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来源:天涯在线    发布时间:2019年08月24日 16:05:09    编辑:admin         

Science and technology科学技术Age and wisdom年龄与智慧Older and wiser?姜是老的辣?Americans get wiser with age. Japanese are wise from the start美国人年龄越大越聪明。日本人从小就聪明ONE stereotype of wisdom is a wizened Zen-master smiling benevolently at the antics of his pupils, while referring to them as little grasshoppers or some such affectation, safe in the knowledge that one day they, too, will have been set on the path that leads to wizened masterhood.提到智慧的时候,人们脑海里总会出现这样一个老套的画面:一个削瘦的禅宗大师面容慈祥的对他的弟子微笑着,一边叫他们小不点,心中十分确定他们迟早会走上这条通往智慧的禅宗之道。But is it true that age brings wisdom?但是智慧真的与年龄有关吗?A study two years ago in North America, by Igor Grossmann of the University of Waterloo, in Canada, suggested that it is.两年前,加拿大滑铁卢大学Igor Grossmann士的研究显示情况的确如此。In as much as it is possible to quantify wisdom, Dr Grossmann found that elderly Americans had more of it than youngsters.由于智慧可以标准量化,他发现年长的美国人的确比年轻人要聪明。He has, however, now extended his investigation to Asia—the land of the wizened Zen-master—and, in particular, to Japan.但是,如今他将调查扩展至整个亚洲—这个拥有禅宗大师的神奇土地—特别是日本。There, he found, in contrast to the West, that the grasshoppers are their mastersequals almost from the beginning.在那里他发现,与西方相比,几乎从一开始,这些弟子与大师在智力方面难分伯仲 。Dr Grossmann’s study, just published in Psychological Science,Grossmann士研究结果刚发表在《心理科学》。recruited 186 Japanese from various walks of life and compared them with 225 Americans.他招募了186个来自各行各业的日本人并且与225个美国人做对比研究。Participants were asked to a series of pretend newspaper articles.他要求参与者阅读一些假装在报纸上发表的文章。Half described conflict between groups, such as a debate between residents of an impoverished Pacific island over whether to allow foreign oil companies to operate there following the discovery of petroleum.其中一半描述了一些团体斗争,比如太平洋小岛上当地居民关于是否允许外国石油公司开发刚发现的石油资源。The other half took the form of advice columns that dealt with conflicts between individuals: siblings, friends and spouses.另一半文章以专栏的方式提供兄弟、朋友、配偶之间的个人斗争解决建议。After ing each article, participants were asked What do you think will happen after that? and Why do you think it will happen this way? Their responses were recorded and transcribed.在阅读完文章之后,研究人员会问参与者两个问题,分别是此事发生后,你认为事态将会如何发展?和为什么你认为事态会这样发展?然后研究人员会记录他们的。Dr Grossmann and his colleagues removed age-related information from the transcripts, and also any clues to participantsnationalities, and then passed the edited versions to a group of assessors.Grossmann士和同事们会在记录中剔除与他们年龄和国籍相关的信息,然后将处理过的记录版本交给经过培训的一组评委,他们都对的有一致的评分标准。These assessors were trained to rate transcribed responses consistently, and had been tested to show that their ratings were statistically comparable with one another.这些评估成员经过训练,能够始终以相同标准对纸上进行评分;并且已通过测试表明其评出的分数在统计方面相互具有可比性。The assessors scored participantsresponses on a scale of one to three.评委将参与者的按1至3分进行评分。This attempted to capture the degree to which they discussed what psychologists consider five crucial aspects of wise reasoning:他们想通过这种方法把握心理学家认为的五个有关于智慧方面的重要程度,分别是:willingness to seek opportunities to resolve conflict;寻求解决争端机会的意愿;willingness to search for compromise;寻求折中方法的意愿;recognition of the limits of personal knowledge;对个人知识有限的认识度;awareness that more than one perspective on a problem can exist;对问题存在多个方面的意识程度;and appreciation of the fact that things may get worse before they get better.和对事情在往好的方向发展前的趋坏倾向的估计程度。A score of one on any aspect indicated a participant gave no consideration to it.1分代表参与者根本就没有考虑过,A score of two indicated some consideration.2分代表参与者有了些思考但并不深入,A score of three indicated a great deal of consideration.3分代表参与者对这些问题有深入的思考。Each participant’s scores were then added up and mathematically transformed to create an overall value within a range of zero to 100 for both interpersonal and intergroup wisdom.将参与者的每个问题的得分相加,再把总分从人际关系及团体关系两方面分别转换为百分制。The upshot was that, as Dr Grossmann had found before, Americans do get wiser with age.与Grossmann士以前的结果一样,美国人随着年龄的增长智慧增加。Their intergroup wisdom score averaged 45 at the age of 25 and 55 at 75.25岁的美国人社会群体的判断力平均数是45而75岁的美国人平均数是55。Their interpersonal score similarly climbed from 46 to 50.他们人际关系的判断力平均数同样随年龄由46攀升至50。Japanese scores, by contrast, hardly varied with age.但是与美国人的结果相反,日本人的分数与年龄并无太大关系。Both 25-year-olds and 75-year-olds had an average intergroup wisdom of 51.25岁和75岁的人的社会群体的判断力平均数都是51;For interpersonal wisdom, it was 53 and 52.对于人际关系判断力反而是25岁的是53,75岁的人是52.Taken at face value, these results suggest Japanese learn wisdom faster than Americans.这些结果显示日本人比美国人更早变聪明一些。One up, then, to the wizened Zen-masters.年轻人以一分的优势险胜那些削瘦的禅宗大师们。But they also suggest a paradox.但是却有一个悖论:Generally, America is seen as an individualistic society, whereas Japan is quite collectivist.通常说来美国被视为是一个充满了个人主义的社会,然而日本则更推崇集体主义。Yet Japanese have higher scores than Americans for the sort of interpersonal wisdom you might think would be useful in an individualistic society.但是日本人在人际关系能力这一项上的得分却比美国人要高,而人际关系判断力是大多数人认为在个人主义社会中十分受用的能力。Americans, by contrast—at least in the maturity of old age—have more intergroup wisdom than the purportedly collectivist Japanese.相反,美国人—至少在年龄比较高的那一组中—在群体判断力的得分上比据称崇尚集体主义的日本人要高。Perhaps, then, you need individual skills when society is collective, and social ones when it is individualistic.也许,当社会推崇集体主义的时候你也需要人际关系技巧,在推崇个人主义的社会里你同样需要社交技巧。All of which goes to show that the real root of wisdom is this: do not assume, little grasshopper, that your prejudices are correct.所有的这一切都表明,智慧的真正根源是:别事先假定你的成见是正确的,也别轻看了那些小不点。 /201307/247990。

Business商业报道American telecoms美国电信A breath of fresh airwavesyou want呼吸新鲜的电波The scramble for spectrum could reshape Americas telecoms industry频谱争夺战可能打开美国电信新局面JULIUS GENACHOWSKI, the head of Americas Federal Communications Commission, has called wireless spectrum the oxygen that sustains our mobile devices.美联邦通讯委员会主席JULIUS GENACHOWSKI,将无线通讯频段称为维持移动通讯设备工作的氧气,Yet unlike oxygen, the airwaves over which telecoms companies transmit their wireless signals are in ever shorter supply.同的是,如今电信公司用来传输无线讯号的波段比以往更加短缺。According to the FCCs calculations,但与氧气不据委员会估计,America needs to make 300 megahertz of additional spectrum available by 2014 to avoid a crunch that drives up consumers mobile-phone bills and holds back innovation.为免移动电话用户账单攀升,创新停滞不前,引发频谱危机,到2014年美国需要新增300兆赫兹频段投入使用。Some critics reckon the regulators projections are too pessimistic.有的家认为委员会的预测太过悲观,But telecoms firms say an explosion of wireless data triggered by smartphones and tablet computers is indeed soaking up capacity fast.但电信公司指出,由智能机和平板电脑所引发的无线通讯数据的激增,Hence the scramble for more airwaves.实际上正快速占据频带容量,面向更多频段的争夺进而产生。On December 2nd Verizon Wireless, the countrys largest mobile operator, announced a .6 billion deal to buy spectrum from several cable-television companies.12月2日,美国最大的移动通讯运营商威瑞森无线通讯公司宣布斥资36亿美金从几家有线电视公司手中收购波段。ATamp;T, another telecoms behemoth, has been telling anyone who will listen that its billion bid for T-Mobile USA, a smaller rival, should be approved in part because it would ease a capacity headache:另一家电信巨头ATamp;T也正试图让每一个关心的人相信,它对T-Mobile USA这个小公司的价值390亿的收购企划应得以通过,部分原因是如此可缓和波段紧缺的困难:ATamp;T has plenty of capital but needs more spectrum, while T-Mobile has the airwaves but lacks the capital to exploit them fully.ATamp;T有足够的资金但需要更大的带宽,然而T-Mobile 有带宽却缺少充分开发利用的资金。The snag is that allowing ATamp;T and T-Mobile to merge would stifle competition in the wireless market—which is why both the Department of Justice and the FCC oppose it.问题在于,若允许ATamp;T 和T-Mobile合并,就会破坏无线市场的竞争公平—这就是为什么司法部和联邦通讯委员会都反对它们合并。ATamp;T and Deutsche Telekom, T-Mobiles German parent, have pledged to fight on, but the mergers chances are slim. Verizons deal,ATamp;T 和 T-Mobile 的母公司德国电信已承诺会继续争取,但合并的希望渺茫。by contrast, will probably be cleared by the FCC, which must approve transfers of licensed spectrum.相反,委员会却极有可能会同意Verizon的交易,因为它没有权力阻止已得到使用许可的波段的易主。Could more wireless capacity be liberated from other businesses that do not need it?可以从其他行业释放出更多的无线通讯空间吗?The FCC thinks so.它们并不需要那么多。It has come up with a proposal to persuade TV companies to part with some of their airwaves.联邦通讯委员会觉得可行,它已起草一项提案建议说电视公司出让它们的部分波段。It would solicit spectrum from broadcasters and then repackage it into larger lots to be sold in an auction.委员会将设法从电视台买来波段,然后将之重新包装合并,进行拍卖,The revenue raised would be shared between the government and the broadcasters.筹集的收入由政府和电视台分成。The FCC thinks this could release up to 120MHz of TV broadcast spectrum.委员会认为如此可释放多达120MHz的电视广播频段。TV companies could instead sell their holdings to telecoms companies directly.实际上,电视台也可以直接向电信公司出售频段,But this would probably mean lots of tiny, fragmented packets of airwaves changing hands.但转手的很可能是许多短小细碎的波段。Wireless operators will pay more for large, contiguous parcels of spectrum, which is why the FCC wants to orchestrate the process.为购买大容量连续带宽无线运营公司将需要付出更多金钱,这也正是联邦通讯委员会想要精心策划这项进程的原因。Legislation to give it permission to do so is making its way through Congress.为使委员会具有操作权限,相关法规正在议会进行审核。It may be passed by the end of the year.这项法规大概会在年底之前可以通过。But some broadcasters have given warning that the plan could hurt some stations.但是一些广播公司提出警告,这项计划可能会伤害某些电视台的利益。Were concerned this will have unintended consequences, says Alan Frank, the chief executive of Post-Newsweek Stations, which has operations in Detroit, San Antonio and other cities.Alan Frank是Post-Newsweek 电视台的首席执行官,该台在底特律,圣安东尼奥及其他城市均设有业务,他说:我们担心这项举措会产生意想不到的后果。TV folk fret that the FCC wants to be able to force stations to swap channels if necessary, even if they do not take part in the auction, so that it can create attractive parcels.电视工作者担心委员会拟定法案是想在必要的时候迫使他们转换频道,以便构成更可观的波段组合,即使这些频道并没有参与拍卖。This will raise their costs and could lead to the disappearance of some stations in cities near the Mexican and Canadian borders, where TV spectrum is aly limited.这种做法会提高电视台的运营成本,同时可能导致临近墨西哥、加拿大的边境城市里的部分电视台消失,因为在那里频带资源本就很有限。Such concerns can be dealt with.这样的担忧是可以解决的。Legislators are likely to create a fund to compensate broadcasters who have to move channels.立法者也许会设立一项基金用以补偿那些不得不转换频道的电视广播公司,And they will probably require the FCC to try hard to preserve existing TV coverage when it repackages airwaves.并且他们很有可能要求联邦通讯委员会在重组波段的时候,尽力保全现存的电视频道覆盖范围。Congresss enthusiasm to get something done is understandable.国会热衷于达成一些成就的心理是可以理解的。For one thing, an auction will raise billions of dollars for the public purse.一方面,一场拍卖会能为国库筹集到数十亿美元的资金;For another, it will create jobs by encouraging firms to invest in their networks.另一方面,通过鼓励公司投资网路可以创造就业机会。Failure to act would send the wrong signal to one of Americas fastest-growing industries.而若举措不当则将会向这一全美都发展迅猛的产业发送错误的讯息。 /201305/238039。