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2019年08月18日 13:56:29 | 作者:当当乐园 | 来源:新华社
A lone submersible will begin scanning the ocean floor for missing Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 in an area next to where it previously failed to find any sign of the jet, as nations involved discuss ways to broaden the search in coming weeks. Reuters来自澳大利亚和其他国家的马航370航班空中搜寻人员等待拍摄一张官方照片。参与马来西亚航空(Malaysia Airlines, 简称:马航) 370客机搜寻工作的各国正在讨论未来几周如何扩大搜寻范围。与此同时一架潜航器将开始在新的海域进行水下搜寻,此前该潜水器对相邻海域进行了搜寻,但未发现客机残骸的任何迹象。The Bluefin-21, an underwater drone provided by the U.S. Navy, will commence its 17th mission once weather conditions improve, the Australian authority leading the search off the coast of Western Australia said Wednesday. Previous sorties in a 314 square kilometer (120 square mile) zone where a U.S. Navy listening device earlier picked up signals consistent with locator beacons on the aircraft#39;s #39;black box#39; flight recorders failed to find any trace of the plane. 牵头此次澳洲西部海域搜寻工作的澳大利亚当局周三称,一旦天气状况改善,美国海军提供的蓝鳍-21 (Bluefin-21)水下无人潜航器就将展开第17次水下搜寻。早些时候美国海军一侦听设备疑似探测到客机“黑匣子”发出的位置信号,蓝鳍-21随即对附近314平方公里(120平方英里)的海域进行搜寻,但未找到飞机的任何迹象。An Australian air force plane is on standby in the Western Australian city of Perth, while a number of other military vessels and aircraft will return to their national duties, Australia#39;s Joint Agency Coordination Centre said. They include a Royal New Zealand Air Force P-3 Orion, which will return to New Zealand Thursday after completing 27 missions estimated to have cost the small nation about 1.2 million New Zealand dollars (US million.) Two U.S. Navy P-8 Poseidon aircraft flying missions in search of debris on the ocean surface, along with the Navy ship Cesar Chavez, have also left the multinational operation, the U.S. Navy said in a statement Wednesday. 相关报道专题:马航飞机失联澳大利亚联合机构协调中心(Joint Agency Coordination Centre)称,澳空军一架飞机待命于澳洲西部城市珀斯,与此同时众多其它海军舰船及飞机将恢复为本国务的职责。这其中包括新西兰皇家空军(Royal New Zealand Air Force)的一架P-3“猎户座”(Orion),该巡逻机将在周四完成第27次任务(估计已花费120万新西兰元(约合100万美元))后返回新西兰。美国海军周三在一份声明中称,美国两架负责在海面搜寻客机残骸的P-8波塞顿(Poseidon)巡逻机以及一艘“塞萨尔#8226;查韦斯”(Cesar Chavez)舰船已不再参与多国搜救任务。The hunt for the Boeing 777 jet moved from a perspective of days to one of months or maybe years earlier this week, as Australia gave up on finding wreckage in a narrow area of the southern Indian Ocean and said it would vastly expand the search area into deeper surrounding waters. The plane vanished from radar screens en route to Beijing from Kuala Lumpur on March 8. Investigators believe it diverted sharply from its original course and crashed into the Indian Ocean, far from any airport, when it ran out of fuel. 本周早些时候澳方放弃在南印度洋一片狭窄海域内找到客机残骸的希望,并表示将搜寻区域大幅扩大至周边更深的海域。3月8日这架波音(Boeing) 777客机在从吉隆坡飞往北京的途中从雷达屏上消失。调查人员相信该客机大幅偏离原定航线,并在耗尽航油后坠入南印度洋一片远离任何机场的海域。The search effort, now more than 50 days old, is set to move from sophisticated military hardware to one essentially led by private contractors with equipment that can scan trenches in the southern Indian Ocean thought to lie up to 7,000 meters below the sea surface. But it will take some time for commercial contracts to be agreed, and for new operators to reach the search area, hundreds of miles northwest of the Australian city of Perth. 搜索任务进行至今已有50多天,之后搜寻工作将从先进的军用设备转交给私人承包商来负责,这些承包商的设备可对南印度洋海面最深至七千米以下的海沟进行搜寻。相关商业合同的达成和新工作人员的部署到位都需要一些时间。搜寻海域位于珀斯西北数百英里的位置。 /201404/293729It took some time to figure out just the right shopping complex, off just the right highway interchange and just the right distance from Seoul, that could accommodate a 624,000-square-foot store—that is to say, one more than three times the size of the average Wal-Mart Supercenter. It took more time to solve certain mysteries, like how big to make the store’s children’s section in a country where kids are often given ample space in the family living quarters. It took more time to figure out how to showcase kitchens that incorporate kimchi refrigerators, a uniquely Korean appliance—and even more time to untangle nuances of the market, like the South Korean’s preference for metal chopsticks.要规划出一个恰到好处的购物中心,正好位于某个合适的高速公路出口旁,与首尔的车程还不远不近,面积高达62万4千英尺(比一个标准沃尔玛超市的面积大三倍多),是需要花点时间的。而要解决某些特定难题,比如,在韩国这样一个孩子在家中享有充足活动空间的国家,购物中心的儿童区该做多大才合理,需要花更多功夫。至于如何布置一个能容纳韩式泡菜冰箱这种韩国特有家电的厨房,就要花上更多时间——而要弄清这个市场的微妙之处,比如韩国人对金属筷子的偏爱,则又要搭上更多时间。In all, it took about six years for Ikea to unveil its inaugural store in South Korea, in Gwangmyeong, starting from the first scouting trip. Ikea celebrated the opening in December with a tree planting rather than ribbon cutting. (Chalk that up to Ikea tradition rather than to South Korean custom.)总而言之,从宜家公司首次考察韩国市场,到在光明市开设第一家韩国分店,花了约整整六年时间。去年12月,宜家用植树而非剪来庆祝这家店开业(沿用了宜家传统,而不是韩国习俗)。The lag was quintessentially Ikean. “They are ferocious about not expanding too rapidly,” says David Marcotte of consulting firm Kantar Retail. But six years? “The more global, the more complex it gets,” replies Mikael Palmquist, the regional manager of retail for Asia Pacific. “We need to get these things right or we will never be taken seriously.”这种缓慢是典型的宜家风格。零售咨询公司Kantar Retail的戴维o马科特说:“扩张太快会让他们抓狂的。”但至于要花六年吗?宜家亚太区区域零售经理米卡埃尔o帕姆奎斯特表示:“公司越是全球化,业务扩张就越复杂。我们必须行事谨慎,否则客户就永远不会重视我们。”Even with all that careful planning, Ikea managed to get a few things wrong. It misjudged the number of parking spaces needed, and a seemingly benign map for sale upset some customers: The body of water east of Korea was labeled the Sea of Japan rather than the East Sea, as South Koreans prefer.即便规划如此周详,宜家还是办错了好几桩事。它错估了实际所需的停车位数量,还有一张看似友好的地图却让不少客户很不舒:朝鲜东部的海被标注为日本海,而不是韩国人所习称的东海。But the Koreans seem, for the most part, to have forgiven the Swedes. Today the Gwangmyeong store, which is the company’s largest in the world by shopping area, is on track to become one of Ikea’s top-performing outlets for 2015.但韩国人看起来大体上已经原谅了这家瑞典巨头。光明市分店是宜家在全球购物区域面积最大的一家店,现在人气很旺,有望成为宜家2015年业绩最佳的分店。The success is hardly a fluke. Ikea, it seems, is a genius at selling Ikea—flat packing, transporting, and reassembling its quirky Swedish styling all across the planet. The furniture and furnishings brand is in more countries than Wal-Mart, Carrefour, and Toys “R” Us. China, where Ikea has eight of its 10 biggest stores, is the company’s fastest-growing market. An outlet in Morocco is coming soon, and there are hints that Brazil may not be far off. Meanwhile, Ikea is going meatballs out in India, where it plans to invest about billion over a decade to open 10 stores.这份成功来得绝非侥幸。宜家似乎是一个营销天才——扁平式包装,方便拼装,那些带有瑞典风情的家具正在销往全世界。和沃尔玛、福及玩具反斗城相比,这个瑞典家具品牌已打入了更多国家的市场。宜家十大分店中有8家在中国,中国也是该公司增长最快的市场。洛哥分店即将开张,还有传闻说巴西分店也开张在即。同时,宜家打算将其瑞典肉丸卖到印度更多地方,在未来十年投资20亿美元,在印度开设十家分店。Getting it right in emerging markets like China and India, where Ikea is well-positioned to capitalize on a growing middle class, is a key factor in its goal of hitting EUR50 billion in sales by 2020. That’s up from EUR28.7 billion in its fiscal 2014 ( billion based on the average exchange rate for Ikea’s fiscal year) and almost double its 2005 sales level. Today the Ikea Group has 318 stores, not including the brand’s some four dozen franchised locations; it’s aiming for around 500 by 2020.抓稳新兴市场,是宜家实现2020年销售突破500亿欧元目标的关键因素。在中国和印度,宜家已做好市场定位,瞅准当地迅速崛起的中产阶级。这是个雄心勃勃的目标:2014财年,宜家的销售额为287亿欧元,几乎比2005年的销售额翻了一番。目前宜家集团拥有318家分店,这还不包括48家特许加盟店;到2020年,宜家的另一个目标是:开店数量达到500家。 /201503/365296An unmanned cargo ship destined for the International Space Station blew up minutes after launching from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida on Sunday morning, NASA said, raising questions about how the agency and its partners will continue keeping the station supplied.美国国家航空航天局(NASA)表示,周日上午,在从佛罗里达州的卡纳维拉尔角空军基地发射数分钟后,一艘前往国际空间站的无人驾驶货运飞船发生了爆炸。这对该机构及其合作伙伴将如何为空间站提供补给提出了疑问。The countdown had proceeded without a hitch or worries about weather, and the 208-foot-tall rocket lifted off at 10:21 a.m. Eastern time. But 2 minutes, 19 seconds later, just as George Diller, the commentator of NASA#39;s television broadcast, said, “Data coming back shows vehicle on course, on track,” a cloud of white smoke emerged from the rocket#39;s midsection, and then a rain of pieces started falling toward the Atlantic Ocean more than 20 miles below.倒计时进行得很顺利,天气方面也没有任何问题,208英尺(约合63.4米)高的火箭在美国东部时间上午10时21分升空。但是2分钟19秒后,正当NASA的电视直播员乔治·迪勒(George Diller)表示“传送回来的数据显示,飞船按计划在轨道上飞行”时,一团白色烟雾从火箭的中段冒出,然后雨点一般的碎片开始向20多英里之下的大西洋坠落。Elon Musk, the chief executive of SpaceX, reported on Twitter, “Falcon 9 experienced a problem shortly before first stage shutdown.” About an hour later, he added some preliminary analysis: “There was an overpressure event in the upper stage liquid oxygen tank. Data suggests counterintuitive cause.”SpaceX公司的首席执行官埃隆·马斯克(Elon Musk)在Twitter上表示:“‘猎鹰9号’在第一级燃料耗尽之前不久遇到了问题。”大约一个小时后,他又做了一些初步的分析:“火箭上一级的液氧罐有超压现象。数据表明,出现了有悖常理的原因。The more than 4,000 pounds of payload included a docking adapter needed for future crew capsules being developed by Boeing and SpaceX, student experiments and a camera to record meteors streaking into the earth#39;s atmosphere.这艘飞船4000多磅的有效载荷中包括波音(Boeing)和SpaceX共同研发的供未来的船员舱使用的一个对接接合器、一些学生实验用具,以及准备记录流星进入地球大气层状况的一台摄像机。It was first failure in 19 launchings of the Falcon 9 rocket built by Space Exploration Technologies of Hawthorne, California, better known as SpaceX.这是位于加利福尼亚州霍桑的太空探索技术公司(Space Exploration Technologies Corporation)——更多地被简称为SpaceX——制造的“猎鹰9号”火箭19次发射历史上的首次失败。Until now, SpaceX has had a charmed record with the Falcon 9, avoiding the “infant mortality” that usually afflicts new rocket designs.迄今为止,SpaceX的“猎鹰9号”火箭保持了骄人的记录,避免了通常会困扰新火箭设计的“早期故障期”。This episode follows the failures of two other cargo rockets. In October, an Antares rocket, built by Orbital ATK, exploded on the launching pad in Virginia. In April, a Russian Progress rocket spun out of control, unable to reach the space station.在此次事故发生之前,还有另外两枚运载火箭发射失败。去年10月,Orbital ATK制造的安塔尔(Antares)火箭在弗吉尼亚州的发射台上爆炸。今年4月,俄罗斯“进步号”(Progress)火箭失去控制,无法到达空间站。The three astronauts on the space station — Scott J. Kelly of NASA and two Russians, Gennady Padalka and Mikhail Kornienko — are not in any immediate danger, with sufficient supplies to last until October, Michael T. Suffredini, NASA#39;s space station program manager, said during a news conference on Friday.NASA空间站项目的负责人迈克尔·T·苏弗雷迪尼(Michael T. Suffredini)在周五的新闻发布会上表示,空间站的三名宇航员——NASA的斯科特·J·凯利(Scott J. Kelly)及两名俄罗斯人根纳季·帕达尔卡(Gennady Padalka)和米哈伊尔·科尔尼延科(Mikhail Kornienko)——暂时没有危险,他们的供给足以撑到10月。 /201507/383561

The conventional wisdom among public health authorities is that the Ebola virus, which killed at least 10,000 people in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea, was a new phenomenon, not seen in West Africa before 2013. (The one exception was an anomalous case in Ivory Coast in 1994, when a Swiss primatologist was infected after performing an autopsy on a chimpanzee.)在利比里亚、塞拉利昂和几内亚肆虐的埃拉疫情已经造成至少1万人死亡。公共卫生机构的惯常思维是,埃拉病毒的流行是一种新现象,在2013年前没有在非洲西部出现过。(有一个例外,1994年在科特迪瓦出现过一例反常病例,当时一名瑞士的灵长类动物学家在对黑猩猩的尸体进行解剖后感染了病毒。)The conventional wisdom is wrong. We were stunned recently when we stumbled across an article by European researchers in Annals of Virology: “The results seem to indicate that Liberia has to be included in the Ebola virus endemic zone.” In the future, the authors asserted, “medical personnel in Liberian health centers should be aware of the possibility that they may come across active cases and thus be prepared to avoid nosocomial epidemics,” referring to hospital-acquired infection.这种惯常思维是错误的。我们最近偶然发现了《病毒学年鉴》(Annals of Virology)上的一篇文章,令我们颇为惊讶:“研究结果似乎说明,需要将利比里亚纳入埃拉病毒流行区。”文章作者强调,将来,“利比里亚卫生机构的医务人员应该意识到,他们可能会遇到活跃病例,因此应该做好准备,避免疾病在院内传播。”What triggered our dismay was not the words, but when they were written: The paper was published in 1982.让我们感到不安的并非文字本身,而是写下这些文字的这篇论文发表于1982年。As members of a team drafting Liberia’s Ebola recovery plan last month, we systematically reviewed the literature on Ebola surveillance since the virus’s discovery in central Africa in 1976. We learned that the virologists who wrote that report, who were from Germany, had analyzed frozen blood samples taken in 1978 and 1979 from 433 Liberian citizens. They found that 26 (or 6 percent) had antibodies to the Ebola virus.作为上个月拟定利比里亚后埃拉时期恢复计划的团队成员,我们系统地查阅了自1976年首次在非洲中部发现这种病毒以来的有关埃拉疫情监控的文献。我们得知,撰写上述报告的德国病毒学家分析了一些冻存血样——于1978年到1979年间取自433名利比里亚人。他们发现,其中26人(即6%)体内携带埃拉病毒抗体。Three other studies published in 1986 documented Ebola antibody prevalence rates of 10.6, 13.4 and 14 percent, respectively, in northwestern Liberia, not far from its borders with Sierra Leone and Guinea. These articles, along with other forgotten reports from the 1980s on antibody prevalence in neighboring Sierra Leone and Guinea, suggest the possibility of what some call “sanctuary sites,” or persistent, if latent, Ebola infection in humans.另有三篇发表于1986年的论文显示,在利比里亚西北部,距离该国与塞拉利昂及几内亚边境不远的地方,埃拉抗体的携带率分别为10.6%、13.4%和14%。上述文章,以及那些发表于20世纪80年代的被遗忘的有关邻国塞拉利昂和几内亚的埃拉抗体携带率的报告都说明,可能存在一些人所说的“避难所”,也就是持续携带潜藏的埃拉病毒的人体。There is an adage in public health: “The road to inaction is paved with research papers.” In a twist of fate, the same laboratory that confirmed the first positive Ebola test results in Guinea last year, the Pasteur Institute, was the publisher of Annals of Virology. Yet the institute’s April 2014 report said, “This subregion was not considered to be an area in which EBOV was endemic” (using the medical term for the Ebola virus).公共卫生领域有一条格言:“通往无所作为的道路上铺满了研究报告。”命运弄人的是,去年确认几内亚第一例检测结果为阳性的埃拉病例的实验室——巴斯德研究所(Pasteur Institute)——正是《病毒学年鉴》的出版方。然而,这家研究所在2014年4月发表的报告称,“该分区并未被认为是埃拉病毒的流行区。”Part of the problem is that none of these articles were co-written by a Liberian scientist. The investigators collected their samples, returned home and published the startling results in European medical journals. Few Liberians were then trained in laboratory or epidemiological methods. Even today, downloading one of the papers would cost a physician here , about half a week’s salary.造成这一问题的部分原因在于,这些论文都不是由利比里亚科学家合写的。研究人员采集样本,带回去,然后在欧洲的医学期刊上公布惊人的研究结果。那时候,几乎没有利比亚里人受到实验室或流行病学研究方法的培训。就算到了今天,利比里亚的医生下载一篇论文可能要花费45美元(约合280元人民币),几乎相当于半周的薪水。The story is not an unusual one. As it happened, the subjects in the 1986 antibody studies worked on the world’s largest rubber plantation (which then supplied 40 percent of the latex used in the ed States). During the current outbreak of Ebola, we saw rubber trees stretch as far as the eye could see from clinics in rural Margibi County — clinics shuttered after nurses died after supplies of latex gloves and other protective gear ran out. The way this part of Liberia was trawled for vital medical knowledge thus mirrored the way the West extracted the rubber it needed.这个故事并不罕见。事实上,1986年开展的抗体研究的受试对象是世界上最大的橡胶园的工作人员(当时美国使用的40%的乳胶产自该橡胶园)。在最近这轮埃拉疫情爆发期间,从马及比县的那些诊所——橡胶手套及其他防护装备的缺乏导致护士死亡后,诊所被关闭——看去,橡胶树不断延伸,一望无际。我们在利比里亚的这个地区获取重要医疗信息的方式,与西方国家获取他们所需的橡胶的方式别无二致。Sierra Leone’s and Liberia’s recent histories of civil conflict made it difficult to confirm an outbreak of the disease. Public health laboratories were not functioning in either country; it was months before Ebola was identified as the culprit pathogen. That made it impossible for the region’s few doctors and nurses to deliver effective care.塞拉利昂和利比里亚近期进行的内战使得医护人员难以确认疫情的爆发。这两个国家的公共卫生实验室均未良好运转;拖了好几个月的时间埃拉病毒才被确定为罪魁祸首。因此,该地区本已稀缺的医生和护士无法进行有效的医疗务。In all recognized Ebola epidemics to date, the disease has been transmitted primarily in the course of caring for the sick or burying the dead — hence the 1982 warning about transmission within hospitals and clinics. It was just as the German scientists had predicted: Liberia’s under-resourced health facilities became the fault lines along which Ebola erupted across the country and the wider region.在迄今为止所有被确认的埃拉疫情中,这种疾病都主要是在护理患者或掩埋尸体的过程中传播的。所以,1982年的论文提醒人们注意医院和诊所内部的感染。情况正如德国科学家所预测的那样:利比里亚捉襟见肘的卫生设施成为了软肋。埃拉沿着它们向全国乃至更广阔的地区扩散。To our knowledge, no senior official now serving in Liberia’s Ministry of Health had ever heard of the antibody studies’ findings. Nor had top officials in the international organizations so valiantly supporting the Ebola response in Liberia, including ed Nations agencies and foreign medical teams.据我们所知,利比里亚卫生部在职的高级官员中,没人听说过前述抗体研究的发现。在利比里亚勇敢地持抗击埃拉活动的国际组织,包括联合国机构和外国医疗团队,它们的高层官员也没听说过。When the history of this epidemic is written, it will chronicle the myriad ways that — from Guéckédou and Monrovia, to Geneva and Dallas — we were not prepared. But none of us can in good conscience say there was no warning.如果有人撰写这种传染病的历史,我们缺乏准备的无数个地方都会被计入其中,从盖凯杜和蒙罗维亚,到日内瓦和达拉斯。但我们谁都不能凭良心说没有过警告。Ebola was here aly. Understaffed and underequipped hospitals and clinics were sure to intensify, rather than stop, a major outbreak. And among its primary victims would be health care professionals. Had the virologists’ findings been linked to long-term efforts to train Liberians to conduct research, to identify and stop epidemics, and to deliver quality medical care, the outcome might have been different.埃拉病毒早就来到了这里。人手不足、设备匮乏的医院和诊所肯定会加剧,而非阻止一场大规模的疫情爆发。主要受害者将包括医护专业人士。如果那些病毒学家的发现,能和训练利比里亚人开展研究、辨认并阻止疫情、提供优质医疗护理的长期行动结合在一起,结果或许会有所不同。We all had friends and co-workers fall ill during this epidemic. But the fates of the afflicted reflect grotesque disparities. Of the 10 Americans infected with Ebola, all were airlifted to specialist hospitals with excellent clinical care in the ed States. Nine have recovered, and the 10th is, we pray, well on his way to a full recovery. At the start of the last major chain of transmission recorded in urban Liberia, last month, 11 of 11 people in one cluster perished.我们都有朋友或同事在这场疫情中病倒。但被传染者的命运却反映出了奇特的悬殊差异。10名感染了埃拉的美国人,全都被用飞机送到了美国的专科医院,那里有极好的临床护理。其中九人已康复,我们祈祷剩下那名患者也能尽快地完全康复。而上月,利比里亚城市地区有记载的最后一次大规模连锁传染刚刚开始,其中一个集体病例中的11人就全部死亡。A lasting legacy of this terrifying health crisis must be a new architecture for global health delivery, with a strong focus on building local capacity to respond effectively to such crises. Equity must be an indispensable goal in protecting from threats like Ebola, and in the quality of care delivered when prevention fails. Only then can we leave behind the rubber plantation model of international health and draw on the science that must inform these endeavors.这场骇人的卫生危机的持久影响之一,是必须为全球卫生救护建立新的架构,着重建设当地有效应对这类危机的能力。在预防埃拉等威胁,以及预防失败后提供的医护务的质量方面,公平必须成为一个不可或缺的目标。只有这样,我们才能丢弃国际卫生的橡胶种植园模式,利用必须与这些努力联系在一起的相关科学研究。 /201504/369445

City dwellers around the world pay 0bn more in housing costs than they can afford yearly, as rapid urban growth meets a constrained supply, according to a report.麦肯锡全球研究所(McKinsey Global Institute)发布的一份报告称,世界各地的城市居民每年在住房方面的出超出负担能力6500亿美元。Some of the world’s leading urban areas face the biggest housing cost problems, with New York, Tokyo and London among the worst affected, the McKinsey Global Institute said. Beijing, S#227;o Paulo and Buenos Aires are among those facing the biggest crunch among lower income cities.该报告表示,全球一些主要城市地区面临最大的住房成本问题,纽约、东京和伦敦属于遭受影响最严重的城市。北京、圣保罗和布宜诺斯艾利斯属于较低收入城市中面临最大压力的城市。McKinsey looked at the cost of housing as a proportion of household income, showing the extent to which a city’s residents face financial pressure.麦肯锡研究了住房成本占家庭收入的比例,从而显示出城市居民面临多大的财务压力。For the first time in history, more than half the world’s population lives in urban areas and the proportion is set to rise to two-thirds by 2050, according to the UN.联合国(UN)的数据显示,全球逾一半人口居住在城市地区,这是有史以来的第一次,而且该比例到2050年将升至三分之二。Housing affordability has become “a huge social and economic issue affecting billions”, said Jan Mischke, a senior fellow at McKinsey Global Institute and one of the report’s authors. “More and more cities are growing fast, they are quite likely competing for talent and workers.”麦肯锡全球研究所高级研究员、报告的作者之一简#8226;米斯基(Jan Mischke)表示,住房负担能力已经成为“影响数十亿人的巨大社会和经济问题,越来越多的城市正迅速发展,它们很可能为人才和劳动者展开竞争”。Around the world, 330m urban households lack decent housing or are cutting back on basic spending to cover their housing costs, McKinsey found.麦肯锡发现,在世界各地,有3.3亿城市家庭缺乏体面的住房或者正削减基本出以付住房成本。By 2025, this number will grow to 440m – a third of the world’s urban population – unless governments do more to build and subsidise housing, the report said.该报告称,到2025年,这一数字将增至4.4亿,占到全球城市人口的三分之一,除非各国政府采取更多措施建造住房并提供补贴。The study recommends reducing building and maintenance costs and cutting the cost of finance for both home buyers and housing developers.该报告建议降低房屋建造和维护成本,并降低买房者和住宅开发商的融资成本。Governments should also do more to free up sites for development, with land costs in leading global cities accounting for up to 60 per cent of the cost of #173;building a home, according to Mr Mischke. “This is not by any means an effective, well-functioning market,” she added.米斯基表示,各国政府还应该采取更多措施释放开发用地,全球主要城市的土地成本高达住房建造成本的60%。他补充称:“这绝不是一个运行良好的有效市场。”“Land markets tend to be government controlled, either directly – for example Singapore – or as in London and New York where the government is a significant landowner and the prime actor in regulating land use.”“土地市场往往由政府控制,要么是直接控制,比如新加坡,要么是像伦敦和纽约那样,政府是大地主,在监管土地使用方面扮演主要角色。”Some cities are taking steps to reduce housing costs, Mr Mischke said, singling out New York mayor Bill De Blasio’s plan to build 200,000 homes in the next decade, and Germany’s system of rent controls.米斯基表示,一些城市正在采取措施降低住房成本,并着重指出纽约市长比尔#8226;德布拉西奥(Bill de Blasio)在未来十年建造20万套住房的计划,以及德国的租金控制系统。The Urban Land Institute, a US-based think-tank, said global “gateway” cities, the world’s leading urban areas, were struggling to provide affordable housing for their workforces.美国智库城市土地研究所(Urban Land Institute)表示,全球“门户”城市(全球主要城市地区)正艰难努力为它们的劳动力大军提供负担得起的住房。Andy Martin, chairman of ULI in the UK, said cities such as London and New York were “victims of their own success”.英国ULI董事长安迪#8226;马丁(Andy Martin)表示,伦敦和纽约等城市是“它们自身成功的受害者”。“These cities are under significant pressure because they are engine rooms for growth.“Cities cannot survive unless they have adequate provision for key workers like teachers, nurses, bus drivers and cleaners to live within commuting distance of their work.”“这些城市承受着巨大的压力,因为它们是增长的轮机舱。如果没有足够的住房供给,让教师、护士、巴士司机和清洁工等关键劳动者可以居住在工作地点的通勤范围之内,城市不可能生存下去。” /201410/338317

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