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2019年09月24日 04:41:45 | 作者:好医解答 | 来源:新华社
SAN FRANCISCO — The board of Yahoo will discuss potentially selling off the beleaguered Internet company’s core business during a series of meetings this week, people briefed on the plans said on Tuesday.旧金山——雅虎董事会将在本周的一系列会议上讨论出售这家处于困境的互联网公司核心业务的可能性,了解这一计划的人士周二透露。Directors of the company will also discuss whether to move forward with plans to spin off Yahoo’s 15 percent stake in the Alibaba Group, the Chinese e-commerce giant. The board will weigh all its options, and it is unclear whether the directors will change course, said the people, who spoke on the condition of anonymity because they were not authorized to publicly discuss the plans.公司的董事们也将讨论是否继续推进剥离雅虎对中国电子商务巨头阿里巴巴集团所持的15%股份的计划。知情人士说,董事会将权衡所有的可能,目前还不清楚董事会是否会改变议程。这些人要求不透露姓名,因为他们没有获得公开讨论这些计划的授权。Still, the discussions — which will take place at a regularly scheduled board meeting — highlight the difficulties that have long troubled one of the most prominent Internet companies.不过,这些将在定期的董事会上进行的讨论,突显了这家最大的互联网公司之一长期以来面临的困难。The discussions are also sure to put attention squarely on Marissa Mayer, Yahoo’s chief executive, and the company’s direction under her leadership. Although Ms. Mayer is credited with stabilizing the company, which was in rapid decline, Yahoo has introduced no breakthrough products during her three years at the helm and has fallen further and further behind competitors like Facebook and Google in the battle for advertising dollars.这些讨论也必将把人们的注意力集中到雅虎首席执行官玛丽莎·梅耶尔(Marissa Mayer)身上,以及她领导下的公司方向问题。虽然让公司稳定下来的功绩归于梅耶尔,在她上任之前,公司业绩在快速下滑,但是,在她掌管的三年中,雅虎并没有推出任何突破性产品,而在与如Facebook和谷歌等对手的广告收入竞争上落得越来越远。A representative of Yahoo declined to comment on the plans.雅虎的一名代表拒绝就这些计划发表。Begun as a simple website called Jerry and David’s Guide to the World Wide Web, Yahoo has grown into one of the biggest names in the Internet business.以名为“致远和大卫的万维网指南”(Jerry and David’s Guide to the World Wide Web)的一个简单网站起家的雅虎,后来发展为互联网业务的巨头之一。Yet for the last decade, Yahoo has struggled to find its reason for being. Under the leadership of Ms. Mayer, a highly vaunted Google executive brought in to drive the latest turnaround effort, the company has spent billions of dollars on acquisitions like Tumblr and Polyvore that have yet to prove their value. And in October, the company announced it was writing off million that it had wasted on an ill-fated foray into original programming.然而,在过去10年中,雅虎一直在努力寻找其存在的理由。为引导最新的一轮复兴计划,雅虎高调引进了曾任谷歌高管的梅耶尔,在她的领导下,公司花费了数十亿美元来收购诸如tumblr和Polyvore等尚未明自己价值的公司。今年10月,公司宣布将一笔4200万美元的坏账注销,这笔钱被浪费在一个进军原创视频节目的失败尝试上。Hundreds of millions of people continue to use Yahoo, which was a pioneer on the Internet. So the core business could have value to a potential acquirer.雅虎是互联网界的先驱,仍有数以百万计的用户在使用它。因此,其核心业务可能对潜在的收购者具有价值。“The saving grace for Yahoo is that it still has a relatively large user base that is reliant on the platform so long as they maintain email addresses there. It also has a still relatively strong (and still relatively large) sales force,” wrote Brian Wieser, an analyst at Pivotal Research, in a note to clients Tuesday night. “As long as both of those factors remain in place, there would be time for an acquirer to establish new strategies and develop products while the property continues to generate cash flow.”“雅虎的卖点在于,它的用户群规模依然比较大,他们只要还使用雅虎电邮,就会依赖这个平台。而且雅虎还有一比较强(规模也相对较大)的销售队伍,” 枢轴研究(Pivotal Research)分析师布赖恩·威泽(Brian Wieser)本周二晚在一份致客户的信中说。“只要这两个因素依然存在,雅虎就会继续产生现金流,收购者就有时间来规划新战略,开发产品。”But by far the greater value to shareholders has come from Yahoo’s large stakes in Alibaba and Yahoo Japan, which is controlled by the Japanese investment firm SoftBank. Subtract the Alibaba and SoftBank stakes and the value of the remaining company is less than zero.但是迄今为止,股东认为雅虎持有的大量阿里巴巴和雅虎日本的股票价值更大;雅虎日本由日本投资公司软银(SoftBank)控股。除去阿里巴巴和软银的股份,雅虎剩下的价值为负。The planned board discussions were reported Tuesday evening by The Wall Street Journal. In an interview on Tuesday after news of the potential board talks was published, Jeff Bonforte, Yahoo’s senior vice president for communications products, said employees were continuing to work on new products and features as the larger discussions about the company’s fate continued.《华尔街日报》本周二晚上报道了这个计划举行的董事会讨论。当天该消息刊出之后,雅虎通信产品高级副总裁杰夫·邦弗特(Jeff Bonforte)接受采访表示,就在雅虎命运大讨论继续进行之际,员工正在继续开发新产品和新功能。“It’s clear that Marissa came in with a timeline of three to five years,” Mr. Bonforte said.“很明显,在玛丽莎上任的时候,着眼的就是三到五年的时间,”邦弗特说。But he said that ultimately his team members did not have any control over how much time they would get to show results. “I just try to ship products that I’m not ashamed of,” he said.但他表示,对于他们有多少时间去展示成果,他的团队成员没有任何控制权。“我只是在尝试推出不会问心有愧的产品,”他说。The board’s deliberations are also taking place under pressure from a prominent activist investor, the hedge fund Starboard Value, which has spent more than a year trying to push Yahoo to take action to raise its stock price.董事会的审议也是在对冲基金斯塔德价值(Starboard Value)施加的压力下进行的,这家著名的激进投资机构已经花了一年多的时间试图让雅虎采取行动,提升股价。Last month, Starboard called on Yahoo to abandon the spinoff of the Alibaba stake after the Internal Revenue Service declined to bless the potential deal as tax-free. That could negate the rationale for the spinoff and lead to a tax bill of several billion dollars.上个月,斯塔德呼吁雅虎放弃拆分阿里巴巴股份,因为国税局拒绝为该交易提供免税待遇。这可能会让分拆不再具有意义,反而带来数十亿美元的税单。While Yahoo could fight a tax determination, Starboard has argued that the upside of winning that battle would be limited.雅虎可以对这个税收认定提出异议,但斯塔德认为赢面有限。Should Yahoo put its core business up for sale, the operations are expected to draw takeover interest from other technology companies as well as private equity firms, analysts and investors have said.分析师和投资者说,雅虎如果将其核心业务挂牌出售,预计将会吸引其他科技公司和私募股权公司的收购兴趣。A representative of Starboard declined to comment.斯塔德的一名代表拒绝发表。 /201512/414141Sands China has turned to a gaming outsider with political links to Beijing as its new chief operating officer, an effort to strengthen ties to government as the sector struggles with tumbling revenue.金沙中国(Sands China)任命了一名行业外的、在北京拥有政治人脉的人士出任新的首席营运总裁,以加强与政府的联系。行业目前正疲于应对营收锐减。The Hong Kong-listed unit of Sheldon Adelson’s Las Vegas Sands has chosen Wilfred Wong, a former construction executive, to take on the role of chief operating officer and president, replacing Rob Goldstein following his move to the US parent company.金沙中国是谢尔登阿德尔森(heldon Adelson)旗下金沙集团(Las Vegas Sands)的香港上市子公司。该公司已选择前建筑业高管王英伟(Wilfred Wong)出任其总裁兼首席营运总裁,接替即将回到美国母公司的罗布戈尔茨坦(Rob Goldstein)。Mr Wong was a member of China’s National People’s Congress from 2007-2012 and has served in various posts in both the Hong Kong and central government.王英伟曾在2007年至2012年担任中国全国人大代表,并曾在香港和中央政府内担任过不同的职务。Analysts at Bernstein Research pointed to his “strong ties” to the Chinese government as the key to his appointment, adding that they expect his main responsibility to be acting as a liaison with officials in Macau and Beijing.伯恩斯坦研究公司(Bernstein Research)分析师指出,王英伟与中国政府的“密切关系”是他获此任命的关键因素。这些分析师还表示,他们认为他的主要职责是充当金沙中国与及中央政府官员之间的联络人。 /201509/399513

China#39;s space authorities have announced plans to launch over 40 different spacecrafts into orbit in 20 separatelaunches this year.中国航天机构称今年将进行20次的航天发射,将40多个不同的航天器送入轨道。One of the vessels to be launched is theground-breaking Yuanzheng 1 - also known as the #39;space bus#39; - which can launch10 different satellites at once.其中最引人注目的要数远征1号了,也称作太空巴士,一次可以发射10个不同的卫星。2013 was a massive year for China whosescientists launched 16 spacecraft to firmly establish their cosmic credentials.2013年,中国成功的发射了16枚航天器。In October 2003, it became only the thirdcountry in history to independently launch a manned mission int o space on the Shenzhou 5.2003年10月,中国成功完成了神舟5号的载人计划,成为了第三个拥有这种能力的国家。A spokesman for the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation said thevessels going up this yt r will mostly be #39;communication satellites#39; orbitingat around 36,000ft.中国发言人称今年送入轨道的主要是通信卫星,将在36000英尺的轨道上飞行。Director of its Space Department ZhaoXiaojin added: There will also be some remote sensing satellites s ent up toobserve the earth as well as navigation satellites.#39;中国空间部门的主任赵晓金说:“还会发送一些用以观测地球的远程遥感卫星以及导航卫星。”Chinese space authorities also said anumber of #39;cutting edge* technologies will be tested for the first time.including the highly anticipated #39;space bus#39;.中国空间当局说一些“前沿”的技术也会首次进行测试,包括非常受人们期待的“空间巴士”。The Yuanzheng 1 is China#39;s largest everrocket with a diameter of 5.2 meters. It needs to be assembled at the launchsite because trains carrying it would not be able to pass through tunnels.远征1号是中国最大的火箭,直径5.2米。必须在发射现场进行组装,因为火车运载这种火箭的话,是无法通过隧道的。Its engine can restart over 20 times when flying in orbit and it is thought tobe 75 per cent more efficient than spacecraft of the same size.在轨道中飞行时其引擎可以重启20多次,而且据说比同样大小的航天器要高效75%。It also has the capability to move old,scrapped satellites out of useful orbit and into so-called #39;cemetery orbits#39; toprevent them from hindering other space-faring vehicles.它还具备将老旧的废弃的卫星从有用的轨道送到所谓的“墓地轨道”中去,以防止它们阻碍其他的航天运输工具。Meanwhile, the Chinese government hasaly begun opening up its its lunar exploration program to private investment.与此同时,中国政府已经向私人投资开放月球探索项目。 /201503/366339

Moveable Type Printig活字印刷The block printing technology in our country was probably invented in the seventh century, and reached its climax in the tenth century in the Song Dynasty. With the block printing technology, such procedures as writing samples,carving blocks, spraying the ink and printing were involved in the process of publishing a book, and it was always time-consuming and costly in the use of the material resources and manpower to print a work of great length. The procedures would have to be repeated if other books were to be published; hence our ancestors conducted active explorations and strived for improvements, which led to the eventual invention of the moveable clay-type printing technology by an ordinary man called Bi Sheng during the period of Qingli of the Northern Song Dynasty, as can be proved by the account of the book Dream Pool Essays by Bi Sheng#39;s contemporary,Shen Kuo. From then on, the moveable type printing technology was applied, and it was 400 years earlier than that used in Europe when the German Gutenburg, for the first time, printed the Holy Bible with this very technology.During the period of Dade of the Yuan Dynasty, Wang Zhen learned to use the moveable wood types to print books, of which none has come down to the present day. The oldest moveable-type printed book in existence in China is Yushice in the Yuan Dynasty, which is now collected in the National Library of China. There are, because of the differences of the times and materials, different names for the moveable type printing,such as the moveable clay-type printing, magnetic printing, moveable wood-type plate, moveable copper-type printing, moveable lead-type printing and moveable zinc-type printing. In the years of Hongzhi of the Ming Dynasty, the moveable cop-per-type printing became prevalent in Wuxi, Suzhou, Changshu and Nanjing, Jian-gsu Province, but in the years between Tianqi and Congzhen of the Ming Dynasty when a social and economic decline was pervasive, lapsed into a low ebb due to its great economic cost, the corollary of which was that there were few moveable copper-type printed books handed down to the present day. There are over 100 kinds of books in existence which were printed with the cheap moveable wood types in the Ming Dynasty. In the late Ming Dynasty, the moveable wood-type printing gradually replaced the copper-type printing for the printing of the books.People at the time also learned to use the moveable zinc types to print books; un-fortunately, there was not any book of this kind left to the present day. The moveable wood-type printing was the mainstream in the Qing Dynasty, and a great number of books of this kind have been properly preserved. After the Opium War, the moveable zinc-type printing technology originating in the west was introduced into China. The new printing technology, given its great advantages over the traditional block printing and moveable type printing, replaced them gradually as the major type of printing books, and has been used to the modern times. 我国雕版印刷技术大约发明于公元7世纪,到了10世纪的宋代达到鼎盛。使用这种技术出版一套书籍须经过写样刻版、涂墨印刷等多道工序,如果是要印一部大著作,往往要花费大量的物力、人力和时间。假如要再出版其他书籍,这些工序又得重新来过,因此我们的祖先积极探索,力求改进,终于在北宋庆历年间,平民毕异发明了用胶泥活字印刷技术。此事记载于与毕异同时期的沈括的《梦溪笔谈》一书中,从此活字印刷术开始使用了。它比欧洲最先用活字印《圣经》的德国谷腾堡要早400年。到了元代大德年间,王桢发明了用木活字印书,可惜这些都没有传本,国内现存最早的活字印刷实物是国家图书馆藏元朝的《御试策》。活字版因时代、材料不同而有不同的名称,有“泥活字版”、“磁板”、“木活字版”、“铜活字版”、“铅活字版”、“锡活字版”等等。明代弘治年间,在江苏的无锡、苏州、常熟、南京一带,铜活字印刷开始流行起来。到了天启、崇祯时期,由于社会经济的衰落,铜活字印刷因经济成本太大进入低潮,很少有传本面世了。明代用木活字这种成本价廉的印刷方式印制的书籍现存有100多种,到了明代晚期,木活字逐步取代了铜活字印书。同时在明代还发明了用锡活字印书,可惜无实物传世。木活字是清代活字印刷的主流,且有大量的木活字书籍保存下来。鸦片战争以后,西方的铅活字印刷术传人我国,这种新型的印刷术比传统的雕版印刷和活字印刷有着较大的优势,逐步取代了雕版印刷和活字印刷的地位,成为印刷书籍的最主要的方式,并一直沿用到现代。 /201601/419343

We#39;re still years away from a Tesla that can deliver you safely to work whilst you doze serenely in the driver#39;s seat, but both the Model S and Model X took a big step in that direction today. Tesla released Version 7.0 of the software that powers its vehicles, and it comes with a new trick: Autopilot.虽然特斯拉还不能满足一边开车上班一边打瞌睡的愿望,但是如今特斯拉的两款车型,S和X系列已经朝这个方向发展了一大步。近日,特斯拉更新了7.0软件版本,可以持一项新技能:自动驾驶。The software update will roll out gradually over the next five days, automatically applying itself to all Model X SUVs and all Model S sedans produced since October 2014. Software updates, while largely a curiosity among the auto industry, have become commonplace for Tesla owners. Still, this is the biggest update by far and it delivers a handful of Autopilot features.该软件在五天之后即可升级。在2014年10月后生产的X系列SUV和S系列的轿车都可以自动适配该软件。对于其他汽车公司来说,软件升级是个新鲜玩意儿。但是对特斯拉来说,这已经是老生常谈。但此次融入无人驾驶技术可谓是一个前所未有的革新。The main feature, Autosteer, is basically an advanced lane departure assist system. The car will automatically stay in a lane, slowing down as necessary to avoid traffic and steering around curves.The vehicle can even change lanes, though only when prompted by the driver hitting the turn signal and when the car detects the way is clear.自动驾驶是一项先进的辅助系统。安装该软件后,汽车会自动在车道上行使,在必要情况下进行减速以避免交通堵塞,也可以自动转方向。当司机按下转弯灯并且汽车检测道路安全的情况下,汽车也可以自动并线。Autosteer did an admirable job avoiding traffic on busy city streets, even giving room for a Honda that was very keen on merging ahead of us. However, it won#39;t detect things like yield signs and does not traffic lights. On the highway where traffic moves more predictably (and where we hope to test one soon), you#39;ll surely be able to relax a little more.自动驾驶也可以避免交通拥堵路段,甚至还能与前方的本田汽车保持车距。然而。自动驾驶无法识别路标和红绿灯。你只能在可预测路况的高速公路上可以休息一会(我们很快将会对其进行测试)。The Palo Alto, California, automaker said drivers must keep their hands on the wheel, but in our limited testing the car was actually quite lenient. For example, the driving assistant system in the BMW 7 Series allows you to take your hands off the wheel for 15 seconds before it starts beeping obnoxiously. Tesla#39;s system seemingly lets you go hands-off for as long as you want. It will eventually start beeping, but there#39;s an option to turn off the chime.加利福尼亚州大众汽车认为,司机必须将手放在方向盘上。但是对我们的汽车来说,这并不是必要条件。例如,宝马7系的行车辅助系统只能让司机双手离开方向盘15秒钟。超过15秒钟后,汽车将会响起恼人的哔哔声。然而,特斯拉的系统可以让你想离开多久就离开多久。虽然也会进行报警,但是可以手动关闭。Tesla isn#39;t the only company taking steps toward autonomous cars. Toyota, Nissan, General Motors and Google all plan to have self-driving vehicles on the road by 2020. Even iPhone maker Apple is reportedly working on an electronic, partially-self-driving vehicle. Supporters of autonomous vehicles say they will significantly improve safety on roadways.研究无人驾驶技术的公司绝非特斯拉一家。在2020年之前,丰田、尼桑、大众汽车和谷歌都计划研发自动驾驶汽车。即便是iPhone的制造商苹果公司也开始研究电子半自动化汽车。持者们认为此举将会提高道路安全性。Ultimately, Tesla#39;s system is very nicely composed. Autosteer can smoothly and cleanly handle traffic and is able to come to a complete stop and resume speed without any driver intervention. It takes a huge amount of stress and pressure out of driving in traffic. Again, you should always be paying attention, because the system will throw control back to the driver when it needs to.总的来说,特斯拉自动驾驶系统是非常可靠的。它可以稳定、完美地解决路上的交通问题。在没有司机参与的情况下,完成停车、加速。该技术可以很大程度上减轻路上开车压力。不过,你也要小心,系统可能会反过来控制司机。Updated Model S and X vehicles will also be able to slot themselves into parallel parking spots. Drivers need only cruise slowly past an open spot and then enable Autopark, at which point the car will handle all the hard work. You can keep your hands off the wheel and feet of the pedals.升级版的S和X系列汽车也可以自动停在停车位。司机只需要将车慢慢驶过空的停车位,之后开启自动停车模式。车辆会自己完成复杂的停车程序,司机无需手握方向盘,脚踩刹车。Tesla owners should keep an eye out for a pop-up on their car#39;s touchscreen display prompting them to update. Just make sure you aren#39;t going anywhere for awhile before you apply it. The software update could take upwards of two hours to download.特斯拉车主可以留意汽车触屏上的升级标识。不过,要确保在升级期间不要开车出门。软件的升级下载需要两个小时左右 /201510/404371

Earlier this year, the FT wrote that, as far as emerging market equity investors are concerned, the Brics are dead, and have been replaced by the Ticks. 今年早些时候,英国《金融时报》曾写道,就新兴市场股票投资者而言,金砖国家(Brics)已经名存实亡,取代它的是Ticks。 The rationale was that the collapse in commodity prices has badly holed the economies of Brazil and Russia which, in alliance with China and India, had formed the Brics quartet dreamt up by Jim O’Neill, then chief economist of Goldman Sachs, in 2001. 理由是大宗商品价格下跌重创了巴西和俄罗斯经济。当年这两个国家连同中国和印度被时任高盛(Goldman Sachs)首席经济学家的吉姆#8226;奥尼尔(Jim O#39;Neill)称为“金砖四国”(Bric)。 Instead, equity investors were buying into the Ticks, which feature Taiwan and (South) Korea, alongside China and India, ignominiously dumping Brazil and Russia in the process, as the first chart shows. 相反,今年早些时候股票投资者转而买入包含台湾和韩国的Ticks,同时大举抛售巴西和俄罗斯的股票,如图表一所示。 A key driver of the trend was the rise of technology companies in emerging markets, a sector in which each of the Ticks excels but Brazil and Russia do not. 该趋势的关键推动因素是新兴市场科技公司崛起,Ticks所有经济体的科技股板块均表现出色,而巴西和俄罗斯的科技公司表现欠佳。 As the second chart shows, tech stocks account for 35.9 per cent of Taiwan’s stock market capitalisation, 14.1 per cent of the Indian market and 9 per cent of that of South Korea. 如图表二所示,科技股占台湾股市市值的比重为35.9%,占印度股市的比重为14.1%,占韩国股市比重为9%。 Admittedly, technology stocks only constitute 4.8 per cent of China’s mainland equity market, but this is misleading. 应该承认,科技股占中国内地股市的比重仅为4.8%,但是该数据具有误导性。 As China’s onshore A shares are not yet included in MSCI’s flagship Emerging Market index, which is followed by most EM fund managers, what is meant by “China” is really Hong Kong. 由于中国A股尚未被纳入多数新兴市场基金经理追踪的MSCI新兴市场指数,所谓的“中国”实际上是指香港。 As the chart shows, Hong Kong has an 11.6 per cent weighting to tech stocks. Moreover, many of China’s largest technology companies, such as Alibaba, Baidu and Netease, are listed in New York but are also included in the MSCI EM index (as indeed are Taiwan and South Korea, for those who get hot under the collar about the FT describing them as emerging markets). 如图表二所示,香港科技板块的比重为11.6%。此外,中国很多大型科技公司——比如阿里巴巴(Alibaba)、百度(Baidu)和网易(Netease)——都是在纽约上市,但是也被纳入MSCI新兴市场指数(台湾和韩国也是,这些经济体对于被英国《金融时报》形容为新兴市场感到不快)。 Yet tech stocks account for just 4.1 per cent of the Russian stock market. This, admittedly, is not a pitifully low level: it is higher than in the European Union, Canada, Australia and poor old Brazil, where the weighting towards tech is a princely 0.3 per cent. 不过,科技股占俄罗斯股市的比重仅为4.1%。说实话,这并不是低得可怜的水平:它高于欧盟、加拿大、澳大利亚和可怜的巴西的科技股比重。科技股占巴西股市的比重仅有区区0.3%。 Yet, to someone whose formative years were lived during the cold war, when the Soviet Union and its arch nemesis the US were the two technological superpowers dominating the planet, it still seems odd. 不过,对于那些在冷战时期——当时的苏联及其死对头美国是主宰整个地球的两个技术超级大国——长大的人来说,这看上去仍有些奇怪。 The USSR was, of course, the first country to launch an artificial earth satellite and to send a man into space. Its rockets remain the only way astronauts, even those from the west, can reach the International Space Station. 苏联当然是首个发射人造卫星、首个把宇航员送入太空的国家。俄罗斯的火箭至今仍是宇航员(包括西方宇航员)进入国际空间站的唯一方式。 The Soviet Union’s strength in physics and mathematics ensured the country could match the best of America’s military technology, particularly in the nuclear sphere. 苏联在物理和数学方面的优势确保了它可以与美国的尖端军事技术、特别是核技术相匹敌。 So it might seem slightly puzzling that, when it comes to producing technology companies, Russia now lags so far behind the likes of China and India. “What the hell has gone wrong?” asks one person with knowledge of Russian industry. 因此,或许有点令人费解的是,在育科技企业方面,俄罗斯如今远远落后于中国和印度等国家。“到底出了什么问题?”一名熟悉俄罗斯工业的人士问道。 There appears to be little consensus as to what precisely has gone wrong, and what Moscow needs to do to better exploit its impressive scientific legacy. 对于俄罗斯到底出了什么问题、莫斯科方面需要采取什么行动才能更好地挖掘其令人印象深刻的科技遗产,各方似乎没有什么共识。 To David Lubin, head of emerging markets economics at Citi, part of the answer lies in Russia’s limited freedom of expression. 在花旗(Citi)的新兴市场经济主管戴维#8226;卢宾(David Lubin)看来,部分原因在于俄罗斯的言论自由有限。 “No one in Russia has much sense of being able to do things. I guess the explanation for that is deep in the political system and political culture. You have got to allow dissent and disagreement and artistic self expression to allow the innovation that technology relies on,” he says. “俄罗斯没人具有自己能够成就一番事业的感觉。我猜其原因深植于政治体制和政治文化。你必须允许异见、分歧和艺术性的自我表达,才能使科技赖以发展的创新涌现出来,”他称。 “To have depth you need to have political freedom, and no one does that like the US,” adds Mr Lubin, who cites the example of Lady Gaga, an often outlandishly attired singer, performing during the half-time interval of this year’s Super Bowl, the most watched event in the US television calendar, as an example of the sort of cultural freedom Russia would never countenance. “要有深度,你必须具有政治自由,在这一点上没有国家能像美国那样,”卢宾称,他以Lady Gaga今年在美国电视收视率最高的盛事超级碗(Super Bowl)中场休息时献唱为例,说明在俄罗斯永远得不到持的那种文化自由。Lady Gaga是一位歌手,常常穿着离经叛道的奇特装。 Having said that, countries such as China are not particularly noted for encouraging freedom of thought and expression either. 话虽如此,中国等国家也并不以鼓励思想自由和言论自由而闻名。 In contrast Charles Robertson, global chief economist at Renaissance Capital, a Moscow-based investment bank, believes Russia has been a little more successful in the tech field than might at first appear. 相反,莫斯科投行晋新资本(Renaissance Capital)的全球首席经济学家查尔斯#8226;罗伯逊(Charles Robertson)认为,俄罗斯在科技领域比乍看之下更成功一些。 Mr Robertson cites the examples of Yandex, Russia’s answer to Google, and Mail.Ru, an internet group controlled by billionaire Alisher Usmanov. Perhaps less intuitively, he also argues Magnit, the country’s largest food retailer, can be regarded as a tech company. 罗伯逊以俄罗斯版的谷歌(Google) Yandex、以及由亿万富翁爱利舍#8226;乌斯马诺夫(Alisher Usmanov)控股的互联网集团Mail.Ru为例。他还认为,也许不那么直观的是,俄罗斯最大的食品零售商Magnit可以被视为科技公司。 “Retail is about logistics and the management of logistics. Magnit has developed [those operations] itself. It’s very sophisticated, it’s like Amazon,” Mr Robertson says. “零售是关于物流和物流管理的行业。Magnit自己发展了这些业务。这些业务的技术含量很高,就像亚马逊(Amazon),”罗伯逊称。 More broadly, he is hopeful that a “big push” from the Russian government to develop small and medium-sized enterprises will help improve the situation further. 整体而言,他对俄罗斯政府“大力推动”中小企业发展将进一步改善局面抱有希望。 “They know they have got too few people working in SMEs and too many in large companies. It’s about letting SMEs thrive and I think a lot of it will come in tech,” Mr Robertson says. “他们知道在中小企业工作的人太少了,在大企业工作的人太多了。这其中的关键在于让中小企业蓬勃发展,我认为很多中小企业将在科技行业涌现,”罗伯逊称。 Konstantin Styrin, assistant professor of economics at Moscow’s New Economic School, believes the main obstacle is the “poor quality of institutions” such as the rule of law, protection of property rights and the lack of an independent judiciary. 莫斯科新经济学院(New Economic School)经济学助理教授康斯坦丁#8226;斯特林(Konstantin Styrin)认为,主要障碍在于法治、产权保护、缺乏独立司法体系等“制度劣质”。 Although these deficiencies are likely to sap activity across all industries, he believes the technology sector may be particularly sensitive to the quality of institutions because of its relatively high-risk nature. 尽管这些缺陷很可能抑制所有行业的活力,但是他认为,由于相对高风险的特性,科技行业对制度质量可能格外敏感。 “Excessive regulation” is another handicap, Mr Styrin argues. “Businesses must comply with a huge number of rules and regulations. Many people believe that following all of them would be prohibitively costly. This implies that every firm has to violate some of those rules and therefore is vulnerable in the face of an inspection by tax authorities, fire department, etc.” 斯特林认为,“过度监管”是另一个障碍。“企业必须遵守大量的规章制度。很多人认为遵循所有规章制度的代价过于高昂。这意味着每家公司都不得不违反部分法规,因此他们在面对税务、消防等部门的检查时相当脆弱。” Edward Crawley, professor of aeronautics and astronautics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and co-founder of the Moscow-based Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, instead argues that the root of the problem stems from the break-up of the communist system. 麻省理工学院(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)航空航天学教授、莫斯科的斯科尔科沃理工学院(Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology)的共同创始人爱德华#8226;克劳利(Edward Crawley)则认为,问题的根源在于共产党体制解体。 While the US still has an array of national laboratories and corporate research and development centres, many of the equivalent institutions in Russia “completely ceased to exist” when the Soviet Union broke up in 1991. 美国仍然拥有一大批国家实验室和企业研发中心,而俄罗斯的很多类似机构在1991年苏联解体时“彻底关停”了。 As a result, the bridge between universities and commerce was broken, a disconnect the Skolkovo centre was designed to help rectify. 其结果是高校与商界之间的桥梁垮塌,创办斯科尔科沃创新中心的初衷就是帮助纠正这种脱节。 “There are very few sectors where you can take an idea right out of university and make a company of it. The maturation process of technology through to delivery into a product usually requires several intermediary steps,” Prof Crawley says. “很少有什么行业是你可以从高校得到创意、然后以此打造一家公司的。从技术到产品的成熟过程通常需要一些中间步骤,”克劳利称。 He argues that the UK, another country with a respectable academic scientific tradition but little success in producing tech companies (a meagre 1.5 per cent of the UK’s market cap) suffers from the same problem. 他认为,同样拥有受人尊敬的学术科学传统、但在育科技企业方面鲜有建树的英国受制于同样的问题。科技企业在英国股市的市值占比仅为区区1.5%。 “There are some similarities between the systems in Russia and the UK, which also has excellent universities and good industry and also doesn’t have a connection [between them],” Prof Crawley says. “俄罗斯和英国的体制之间存在一些相似性,英国也拥有出色的大学和经营有方的工业,(但两者之间)也没有衔接,”克劳利教授称。 Between 2003 and 2006 he was executive director of the Cambridge-MIT Institute, a joint venture with the British university, and he welcomes the creation of a series of “catapult centres” by the UK government to attempt to address this disconnect. 2003年至2006年间,克劳利曾担任剑桥—麻省理工研究院(Cambridge-MIT Institute,与剑桥共同成立的合资企业)的执行董事。他欢迎英国政府创建一系列“弹射中心”(catapult centre)以解决这种脱节的举措。 Despite the problems in Russia, Prof Crawley argues the country has still had some success in developing tech companies in sectors with “low capitalisation”, such as Yandex and Kaspersky Lab, a privately held data security group. 尽管俄罗斯存在问题,但克劳利教授认为该国在“低资本化”行业发展科技公司方面还是有一些成功,比如Yandex和私有的数据安全集团卡巴斯基实验室(Kaspersky Lab)。 It has also retained its “excellence” in a handful of strategic industries such as aeronautics, nuclear energy and space technology, he argues, where the country has done a better job in keeping the intermediary chain alive. 他认为,俄罗斯也保留了其在少数战略性产业(比如航空、核能源和空间技术)的“卓越”,同时该国在保持中介链活力方面做得比较好。 David Nangle, managing director of Vostok Emerging Finance, a venture capital group specialising in fintech, believes Russia’s struggles are wider than just a difficulty in commercialising technology. 专注金融科技的风险资本集团沃斯托克新兴金融(Vostok Emerging Finance)的董事总经理戴维#8226;南戈尔(David Nangle)认为,俄罗斯的困难不仅在于技术商业化。 “Even if you look beyond technology, Russians don’t export well. The global brands that come out of Russia are few and far between. It exports people well, not brands and technology,” says Mr Nangle, who lived in Russia for six years. “即使你考虑科技以外的领域,俄罗斯人在出口方面也鲜有建树。出自俄罗斯的全球品牌少之又少。它输出了优秀人才,但品牌和技术不行,”曾在俄罗斯生活了6年的南戈尔称。 He points out that a good number of chief technical officers in Silicon Valley and in Israel’s tech sector are from the former Soviet Union, such as Max Levchin, co-founder of PayPal, suggesting the pipeline of talent is there. 他指出,硅谷和以色列科技行业有很多来自前苏联的首席技术官,比如PayPal联合创始人马克斯#8226;莱文奇恩(Max Levchin),这似乎表明俄罗斯能够源源不断地培养人才。 The problem, he believes, is that Russia does not have the “enabling environment” of somewhere like Silicon Valley, which has “an ease of doing business, a lack of fear of failure and the belief that you can do anything”. 他认为,问题是俄罗斯没有像硅谷那样“让人施展才华的环境”,硅谷拥有“便利的营商条件、无惧失败、以及一切皆有可能的信念”。 In addition, Silicon Valley has an abundance of capital, something he says Russian tech companies are starved of. 另外,硅谷拥有充足的资本,南戈尔称这是俄罗斯科技企业得不到的。 “It’s very hard to get global capital to want to support young companies in Russia, but they are willing to put billions into some other countries,” he says. “很难说全球资本持俄罗斯的年轻企业,尽管它们愿意在其他一些国家投入巨资,”他称。 “Many global private equity houses are prepared to look at other emerging markets like Asia and Brazil, but currently not Russia. I was in Pakistan last week and global [investors] are starting to invest there,” says Mr Nangle, whose own firm is endeavouring to buck the trend with investments in TCS Group Holding, a London-listed provider of online retail financial services under the Tinkoff brand, and Revo, an early-stage merchant payments company. “很多全球私人股本公司都准备看看亚洲和巴西等其他新兴市场,但是目前并未考虑俄罗斯。我上周去了巴基斯坦,全球(投资者)正开始投资那里,”南戈尔称。他自己的公司正努力逆势而行,投资了在伦敦上市的在线金融零售务提供商TCS Group Holding(以Tinkoff为品牌)以及处于发展初期的商家付公司Revo。 While western sanctions imposed in the wake of the Ukraine conflict currently muddy the water, Mr Nangle says even before that many investors were concerned about corporate governance in Russia, although he argues this is an issue across many emerging markets. 尽管目前西方因乌克兰冲突而对俄罗斯实施的制裁使情况变得复杂,但南戈尔称,即使是在制裁之前也有很多投资者担心俄罗斯的企业治理,尽管他辩称这是很多新兴市场普遍存在的问题。 He remains “a believer” in the medium-term opportunities in the Russian online, ecommerce and general tech sectors, citing the likes of TCS and Yandex. Yet, he fears Russia may have now missed its window of opportunity to fully regain its cold war-era strength. 他仍然相信俄罗斯的在线、电子商务和一般技术行业存在中期机遇,并以TCS和Yandex之类的公司为例。不过,他担心俄罗斯可能已经错过了全面恢复冷战时代实力的机遇之窗。 “Overall, I think it’s a massive opportunity lost. Russia could have gone toe-to-toe with the US in developing another Silicon Valley. Education systems in Asia are going to crush the world, let alone Russia,” he says, envisaging Asian dominance of the tech sphere in a generation’s time. “总的来说,我认为它失去了重大机遇。俄罗斯原本可以和美国并驾齐驱,打造另一个硅谷。亚洲的教育体系将会碾压世界,更别提俄罗斯了,”南戈尔称。他预测亚洲将在一代人时间里主导科技领域。 Prof Crawley, at least, is more optimistic. He says that scientific education, at least through to masters level, remains strong and “the standard of students we [Skolkovo] are able to attract is on a par with MIT, Cambridge and Oxford”. 至少克劳利教授更乐观些。他称,俄罗斯的理科教育仍然强大,至少在硕士级别或以下是如此,“我们斯科尔科沃可以吸引到的学生的水准与MIT、剑桥和牛津不相上下”。 In particular, he believes Russia’s ongoing strength in applied mathematics will, eventually, allow it to make its mark in areas such as IT networks, IT security and data analysis. 特别是,他认为俄罗斯在应用数学方面保持的强大实力,最终将使其IT网络、IT安全和数据分析等领域取得成就。 /201603/432744

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