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2019年12月08日 18:45:25来源:安专家

  • Much of human history is not written on paper but in our genes. Some genes show the true, unexpected origins of cultures and the desperate evolution to survive pandemics while others have remained unchanged for thousands of years. Ancient DNA also dispels myths but opens up new mysteries.人类的大部分历史是被写在基因里而不是纸上的。我们能从一些基因中探索到真实意外的文化起源和那些拼死从流行病里活下来的生命演变,而还有一些则千年不变的基因。古代DNA消除了这些误解,但也揭示了新的奥秘。10. The Columbian Exchange10. 哥伦布大交换The arrival of Europeans in the Americas caused widesp epidemics in native tribes. This first contact tragedy is called the ;Columbian Exchange.; Everything started in 1492 when Christopher Columbus sailed to the New World.欧洲人来到美洲地区的时候,也将肆虐的流行病带到了土著部落。由此产生的第一件悲剧便是“哥伦布大交换”。这一切始于1492年——克里斯托弗·哥伦布在这一年发现了新大陆。Before that, pathogens existed in America, including tuberculosis. But none were as devastating as those that arrived by ship—smallpox, measles, yellow fever, and flu.在此之前,虽然在美洲地区有包括肺结核在内的病原体的存在。但是这次航行所带来的灾难却是史无前例的——天花、麻疹、黄热病和流感。In theory, this vulnerability was pinned on Native Americans evolving in isolation for thousands of years. Scientists finally found proof when they studied the Tsimshian nation#39;s DNA in 2016. Comparing two groups, ancient and modern, they found a big change in the genes linked to immunity.理论上来讲,美洲原住民千百年来都是与世隔绝的。但在2016年,科学家在研究钦西安人(北美洲北太平洋沿岸印第安人)的DNA时发现:现代钦西安人相对于古代钦西安人而言,他们的基因中有关免疫性的一部分有了很大的变化。There are historical accounts of smallpox tearing into the Tsimshian people after European contact. A drop in genetic diversity shows that smallpox killed 57 percent of the population.历史记载,欧洲人发现美洲大陆后,天花入侵到钦西安人的生活中。而遗传多样性研究表明:天花造成了钦西安人57%的人口死亡。Today#39;s Tsimshian are genetically different from their ancestors. The ancient people had a specific sequence adapted to the region#39;s pathogens. Their descendants#39; genes resulted from selective evolution to survive the arrival of new diseases.如今的钦西安人,他们的基因有别于他们的祖先:他们祖先的基因里有一种能适应该地区病原体的特殊序列;但是由于现代钦西安人曾遭受新兴疾病而存活下来,这导致他们的基因存在选择性进化,这区别于他们的祖先。9. Origin Of The Irish9. 爱尔兰的起源The roots of the Irish can be found in a Neolithic woman and three men from the Bronze Age. Called the Ballynahatty woman, her 5,200-year-old grave was found in 1855 near Belfast. Her genome was sequenced in 2015 and showed a genetic similarity to people from Spain and Sardinia today. Interestingly, her ancestors hailed from the Middle East.爱尔兰的起源可以从一位新石器时代的女人和三位青铜时代的男人讲起。这个女人叫做Ballynahatty,她的墓穴建于5200年前,于1855年在贝尔法斯特发现。2015年,科学家对她进行了基因测序,发现和今天来自西班牙和撒丁岛的人具有遗传相似性。有意思地是,她的祖先就是来自中东。During the Bronze Age, settlers arrived from Eastern Europe. The trio of males had ancestry from the Pontic Steppe, an area touching both Ukraine and Russia. The 4,000-year-old Bronze Age group was genetically closest to the modern Irish, Welsh, and Scottish.而这三位男人的祖先来自黑海大草原,与乌克兰和俄罗斯接壤。青铜时代,来自东欧的殖民者曾移居到此地。他们生活在4000年前,与现代爱尔兰人、威尔士人和苏格兰人具有最强的基因密切性。Ireland has notable genetic tendencies—comfortably digesting milk as adults and a condition called hemochromatosis, where iron retention goes overboard. The disorder was found in the woman and one of the men, but each carried a different mutation. The same man, but not the woman, had the genes to consume milk. None of the four individuals fully match modern Irish genomes but rather represent some of the groups that established the Celts.爱尔兰人具有明显的遗传倾向——成年人可轻松消化牛奶(译者注:可称为乳糖耐受现象)和血色素沉着现象(是一种由于高铁饮食、大量输血或全身疾病造成体内铁质储积过多,铁质代谢障碍所致的疾病),即铁质沉积。前面提到的那位新石器时代的女人和其中一位青铜时代的男人都存在基因紊乱,且携带了不同的变种。那位男子还具有消耗牛奶的遗传因子。四个人中没有一个与现代爱尔兰人的基因完全匹配,反而代表了一些凯尔特人的基因。8. The Koma Land People8.Koma Land人The so-called Koma Land people once lived in western Africa in what is today Ghana. If it hadn#39;t been for their one quirk, archaeologists might have overlooked their culture completely.所谓的Koma Land人曾居住在非洲西部地区——也就是今天的加纳。要不是由于他们怪癖的行为,考古学家可能完全不会注意到他们的文化。All the Koma Land people left behind were strange terra-cotta figures. The imaginative sculptures depict animal and human characters, sometimes merging the two as hybrids, and were found squirreled away in mounds.所有遗留下来的Koma Land人都是粘土人物,十分奇怪。这是一些十分富有想象力的雕塑,将动物和人类的特征刻在黏土上面,有时将二者混合在一起,埋在土堆下面。Researchers considered lifting DNA from the artifacts to determine their purpose. However, nobody got too excited because the arid environment and the burial of these artifacts for centuries in the hot sand meant that any DNA was most likely too degraded to be of any use.研究者打算从史前古器物中提取DNA来判断他们这样做的目的。但令人沮丧的是,这些史前古器物已经埋在热砂里好几个世纪了,再加上干燥的环境,任何DNA都很有可能已经降解变成别的东西了。Incredibly, the clay vessels still contained usable traces of genetic material of what they once held. Most surprising was finding plantain, banana, and pine tree residue, none of which were indigenous during that time (AD 600–1300). The artistic culture must have had well-established trade routes spanning West Africa and the Sahara, the biggest hot desert on the planet.不可思议地是,研究者在曾经被使用过的粘土器皿上,发现了其中含有可用的遗传物质的痕迹。最令人惊讶的是,他们还发现了车前草、香蕉以及松树的残留物,要知道这些物种在公元600-1300年并非本土植物。一定是由于当时完善的贸易线路,使得这些物种横跨非洲西部和地球上最大的沙漠——撒哈拉沙漠,来到这里。7. Unchanged DNA7. 不变的DNAIt#39;s rare to find living people with DNA that has been nearly unchanged for 8,000 years. The ancient world migrated madly and shuffled genes all over the place. Mainland East Asia was the exception.现在很难找到8000年都不发生任何变化的人体DNA。这是因为古代各地的人们疯狂迁徙,由此导致基因重组,但东亚大陆却是个例外。In 1973, human remains were found in Devil#39;s Gate cave, located in the Russian Far East. Recently, DNA was salvaged from a Stone Age woman. Thanks to little genetic interference since the Neolithic, her genes closely matched certain contemporary ethnic groups in the region.1973年,在位于俄罗斯远东的“恶魔之门”洞穴发现了人类的残骸中,科学家从一位石器时代的女人身上提取了DNA,由于受到自新石器时代以来的一点基因干扰,她的基因和该地区当代的某个族群是匹配的。This holds true for Tungusic-speaking groups, including populations from China like the Oroqen and Hezhen. Also still using the Tungusic tongue is the Ulchi people.同时也与通古斯语人的族群匹配,包括来自中国的鄂伦春族、赫哲族。Living where Russia shares a border with China and North Korea, they stand out for two amazing reasons. First, they retained an ancient hunter-gatherer lifestyle until very recently. Second, they appear to be direct descendants of the same population—and it is still basically the same population—of Neolithic hunters to whom the Devil#39;s Gate woman belonged.现在仍然讲通古斯语的是乌尔奇人。他们生活在俄罗斯与中国、朝鲜的国土边境,有两点非常引人注目:首先,他们现在仍然保留着古老的狩猎-采集的生活方式。第二,他们似乎是在“恶魔之门”发现的那位女人的直系后代,基本上是和她来自同一群人。6. Mota Man6. 莫塔人Mota is an Ethiopian rewriting Africa#39;s entire migration tale. He might have died 4,500 years ago, but his genes speak for him. Previously, it was believed that modern humans said goodbye to Africa about 70,000 years ago and sp to the Middle East, Europe, and beyond Asia before farmers from the Middle East and Turkey returned to the Horn of Africa.莫塔是一位远古埃塞俄比亚人,是他改写了非洲的移民史。在发现他之前,人们认为现代人类是在7万年前离开非洲,移民到中东、欧洲以及亚洲之外的地区,这一切发生在中东和土耳其的农民回到非洲角之前。但是研究莫塔的基因发现,他死于4500年以前——在人们认为的亚欧人迁移到非洲以及东非出现农业之前。The Ethiopian, named for Mota Cave where he was found, provided the first genome sequenced from an ancient African. Mota#39;s age made him older than the Eurasians of the accepted story. Another unknown group returned before them. He didn#39;t have the genes that evolved outside of Africa, those for lighter skins and eye colors, nor could he digest milk like the Eurasians from Turkey and the Middle East.这位埃塞俄比亚人莫塔的名字取自于发现他的莫塔山洞,他成为了古老非洲历史中第一个接受基因组测序的人。莫塔的年龄比欧亚人公认的故事还要老。他没有非洲之外的人的基因,因为他既没有浅色的皮肤和眼睛,也不能像来自土耳其和中东的人一样能消化牛奶。Digging deeper into #39;s makeup for his mystery ancestors, researchers found an interesting ancient match. It was the 7,000-year-old LBK culture from Germany. If Mota#39;s Eurasian ancestry comes from the LBK people, it will change the story of when Eurasians settled and sp throughout Africa.但是在深入了解莫塔神秘祖先的过程中,研究者发现了一件有趣的事:如果莫塔的欧亚祖先是LBK人,这个来自德国的有着7000年历史的LBK文化。欧亚人移居非洲并在非洲大陆上繁衍生息的故事便不一样了。 /201705/509744。
  • After being diagnosed with late-stage stomach cancer, 23-year-old Liu Yuan made two decisions.在被诊断出胃癌晚期后,23岁的刘圆做了两个决定。First, she planned for a series of portraits to be taken of her and her family, so she could always be with them in some capacity.首先,她计划拍很多自己和家人在一起的照片,这样在某种程度上她就可以永远和家人在一起。Next, she decided that her organs should be donated and her remains used for medical research.接下来刘圆决定捐献自己的器官,遗体用于医学研究。Liu, from Siyang County, Jiangsu province, received her diagnosis after returning home from university for summer vacation.刘圆来自江苏泗阳,大学放暑假回家之后被诊断出患了癌症。On July 6, Liu noticed that her abdomen felt uncomfortably swollen. She tried to ignore the discomfort, but her parents convinced her to go to the hospital.7月6日,刘圆注意到自己的腹部非常肿胀不舒。她本想不管这种不适感,但是她的父母劝她到医院看看。Two days later, Liu was told by doctors that her stomach was filled with fluid caused by late-stage stomach cancer.两天之后,医生告知刘圆她的腹部全是积水,已经是胃癌晚期了。To her family#39;s shock and dismay, the disease was pronounced terminal.这一消息让刘圆的家人异常震惊和沮丧,胃癌晚期也就意味着刘圆的生命快要走到尽头了。Following the diagnosis, Liu requested just one thing from her family.在被诊断出胃癌晚期后,刘圆只向她的家人要求了一件事情。Before her disease got even worse, she wanted to take a series of photos with her parents and elder brother. These, she hoped, would help them to remember her once she was gone.在她的病情恶化之前,她想跟自己的父母和哥哥拍很多很多的照片。刘圆希望一旦她离开之后,这些照片能够帮助他们想起自己。So, between treatments, Liu and her family went to a studio to have their first and last set of photos taken together as a family.因此在接受治疗期间,刘圆和她的家人们去了一家摄影棚,拍摄了他们第一套、也是最后一套全家福照片。The once-lively Liu worked hard during the photo shoot to make sure her inner sorrow wouldn#39;t show on her face.在拍摄照片时,曾经活泼好动的刘圆强忍着悲痛,不让内心的悲伤流露在自己的脸上。On Sept. 28, Liu returned to the hospital, well aware that her time was short. It was then that Liu made her second request.9月28日,刘圆回到了医院,她很清楚自己已经时日无多了。这时候刘圆提出了自己的第二个要求。She said to her parents, ;My disease is incurable; after I die, I want to donate my body to medical research. If any of my organs can help someone else to live, then I want them to live on in that capacity.;刘圆对爸爸妈妈说道:;我的病治不好了;我死了之后,我想把我的遗体捐给医学研究。如果我身体里任何一个器官可以帮助别人活下去的话,那么我就希望他们能用我的器官活下去。;In her last days, Liu#39;s disease worsened. Her oral cavity became swollen, and she often lost consciousness.在刘圆最后的日子里,她的病情恶化了。她的口腔变得肿起来,还经常失去意识。On Oct. 25, on her death bed, she asked her parents to inform her university of her death, and to ensure that her remains were sent to Nanjing Medical University for medical research.10月25日,在她去世的那张床上,刘圆请求爸爸妈妈通知大学她的死讯,并且确认将自己的遗体送往南京医科大学供医学研究之用。Liu passed away on Oct. 27, forever 23 in the hearts of her friends and family.10月27日,刘圆离开了这个世界,而在家人和朋友的心中,她永远是23岁。 /201611/479076。
  • 2017, ahoy! These are the books ― among others! ― that we can’t wait to .你好,2017!以下这些书已经让人迫不及待、蠢蠢欲读啦!The Man Who Shot My Eye Out Is Dead by Chanelle Benz夏奈尔·宾士《那个向我眼睛开的人已经死了》A debut collection that spans centuries and oceans, Benz’s book skips from adventure to adventure for an action-packed, imaginative . Her stories burst with thrills, but also lay bare the crimes, compromises and traumas that shape her characters’ lives. -Claire Fallon克莱尔·法伦:“跨越时间和空间,宾士的这部处女座内容丰富有趣、想象力超群,充满了 一个又一个的冒险。在她的故事中有突如其来的静寂,同时也揭露了罪恶、阴谋以及对其人物塑造具有不可磨灭影响的创伤。”Riverhead河源出版社Fever Dream by Samanta Schweblin萨曼塔·施维伯林《热夜之梦》This spare, strange book begins with a blurb from Jesse Ball’s The Curfew. If you’ve had the pleasure of ing Ball, you know that’s a good omen; he manages to write worlds that are fully realized, using laudably punchy prose. Schweblin’s book about a dying woman in a rural hospital falls into the same category. -Maddie Crum曼迪·克拉姆:“这是一本简单却奇诡的书,开场便是对于杰西·保尔《宵禁》的大肆宣传。如果你是保尔的书迷,那么你肯定觉得这是一个很好的兆头,作者用强有力的语言描绘出了一个完全实现了的世界,这一点颇受好评。施维伯林有一本关于一家乡村医院中濒死的女人也属于同一类型的小说。”Hogarth贺加斯出版社Human Acts by Han Kang韩江《人类的行为》Following The Vegetarian, one of the most stunning novels of 2016, Human Acts is yet another belatedly translated work from South Korean writer Han Kang. Centering on the killing of a young boy during a student uprising, the novel follows the rippling effects of the tragedy. –CFCF:“继《素食主义者》(2016年备受瞩目的小说)之后,韩国女作家韩江的又一力作《人类的行为》被翻译为英文。故事围绕一个在学生起义中被杀死的小男孩展开,讲述了这起悲剧带来的一系列连锁反应。”Random House兰登书屋Idaho by Emily Ruskovich艾米丽·鲁斯科维奇《爱达荷州》A woman realizes her middle-aged husband has begun to lose his memory and behave in unfamiliar ways. As he fades from her, she grasps at a submerged history, of what happened to his first wife and his daughters. Ruskovich’s debut is haunting, a portrait of an unusual family and a state that becomes a foreboding figure in her vivid depiction. –CFCF:“一个女人发现自己已经进入中年的丈夫开始逐渐丧失记忆,并且行为异常。随着丈夫记忆的日渐消逝,她竭力想要留住一点过去的片段——关于他的首任妻子还有他的女儿的事情。鲁斯科维奇的处女作令人回味无穷,生动形象地描绘了一个异常的家庭和一个成为不祥之兆的州。”FSGFSG出版社Flaneuse by Lauren Elkin劳伦·埃尔金《闲逛的女人》There was a time when a flaneur — an idle walker and observer of cities — was considered an elite, whereas a flaneuse, a woman who took up the same pastime, was presumed to be up to no good. Elkin chronicles the history of women wanderers, thing her own on-foot experiences in New York City, Paris, Tokyo and Hong Kong throughout. –MCMC:“曾几何时,城市中游手好闲、观察入微的闲逛者被认为是精英,然而一个闲逛的女人却被认为不是什么好人。埃尔金通过亲身经历按时间发展顺序描绘了穿梭在纽约、巴黎、东京、香港的女性闲逛者。”Viking维京出版社Dear Friend, From My Life, I Write to You in Your Life by Yiyun Li李翊雲《亲爱的朋友,从我的生活写到你的生活》Li’s fiction has earned her a MacArthur fellowship. Now, her memoir written amid the throes of depression has garnered praise from Marilynne Robinson and Akhil Sharma. Li celebrates the authors who make ing a joyous pursuit, and the details that’ve made her own life worth living. –MCMC:“李翊雲的虚构小说曾获得过麦克阿瑟奖。如今她的这本充满了在抑郁中痛苦挣扎的回忆录也受到了玛丽莲·鲁冰逊和阿克希尔·沙马的好评。李翊雲在书中感谢了那些使得阅读成为愉悦追求的作者们以及描述了自己对于生命的意义的见解。”Grove Atlantic格罗夫大西洋出版社The Refugees by Viet Thanh Nguyen阮越清《难民》After his debut novel The Sympathizer took home the Pulitzer Prize and seemingly endless other honors, Nguyen is back with more fiction: This time, short stories linked by their attention to people caught between two worlds. –CFCF:“阮越清的首部小说《同情者》为其赢得了普利策奖以及其他数不尽的荣誉,这一次他的回归为人们带来了一部更加虚构化的小说,这些短篇故事由对于两个不同世界的人们的关注而串联起来。”The Dial Press戴尔出版社The Twelve Lives of Samuel Hawley by Hannah Tinti汉娜·廷蒂《塞缪尔·霍利的十二种生活》Nine years after the release of her debut — a New York Times notable book — Tinti returns with the story of a girl, Loo, and her criminal father who takes her with him from city to city. As the longtime editor of lit mag One Story, Tinti knows how to blend emotional connections with engrossing plots. –MCMC:“廷蒂在发表处女作(一本备受《纽约时报》好评的图书)之后暌违九年回归笔坛。故事的主人公是一个名叫洛的女孩,她的父亲是一名罪犯,带着她在各个城市间逃亡。廷蒂曾任文艺杂志《一个故事》的编辑多年,因此她深谙如何将情感元素与引人入胜的故事情节相结合。” /201701/488733。
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