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2019年08月26日 16:23:31|来源:国际在线|编辑:医苑时讯
Carbon dioxide, or CO2, is the main greenhouse gas in climate change.二氧化碳,又叫CO2,是气候变化中温室效应气体的主要成分So how does CO2 get into our atmosphere?co2是如何进入我们大气层的?Well, carbon is part of a cycle. It starts with the sun,碳是循环的一部分,它始于太阳which heats the Earth#39;s surface with more energy in one hour than the whole world uses in a year.太阳用很大的能量照射地球表面,一个小时的能量比我们一年的使用量还要多Plants, which are kind of like biological chefs,植物就像是一种生物厨师take that sunlight, and then suck in some CO2 from the air, mix them together, and BAM!利用阳光,吸收空气中的二氧化碳,将它们混合,存储They create a stored form of energy, in the form of carbohydrates such as glucose and sucrose.植物在生成碳水化合物时会生成一种可以存储的能量,这个碳水化合物是葡萄糖,蔗糖等等The process is called photosynthesis.这个过程被称为光合作用When animals like us eat those plants, our stomachs convert that food back into energy for our own growth.当动物,譬如我们,吃这些植物时,我们的胃将食物转化为提供给我们生长所使用的能量Greenhouse gases are a byproduct of this process, and are released through waste.温室气体是这一过程的副产品,会通过损耗释放If those plants die, they decompose, and tiny microorganisms break down those carbohydrates如果这些植物死亡,它们会分解,同时微生物再一次分解这些碳水化合物and again, release greenhouse gases as a byproduct.将温室气体作为一种副产品释放As you see, energy originates from the sun. It is then transferred as it moves through the food chain.正如你看到的那样,能量来源于太阳并通过食物链转移But sometimes, carbon based organisms like plants or animals get stuck in the earth.但是,有时候植物和动物等生物体内的碳会被埋到地里When this happens, they#39;re compressed under tons of pressure,当这种情况出现时,它们会被巨大的压力压缩and turned into carbon-based fossil fuels, like oil, coal or natural gas.然后转化为含碳的化石燃料,譬如石油,木炭,天然气Since the Industrial Revolution, humans have been pulling those fossil fuels out of the ground自从工业革命以来,人们已经挖掘出这些化石燃料了and burning them, activating the stored energy to make electricity and power engines.使用它们,产生可存储的能量,以此能量来发电或者为机器供能But the thing is it also releases millions of years worth of stored CO2 back into the air.但是这也使得数百万年来存储的二氧化碳被释放,重新进去空气中。In addition, humans breathe in oxygen and breathe out CO2. But plants do the opposite.除此之外,人类也会吸入氧气呼出二氧化碳。但是植物恰恰相反Trees suck up huge amounts of CO2, which balances the cycle.树木吸收大量的二氧化碳以平衡碳循环Thus, deforestation reduces the plants that store CO2.因此,森林开采减少了能储存二氧化碳的植物We#39;re attacking the cycle from both sides.我们正在从两方面破坏碳循环Think of it like a computer. A computer can operate a few programs at a time, right?从计算机的角度来思考,一个计算机能够同时执行一些进程,对吧?Normally, when you#39;ve finished with a document, you save, and you close it, so as not to overwork the computer.一般来说,当你处理完一份文件,你会保存然后关闭它,只要计算机不是过度工作的Then, imagine you stopped closing your documents. So they were all open at once.接下来,想象你停止关闭文档。它们会立即全部打开Your computer wouldn#39;t be able to process it all.你的电脑将不能处理它It would start to slow down, and then to freeze, and eventually it would crash.它将会开始变慢,接下来卡住,最后它将会崩溃Which might be where our environment is heading if we keep overloading the carbon cycle.如果我们保持碳循环过载的话,我们的环境也会走向同样的结果So is there any way to rebalance the ecosystem?所以有什么办法重新平衡碳循环吗?What about technology? Technology is defined as a technique to solve a problem.技术呢?技术被定义为解决一个问题的技巧And so, sustainable technologies are those whose output is equal to their input.所以可持续的技术就是让它的投入等于产出They do not create negative externalities, such as CO2, in the present or the future.他们不会产生负的外部效应,比如二氧化碳,不管是在现在还是在未来。They sort of cancel themselves out to solve the problem.这在抵消自己的二氧化碳排量上解决了这个问题To achieve this, we need to invent sustainable technologies.为了实现这个目标,我们需要发明可持续技术If we put all the ideas and technologies ever created into one circle,如果我们将全部的想法和技术用来创建一个循环then invention is the pushing of the boundaries of that circle.然后这个发明将推动循环边界的发展And the area outside of the circle is infinite, meaning the potential for invention is limitless.循环外的空间是无限的,这意味着发明创造的可能是有限的Think about some of the incredible clean technologies we have today. All those ideas have one thing in common.想想现今的洁净技术(能源)。所有这些有一点是相同的They all came from people. People innovate. People create.它们都来源于人类,人类创新,人类创造。It#39;s the limitless potential of creative people to build unimagined technologies有创造性的人们发明不可思议的技术,这个可能性是有限的。that is going to stop climate changeand rebalance the ecosystem.这些技术指的是使得气候变化停止,生态系统平衡的技术。And that is something to be hopeful about.虽然可能性有限,但是是有希望的。 Article/201706/514399The voice is all the more credible because it belongs to someone who by rights,这种说法更为可信 因为按理说 写这句话的人should have found nothing to fault in the Norman Conquest the monk Orderic Vitalis,断不会刻意责难诺曼征 他就是修道士奥尔德里克·维塔利斯whose family came over with William and belonged, therefore, to the conquering class.他的家族跟着威廉来到这里 因此他应属征者一方In the early 12th century,he began to pen his account of the Conquest and its aftermath,十二世纪早期 他开始记录这场征及其影响and, in complete contrast to the others,Orderic never minces his words about what he thought of as a colonisation.但与他人截然不同的是 奥尔德里克从未矫揉做作地解释过 他认为什么是殖民化Foreigners grew wealthy with the spoils of England,while her own sons were either shamefully slain从英格兰掠夺的财富让外来入侵者变得富有 而她的子民却被受尽凌辱惨遭荼毒or driven as exiles to wander hopelessly through foreign kingdoms.或被驱逐 流亡国外 背井离乡His account conveys the traumatic magnitude of what happened in England in the years following 1066.他的记录向我们传达了1066年后 英格兰所经受的巨大创伤Pre-Conquest England was an old country,as Orderic describes it.照奥尔德里克所述 被征前的英格兰是个古老的国家Afterwards, it was a completely new one.被征后的英格兰 却犹如新生Of course, not everything changed,and to look at a list of governing institutions当然 也不是所有东西都变了 看一看治理国家的制度you might suppose that nothing had changed;你可能会发现 什么也没变that one class of governors had kicked out another class of governors.Big deal!只是新的统治者赶跑了原来的统治者而已 有什么了不起But I rather think it was a big deal.但我却认为 这很了不起Imagine the county gentry of England,Priests, Squires, judges想象一下 英格兰各地的贵族们 牧师 乡绅 法官all wiped out overnight, half of them dead,the rest humiliated, broken,replaced by an alien class.一夜之间被推翻 半数惨死 幸存者只得任人羞辱 变得一文不名 地位早被外族替代 /201608/460982

Introducing Google WiFi谷歌WiFi介绍A new kind of system designed to keep up with how we use WiFi today,这是一款旨在满足人们当下无线网络使用习惯的新系统from playing to streaming to calling.无论是玩游戏 看视频 还是可视通话Here#39;s how it works.它的工作原理是这样的You simply replace your existing router with Google WiFi point,你只需要将家里的路由器换成谷歌WiFi路由器or points if you have a larger home.如果你的家很大 可以多放几个These points work together with your current modem, and Internet service to provide fast, seamless WiFi for your whole home.这些路由器与你现有的调制解调器与网络务联动工作,为你家里提供全方位无死角的快捷无线网络务Google WiFi is set up and controlled through a mobile app.谷歌WiFi是通过手机应用来设置与操控的It gives you a host of features for simple, straightforward access to your network, no matter where you are.它集中了一系列特性,让你无论何时何地都能享受到简单快捷的网络Like letting you see which devices are connected at any one time, or giving you parental control.比如它可以让你在任何时间都能知道哪些设备是联网的,或者你可以使用家长控制模式So if it#39;s time for dinner or time for bed, you can give them a little time off.在吃饭或睡觉时间时 你可以让它们休息一会It lets you easily find and share your WiFi password with guests有了它 你会很容易查找并与客人共享网络密码and even allows you to prioritize specific device for faster speeds.甚至可以设置哪些设备优先享用更快的网速So the important stuff never gets interrupted.如此以来 你重要的工作永远不会被打断And Network Assist technology works in the background to make sure you always get the fastest possible speeds.谷歌WiFi的网络助手技术会在后台运转 以保你总是能享受到最快的网速It takes care of things like WiFi channel selection.它能解决一些诸如无线频道选择的问题Hight traffic on the channel you#39;re using can slow down your WiFi speed.用户所在线路的高流量使用会降低无线网络速度Google WiFi constantly monitor it to make sure you are on the least congested channel.而谷歌WiFi能持续监测流量使用状况 并确保你用到最少拥堵的线路And when you#39;re moving from room to room, it makes sure you are connected to the closest WiFi point,当你从一个房间移动到另一房间时,谷歌路由器能让你连接到最近的无线站点and the strongest, fastest signal.并且有最强最快的信号It#39;ll even let you know if you could improve WiFi performance, by moving a WiFi point to a better location.谷歌WiFi还能提示你 把路由器移动到更好的地方能否提高无线网络性能Designed for your home#39;s complex WiFi needs yet simple the control,为家庭复杂的网络需求而设计 但操作起来更简单Google WiFi – Home WiFi simply solved.这就是谷歌WiFi 家庭无线方案就这么简单 Article/201706/513854

This is an interesting painting and I want you to just take a look at it for a few seconds before we talk about it.这是一幅很有趣的画 我想在我们讨论它之前 让你先观察几秒I#39;ve looked at this painting a thousand times.我已经看了一千遍这幅画了I use it in my classes, I#39;ve seen it in art museums when it#39;s been on view and there are so many subtleties.我把它应用在课堂上 当它展览的时候我也在艺术物馆里见到过 这里有太多的细微之处可供探究But one of the assumptions that I made, not as an art historian不以艺术史学者身份 而仅仅是以艺术品观赏者身份 我曾有过这样一个猜想but just a viewer of art is that what I was looking at on the plate was a piece of meat like a piece of ham with and eye in the center.那就是碟子上我所见到的是一片肉像是一片正中央有着眼睛的火腿片And when I first showed it at one of my classes I said okay who#39;s going to tell me what they?see后来当我第一次在班里展示这幅画时 我说 好 现在谁能跟我说说你看到了什么and someone raised his hand and said that#39;s a big old pancake on the plate.有学生举手说他看到有一块变质的大煎饼在盘子里And I would have never considered that it was a pancake.我从没想过那是一块煎饼Is it a material distinction? Maybe, maybe not.这是材质之间的区别吗 有可能 但也有可能不是But he was so sure that it was a pancake and I was so sure that it was a piece of meat,但是他确定那是一块煎饼 同时我则确信那是一片肉while it might seem like a really subtle distinction it#39;s not if you think about something like eyewitness testimony.然而这区别看起来相当微妙 而若你考虑到像人词这样的情景时就不再是微妙的区别了Well, he was wearing a red sweater.比如 他那时穿着一件红色的毛衣No, he was wearing a blue sweater. That#39;s a big difference.不 他那时穿着一件蓝色的毛衣 那就是一个巨大的差别And one of the things that reminded me of the Magritte painting这幅玛格丽特的油画使我想到发生在德州的一个犯罪现场there was a crime scene in Texas and they were speaking to a witness and they said what did he look like?警员正在与人进行交流 询问嫌疑人的体貌特征What did the suspect look like?到底嫌疑人的体貌特征是怎样的And the witness said he had a cowboy hat on.人说他戴着一顶“牛仔帽”So everyone was looking, and in Texas lots of people wear ten-gallon hats.于是所有人都在找一个戴着“牛仔帽”的人 而德州的人多是戴“牛仔沿帽”So they were looking for a suspect with a cowboy hat on.于是大家都是找一个戴着(有帽沿的)“牛仔帽”的嫌疑人Well, it turns out the suspect was wearing a Dallas Cowboys cap.那么 结果发现是嫌疑人戴的是一顶达拉斯牛仔帽(注:跟德州的不一样,达拉斯的是有帽舌)So the choice of words it wasn#39;t a cowboy hat it was a Dallas Cowboys hat.所以正确的词应该是一顶达拉斯牛仔帽 而不是牛仔帽The idea of saying what you see and being sure about what you say that#39;s how communication lines can get crossed.如何表述你所见以及确信你所言会影响交流能否顺利得到And another interesting thing about that Magritte painting that I found fascinating, one of the wonderful things about writing the book is people write to you.而我从玛格丽特的画中发现很美妙的另一件事是和写书有关的一件妙事是读者会给你写信They your book and they send you their own observations他们在读过你的书之后 会告诉你他们自己的发现and I received an email from a woman who said has anyone ever told you我曾经收到过一位女士的电邮 说之前是否有看这幅画的人告诉你when they look at that painting and describe it to you that the fork to the right of the plate is turned upside down and the tines are facing into the table.盘子右边的叉子是反着放的叉子的尖儿对着桌子I had never noticed that.我从没注意过这点I had a look at the painting a thousand times.这幅油画我看过上千遍And again, material difference?又来了 这是材质的区别吗?No. Critical? No. Important? Yes.不是 吹毛求疵吗 并不 重要吗 是的It#39;s one of those details because if someone said to me describe the silverware in the painting I would#39;ve said you have a knife and a fork.这就是其中一个极易忽略的细节 因为如果有人请我描述图中的银器我会说图里的是一把刀和一把叉子And sometimes it#39;s those very small details of the tines facing the table that can bring a whole case together有时正是那些像叉子尖儿对着桌子一样极小的细节or crack a case or be that one detail that brings all the other pieces together.能将整个案件化零为整或者破获案件 又或者会是那一个关键细节去使其他所有细节融合起来 Article/201707/516785

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