed企业老板薪酬结构须改善RICH rewards for departing bosses are not popular.离职的老板还领着厚饷总让人难以接受。After Sir Fred Goodwin led Royal Bank of Scotland into a ditch and dumped the bill on British taxpayers, he left with a pension of over £700,000 a year.弗雷德?古德温爵士把苏格兰皇家推进深坑,继而用英国纳税人的真金白银买单走人之后,居然每年还享有70万英镑的退休金。The Sun, a tabloid, said he had screwed the nation.英国小报太阳报直陈其把整个国家都搞砸了。Yet golden parachutes have their uses.不过金色降落伞条款也并非一无是处。 If well-designed, they align the bosss interests more closely with those of shareholders.如果妥善拟备该等条款,老板的利益会更紧密地和股东利益协调一致。Suppose, for example, a takeover is brewing.例如,在拟收购的项目中,该等条款的作用就可见一斑。Takeovers are usually lucrative for shareholders of the target firm:对于目标公司的股东而言,收购通常会带来丰厚回报:in America between 1990 and 2008, they have received a median premium of 35%. But the bosss interests are quite different.在美国1990年至2008年间的收购项目中,目标公司股东的收益溢价中值为35%。If the firm is acquired, he is likely to be fired.但老板的权益相去甚远;如果公司最终被收购,其可能官位难保。A golden parachute can persuade the boss not to obstruct a takeover.妥善的金色降落伞条款可促使老板不为收购设置障碍。But their notoriety dissuades firms from using them.但鉴于该条款通常不受欢迎,公司不太会动用。Dirk Jenter of Stanford University and Katharina Lewellen of Tuck Business School find that golden parachutes are rarer and stingier than they should be.斯坦福大学的德克?珍特和塔克商学院的卡特琳娜?卢埃林研究认为:金色降落伞条款不应该像现在这般罕见且苛刻。To test whether bosses block takeovers, they looked at what happens when they are nearing retirement, and therefore have no future career to sacrifice.为核查企业老板是否会因其自身原因选择阻碍收购,这两位学者研究了临近退休的老板会如何处理收购项目。Using data on American public firms from 1992 to 2008, they found that companies with a boss aged 65 or over were 50% more likely to be taken over.他们分析了1992年至2008年美国上市公司的数据,结果显示:老板年龄在65岁以上的公司被收购的可能性高出50%。Another paper, by Eliezer Fich and Ralph Walkling of Drexel University and Anh Tran of Cass Business School,德雷塞尔大学的埃利泽?芬奇、拉尔夫?沃克林与卡斯商学院的陈安在一篇共同发表的论文中指出:found that when golden parachutes are larger, proposed mergers are more likely to be completed,如果金色降落伞的力度增强,拟合并项目达成的可能性更大,but buyers pay less for the shares of the target firm.但买方就目标公司股份所付的对价则减少。The data from Mr Jenter and Ms Lewellen show that when the boss of the target firm is old, buyers pay an average premium of 26%.珍特与卢埃林的统计数据显示:如果目标公司的老板年届退休,买方付的平均溢价为26%;For younger bosses, the premium is 33%.而对于老板年龄较轻的公司,则为33%。This makes sense. If younger bosses are more reluctant to sell, it will cost more to overcome their objections.这就说明了问题所在:年轻的老板相对不太愿意售出其公司,所以买方须付更高溢价以平息其反对意见。So boards must strike a balance.所以,董事会必须寻求一种平衡。If the bosss golden parachute is too miserly, he may block a deal that would benefit shareholders.若金色降落伞条款对企业老板过于不利,其可能会干预对股东有利的交易;If it is too generous, he may fail to negotiate hard with potential buyers.反之,若金色降落伞条款对其过于优厚,其可能不愿尽心尽力与拟收购方谈判。As with real parachutes, poor design can have serious consequences.跟真正的降落伞一样,劣质的金色降落伞所带来的后果可能不堪设想。 /201305/239696

  Reproductive technology生殖技术Mum, Dad and Mitomum妈妈,爸爸与妈妈Britain may allow babies with three biological parents英有望允许新生儿有三个亲身父母ASSISTED reproduction is one of those rare areas in which Britain really does do world-leading research. Louise Brown, the worlds first “test-tube” baby, was born in an Oldham hospital in 1978. In-vitro fertilisation, the technique that resulted in her conception, was pioneered by Robert Edwards and Patrick Steptoe, two British doctors. In 2010 Mr Edwards was awarded the Nobel prize in medicine for his work.英国在辅助生殖技术这个十分小众的研究领域中的确达到了世界领先水平,1978年作为世界首例“试管婴儿”的路易斯·布朗就出生于英国奥尔德姆医院。体外受精胚胎移植,也是其受成功的关键技术,是由两位英国医生罗伯特·爱德华和帕特里克·斯特普托率先开创的。2010年爱德华士还因此被授予了诺贝尔医学奖。Now the government is pondering another first. On June 3rd the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority, which regulates assisted reproduction, opined that, as far as it could see, there was no evidence to suggest that a genetic-engineering technique called “mitochondrial transfer” was unsafe.如今政府正考虑开创另一个第一。6月3日负责监管辅助繁殖技术的人类受精与胚胎指出,就目前看来,并没有据显示一种称作“线粒体转移”的基因工程技术是不安全的。The technology, which was pioneered in Britain and America, is designed to cure the roughly one baby in 6,500 that would otherwise be born with a serious, untreatable mitochondrial illness. But it has caused a stir, for two reasons. Children born via the technique would have three genetic parents. And, if approved, it would be the first time that any country has allowed a genetically engineered change that could be passed on to the offspring of the person on whom it was performed.由英国和美国率先提出的这项技术是被用来治疗那些可能一出生就患有某种严重的、无法医治的线粒体疾病的宝宝,而这种情况在6500个宝宝中大约会发生一例。但是,该技术的提出却引起了轰动,造成轰动的原因有两个。首先,通过该技术出生的孩子将会有三个遗传上的父母。其次,如果这项技术被批准,这将是首例有国家认可的技术,即基因因转基因工程发生改变的人,可以把转基因后的特征遗传给后代。Mitochondria are tiny structures, present in almost every cell in the body, that convert food and oxygen into energy. They are the descendants of ancient bacteria which gave up their free-living lifestyle to form a symbiotic relationship with other cells. As such, they have their own tiny genomes, independent from the DNA in the cells nucleus. Unlike that nuclear DNA, which is inherited from a childs father and mother, every mitochondrion in a persons body is descended from those inside his mothers egg.线粒体是微型结构,几乎存在于身体中的每一个细胞中,能够将食物和氧气转化为能量。他们是远古细菌的后代,远古细菌放弃了他们独立生存的方式职位与其他细胞形成一种共生的关系。因此,他们有自己的微型基因组,独立于细胞核中的DNA。不同于核DNA是遗传自父母亲的,人类身体中的每一个线粒体出身于其母亲卵子中的线粒体。The idea is to give a baby with misfiring mitochondria a fresh set donated by another woman. That involves removing the nucleus of the fertilised egg and transplanting it into a second, donor, egg which contains properly-functioning mitochondria.该理论就是给缺少有效线粒体的婴儿换上由另一位女士捐献的一套充满活力的线粒体基因组。其过程包括将受精卵核移除,并将其移植至第二个包含了正常运作线粒体的捐献者的卵子上。The resulting child would inherit roughly 20,000 genes-worth of nuclear DNA from its mother and father, and exactly 37 mitochondrial genes from the egg donor. In other words, it would inherit its genetic information from three people. And because those same donated mitochondria would find their way into a female childs eggs, the procedure would alter the DNA of her children in turn.最终诞生的孩子将遗传到来自其父母的约2000个有遗传价值的核DNA,并且还将遗传到来自卵子捐献者的刚好37个线粒体基因。换句话说,它将从三人中遗传其基因信息。再次,因为同一位捐献者的线粒体基因组会自己找到进入女婴卵子的方法,所以这一过程也将依次改变她的孩子的DNA信息。Three-parent babies and gene-line modifications might be expected to invite shrill headlines about “playing God”. By and large, that has not happened. Britain does not go in for American-style culture wars. But part of the credit also belongs to its cautious bureaucrats. The HFEA has a reputation for thoroughness . This report on safety is the third it has issued. Even then, it recommended a few more experiments be carried out.拥有三个父母的宝宝以及对基因链的修改的报导可能会荣登报纸头条,同时被冠上“扮演了上帝”的尖锐标题。总的来说,这一切是不会发生的,英国并不会陷入美式的文化战争。但是,还有一部分原因是因为有关部门的谨慎行事,人类受精与胚胎素以办事的彻底性闻名。这已经是第三次做出关于其安全性的报告了,即使那样,人类受精与胚胎还是再推荐了几个需要实施的实验。But thoroughness is a good thing with an experimental treatment like mitochondrial transfer, reckons Douglass Turnbull, a neurologist at the University of Newcastle and one of the pioneers of the technique. He points to the HFEAs public consultations. Most people the outfit spoke to “didnt even know what a mitochondrion was, at first,” he says. “But when the technique was explained to them, most decided that the benefits outweighed the risks.” And he points out that many other rich countries, lacking a specialist regulator of their own, look to the HFEAs work to inform their own laws.但是对像线粒体转移这样的实验处理来说,办事彻底并不是一件好事,纽卡斯尔大学的神经病学家同样也是该技术的开创者特恩布尔·道格拉斯这样认为。他指出人类受精与胚胎(HFEA)在公众咨询方面存在的问题,大多是机构人员“起初甚至完全不知道线粒体是什么,”他说道。“但是当有人向其解释了这项技术后,大多数人都认为它的好处超过了它存在的风险,”并且他还指出许多其他富有的国家,因为缺少自己的专业监管机构,正向人类受精与胚胎寻求制定相关法律的帮助。The technique has both public approval and the HFEAs blessing in principle. The government has made it a priority, too: in February it published draft regulations that, if passed by Parliament, would make Britain the first country to license mitochondrial transfer in humans. Assuming no serious problems turn up at the last minute, the first three-parent babies could arrive within a couple of years.这项技术既获得了公众持,原则上也获得了人类受精与胚胎的同意。政府也将其列为优先事项:2月份就公布了相关法律草案,如果一旦被议会通过,这将使得英国成为首个许可人类线粒体转移的国家。假设到最后一刻都没有严重问题出现的话,预计几年后我们就能看到拥有三个父母的宝宝了。 /201406/308405

  Business商业报道Multinationals in China跨国公司在中国Guardian warriors and golden eggs金刚VS金蛋The states crackdowns on big firms are not all about bashing foreigners中国政府制裁大公司,对象绝非仅是外国人FOREIGN companies love to complain about doing business in China.外国公司喜欢抱怨在中国做生意,游戏规则于其不利;The rules of the game are rigged against them, they grouse, the locals are corrupt and the government is always turning the thumbscrews on them.他们埋怨华人腐败,政府总是给其穿小鞋。Amid such moans it is worth remembering that, for all the barriers that foreign multinationals face in China, it has welcomed them with open arms compared with the protectionism imposed by Japanand South Koreaat comparable stages in their economic development.比起同期日本、韩国为发展经济而实行的贸易保护政策,这种牢骚便值得留念;即便跨国公司在中国面临着重重壁垒,毕竟中国还是张开手臂表示欢迎。Nevertheless, the recent spate of high-profile crackdowns on international firms, and people associated with them,has prompted worries about a generalised anti-foreigner backlash.然而,近期备受瞩目的中国制裁跨国公司浪潮让相关人员担心中国民众会产生强烈的排外情绪。This week police in Shanghai formally arrested a British fraud investigator, Peter Humphrey, whom they had detained for six weeks as part of an inquiry into alleged bribery of doctors by foreign drug firms, along with his wife, also an investigator.本周,上海警方正式逮捕一名英国公民—商业竞争情报人员彼特汉弗莱。为调查所谓的外国公司医疗行贿,汉弗莱已被拘留六周。同时被批捕的还有汉弗莱的妻子,后者也是一名竞争情报人员。Mr Humphrey had done work for GlaxoSmithKline, a British drugs firm, four of whose Chinese managers were arrested last month.汉弗莱曾在英国药品公司葛兰素史克工作,上月GSK四名中国区高管被捕。Since these arrests other foreign drugmakers have come under investigation, including Sanofi and Eli Lilly.此后,包括赛诺菲制药集团、礼来公司在内的其他外国制药公司均被中方调查,All three firms say they will co-operate with the inquiries.三家公司均表示愿意协助中方调查。There have also been crackdowns on alleged price-fixing by foreign manufacturers of milk formula, and regulators are scrutinising the prices charged by foreign carmakers and their joint ventures with local firms.此外,中方还在制裁外国公司垄断奶粉配方价格,监察部门正仔细审查外国汽车制造商提出的报价,并调查其同国内公司的合资公司。Now foreign technology firms are worried that they may be next.现在,外国科技公司担心自己会成为下一个调查对象。Chinese nationalists were outraged when Huawei, a local telecoms-equipment giant, was blacklisted last year by American politicians on unsubstantiated allegations of spying.当中国电信设备巨头华为被美国政客以未经核实的间谍活动为由列入黑名单时,中国国内的民族主义者勃然大怒。But they grew apoplectic when Edward Snowden earlier this year revealed the extent of American spying on China.但是,当爱德华斯诺登早些时候揭露美对中采取间谍活动的时候,他们更是怒不可遏。Official media outlets have since been calling for the expulsion of Cisco and other leading American technology firms, dubbed the eight guardian warriors.此后,中国官方媒体甚至呼吁驱逐思科及其他美国顶尖科技公司,并称此举为八大金刚。This has made some observers nervous.中国的上述举动也令其他公司感到不安,Rhodium Group, a consultancy, gave warning that The implications for business prospects of foreign firms operating in the worlds second largest economy are potentially far-reaching.美国咨询公司荣鼎集团警告称:这对于外国公司在世界第二大经济体的前景影响深远。So, is the new Chinese government really about to boot out the foreigners?那么,中国政府真会驱逐外国公司吗?Not likely.看样子不会,Cut through the official medias hype about greedy foreigners and it seems that a mix of motives is at work.通过官方媒体对贪婪外国投资者的大肆宣扬不难看出其动机正在奏效。Consumers are growing ever angrier about the cost of living in Chinas main cities, be that the soaring prices of homes, health care or safe food.消费者对于中国主要城市的生活成本越发愤怒,或是物价飞涨、或是医疗保健、亦或是食品安全问题。So it seems the government, which despite its tight grip on power does care about public opinion, is putting on a noisy show of trust busting.因此,尽管政府攥紧权杖,但仍很在乎民意,打压跨国巨头的好戏也就随之上演。Foreign firms are not the only targets:外国公司并非此次行动唯一的打击对象:recent action on alleged price-fixing by jewellers and the distillers of spirits, for example, nabbed only Chinese firms.比如近期对珠宝商价格垄断及整风活动均是针对中国公司。The antitrust regulator is now promising to get tough on telecoms and banking—two industries dominated by domestic firms.反垄断监管机构正对电信公司及采取更严厉措施—两个由中国国内公司主宰的行业。In contrast the drugs industry is dominated by foreign firms.相比之下,药品行业则由外国公司左右。Doctors are underpaid and thus highly susceptible to being incentivised to peddle pricey pills.医生工资低,因此更容易被蛊惑兜售昂贵药物。Most patients have to pay for their treatments, are angry at how much they cost and blame graft among health professionals.大部分病人治疗都得付费,对高昂的医疗费用极为愤怒,随之将这种情绪转嫁到医护人员身上。So by cracking down on alleged bribery by the foreign drug firms, the new Chinese government is also fulfilling another promise it made on taking office last year, to stamp out corruption.因此,通过制裁国外药品公司行贿一事,新任中国国家主席也是在履行其去年上任时的另一项承诺,即反腐工作。A crutch for lame ducks跛子的拐杖In many industries where local firms compete hard with foreign-backed ventures, the Chinese firms are struggling.中国公司在许多行业面临着外国合资公司的激烈竞争,其发展举步维艰。Often their products are perceived as lower-quality or unsafe.中国公司的产品通常被视作低质、不安全,The economic slowdown is making things worse for them.经济增速放缓对他们来说更是雪上加霜。Although regulators, by getting tough with the foreign firms first, are propping up some local lame ducks in the short term, they may be setting a precedent, and softening up public opinion, for when they eventually turn on the local firms.尽管政府首先拿外国公司开刀,短期内仍旧持国内公司,但其或许会有先例,最终会对国内公司下手以平息民愤。As for the foreign technology firms, and the fear that a nationalist backlash will drive them away, it is true that some in officialdom and in the online Weibo-sphere are eager to see their departure.对于外国科技公司来说,对中国民族主义强烈抵制的忧虑会让他们选择离去。事实确实如此,部分官员、及微圈子的人迫切希望看到他们退出中国市场。And there is some evidence of such firms losing a contract here or there.有据显示,此类公司在中国正相继失去合作机会。However, it will be bizarre if China were to chase away these firms in the same way that America has seen off Huawei.然而,如果中国采取美国对待华为的态度驱逐这些外国公司,那就有些匪夷所思了。American technology firms are the worlds best.美国科技公司是世界上最好的,Americadoes not need Chinese technology, whereas China most certainly needs access to American inventions.美国不需要中国的技术,但中国肯定是需要渠道获得美国的发明。In all, life for the many multinationals operating in China may get more difficult, with further cases of harassment by officials likely to emerge.总而言之,对于众多在华经营的跨国公司来说,其生存环境或许会更加苦难,未来中方政府的进一步调查似乎不可避免。But it seems unlikely, in most cases, that they will be forced out of the country.但是,看样子大部分情况下他们是不会被驱逐出中国市场。Chinas model of economic development depends, and has depended for years, on inviting in the worlds best companies,and—legally or otherwise—benefiting from their intellectual property.中国的经济发展模式需要依靠、过去许多年也一直在依靠吸引国外最好的公司,并合法或者非法从其知识产权中获益。So why would China kill the goose that lays the golden egg?因此,中国难道会杀了这只下金蛋的鹅? /201309/256311Its likely giant ground sloths used their claws in a similiar way to hook branches and pull them within reach. Like tree sloths, they were vegetarians and probably not fussy about what they ate, chewing their way through leaves, fruits, twigs and all. The big difference between the two is their size. Giant ground sloths were 500 times bigger than their modern relatives. And standing up right on their back legs, they towered as tall as a giraffe. 可能巨型地懒也像树懒一样用他们的瓜子来抓住树枝,并在能够触及的范围内探索食物,他们都是素食主义者,可能他们对于食物都不挑剔。一路上他们吃着树叶、水果、小树枝等一切能吃的东西。而这两种动物最大的不同则是他们的体型。巨型地懒的体型比他们的现代亲戚大500倍,要是他们用后退站立起来的话,他们有长颈鹿那么高。So far we have pieced together something of the people who first explored the southeast of the continent and the wildlife they must have encountered and hunted. But what about the climate and the landscape they all lived in? 到目前为止,我们已经把过去的一些痕迹搜集到了一起,他们包括第一批来探索这片大陆东南部的人类以及那些他们一定遇到过或是捕杀过的动物。但是他们居住地方的气候和景色有事什么样呢?Florida is tropical today, but how warm was it 13,000 years ago? This is Little Salt Spring in central Florida, the source of one of the most unlikely clues to the climate of the past. Brought up from a ledge more than 20 metres below the surface was the fossilized shell of a tortoise, a giant tortoise, much like this one. Giant tortoises are now only found basking in the heat of a few islands along the equator.佛罗里达现在属于热带地区,但是在13000年前,那里的温度如何?这是坐落于佛罗里达中部的小盐温泉,在这里存在着一个有关佛罗里达过去气候的线索,但是这条线索似乎不太可能。在地下20多米深的暗礁里,有一个乌龟壳的化石,这是一种大型龟——很像巨型陆龟。现在,只有在赤道附近的一些岛屿上,我们可以看到巨型陆龟享受着日光。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载.201308/253267




  Butterflies in America美国的蝴蝶To marvel at all things所有事都值得惊奇A splendid twinning of natural science and America自然科学与美利坚民族的完美结合Butterfly People: An American Encounter with the Beauty of the World.By William Leach.蝴蝶客:美国与世界之美的相遇“BUTTERFLIES and butterflies”, wrote Walt Whitman, “continue to flit to and fro, all sorts, white, yellow, brown, purple”. Whitman may have had an eye for colour, but as a mere journalist and poet with perhaps a touch of lepidopterophilia, he does not quite qualify as one of William Leachs “Butterfly People”.“蝴蝶、还是蝴蝶”,沃尔特惠特曼写道,“它们不停地来回飞过,各种各样的,有白的、黄的、棕色的还有紫色的”。惠特曼对颜色是有判断力,但是仅仅作为一位知道点鳞翅类昆虫的记者和诗人,并不是威廉所称的“蝴蝶客”True butterfly people were far more serious. They were enthusiasts and obsessives who took advantage of the unfettered access to undeveloped land afforded by a young country pressing its frontier westward. They were artisans and aesthetes: scientists of a sort that gradually ceased to exist as the natural sciences grew more formal and mature.真正的蝴蝶客远远严谨的多。他们狂热而迫切,年轻的国家正在向西部扩充领土,所以他们可以利用这种优势,自由使用未开发的土地。他们是手艺人兼审美家:这类所谓的科学家,随着自然科学发展得更加正式和成熟,这类科学家渐渐不存在了。Mr Leachs compelling thesis is that 19th-century America provided a uniquely hospitable time and place for lovers, and especially collectors, of butterflies. Agricultural toil and westward expansion brought droves of ordinary people into intimate contact with vast expanses of pristine lands. Most 19th-century Americans, Mr Leach writes—uncharitably but probably accurately—saw nature “as something to dig up or harvest from the earth or to be torn down and transformed into real estate or money”, and yet because there was so much untouched land, even the most rapacious miner or builder would in the course of his life come into contact with the natural world on a scale and in a way unknown to Americans today.里奇先生的有趣命题是:19世纪的美国为蝴蝶爱好者,特别是收藏家提供了一个独一无二的热情好客的时代。农业耕作和西部扩张将大批的普通人与广袤无际的未开垦土地紧密联系在一起。大多数19世纪的美国人,里奇先生写道,视自然为“可以从地下挖掘或从地上收割的,可以推倒盖房子或者卖钱的东西”,他的评语尽管尖刻,却也许十分精准。可是因为有如此之多未开垦的土地,即使是最贪婪的财主和建设者也会在他一生中与大自然发生联系,这种联系无论从规模上、在形式上, 都是如今的美国人无法想象的。Perhaps more important, “natural science” had not yet become “biology”. It was practised out of doors rather than in a laboratory, and aside from the classification madness of Linnaeus, it was light on systems and formality. Its early titans, such as Charles Darwin and Alexander von Humboldt, a Prussian aristocrat whose masterwork, “The Cosmos”, began being published in 1845, “seemed indifferent to drawing lines between art and science,” Mr Leach writes. “Their prose was often excellent and able, so much so as to later seem unscientific. They often wrote on behalf of the artistic attractions of nature.” They led with a sense of curiosity driven by rapture and wonder. Natural science belonged not to the trained and pedigreed biologist, but to the passionate amateur: they were “naturalists”, not biologists.或许更重要的是,“自然科学”没有发展为“生物学”。它的研究在户外进行而不是在实验室,不像林奈繁杂的分类法,体系和形式是次要的。有关研究它的早期的泰斗,像查尔斯达尔文,以及亚历山大洪堡特,一位在1845年出版名著《大宇宙》的普鲁士贵族,“似乎对划分科学与艺术的界线漠不关心”,里奇先生写道。“他们写的散文总是出色易懂,以至于对后人来说显得不科学,他们常常为了自然的艺术吸引力而写文章。”他们引领了一种由狂喜和惊奇驱使的好奇感。自然科学不属于受过训练的正统生物学家,但却属于热情激昂的业余爱好者:他们是“物学家”,而不是生物学家。Butterfly people learned by observing, thinking and arguing. They included Samuel Scudder, who named the monarch butterfly and wrote a magisterial, three-volume work about North American butterflies that won raves from lepidopterys literary champion, Vladimir Nabokov, 70 years after its publication. Another was William Henry Edwards. His great grandfather was Americas most renowned Puritan theologian, and he eventually wrote his own three-volume doorstop.蝴蝶客们从观察、思考和争论中学习。他们中包括萨缪尔斯卡德,他命名了黑脉金蝴蝶,写了一本关于北美蝴蝶的三卷的权威著作,这部书出版70年后令鳞翅类昆虫的文学巨匠弗拉基米尔纳科夫惊叹不已。另一位是威廉亨利爱德华。他了不起的祖父是美国最有名望的普鲁士神学家,他最终写出了自己三卷鸿篇巨著。Mr Leach is at his best when profiling men such as Edwards, Scudder and others, including solitary, taciturn Herman Strecker and resentful, bilious Augustus Grote. These are the amateur giants on whose broad shoulders much contemporary biology and entomology rests.里奇先生最擅长介绍爱德华、斯卡德等等,包括沉默寡言的隐士斯特雷克和坏脾气的奥古斯塔斯格罗特。当代生物学和昆虫学正是站在这些业余研究巨匠宽阔的肩膀上。 /201405/297251

  Good afternoon, this is your captain speaking.下午好,我是这架飞机的机长。We are atcruising altitude and will be in flight for another three hours, so youd better get comfortable.我们已经到达了巡航高度并且将继续飞3个小时,所以,请各位乘客确保舒适。That means figuring out who gets the arm rest-you, or your neighbor in the next seat.这意味着要确定出谁得到扶手—你,还是你邻座的人。Oh, I know the seats are built so that one arm rest is shared by two passengers.我知道座位的设置使得两名乘客公用一个扶手。Sure, we could havegiven all the seats their own arm rests, but then airplane flights would be so much less interesting from a social psychology point of view.当然了,我们本可以是所有的乘客都有他们自己的扶手,但是这样一来,从社会心理学的观点看来,这段飞行的乐趣就将大打折扣。And hey-you dont really mind, do you?所以,其实你们并不介意,对吗?Turns out you do.结果明你们还是很在意的。In a study conducted by three social psychologists, 426 pairs of people wereobserved on some twenty flights to see if there is a pattern to who gets the disputed armrest.3名社会心理学家曾做过一个研究,他们观察了20次飞行中的426对乘客,希望能看出谁得到这个让人亦喜亦忧的扶手问题上是否有特定的模式。The subjects observed were always one male seated next to one female.实验观察基本上是基于一名男性和一名女性邻座的情况下。Guess who got the armrestmost of the time?猜一下谁得到扶手的时间最长呢?Men dominated the socialspace that didnt clearly belong to either person.男人配着不明确属于任何人的社会空间。Adjusting the experiment to only include peopleof equal size, that number dropped.把实验调整到参与人数体型相近的时候,这个数字下降了。But the men still took the arm rest three times as often as the women.但是占据扶手的男人的数量任然是女人的三倍。In post-flight interviews, 68 percent of the men said they were bothered when the other persontook the armrest, while only 42 percent of the women felt annoyed.在飞行之后的采访中,68%的男人称当其他人占据扶手的时候他们会感到烦恼,只有42%的女人会有同样的感受。Men under forty reported thestrongest irritation.对于40岁以下的男人这种刺激反应最为强烈。So…are all men just pushy cads?所以,所有的男人都这么有好胜心吗?Well, one can debate what these data show. But this much isclear: that little strip of plastic is a mini-battleground.当然,你可以对这些数据提出异议。但是这多少能表明,对这个小小的塑料制品的争夺也是一个小小的战场。201404/291438

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