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2019年10月14日 20:04:11    日报  参与评论()人

宁德做人流去哪好福州市输精管复通哪个医院好Ways of Forgetting, Ways of Remembering: Japan in the Modern World. By John Dower.《淡忘之道,铭记之途:现代日本》,约翰·道尔著。As the ghosts of the Pacific war judder back to life in Asia, it seems appropriate to consider how nation states remember, and misremember, the past. Japan#39;s current tiffs with its neighbours, Chinaand South Korea, are rooted in the march to war and its undigested aftermath, more than 75 years ago. They are inflamed, however, by different narratives of history, and by national mediacoverage that is often parochial and amnesiac.近日,太平洋地区发生战争的阴霾再次笼罩着亚洲。现在来思考民族国家是如何铭记及误记历史的,似乎正是时候。日本最近和中韩两个邻国之间起了种种争执,这都源于75年多以前发动的那场战争和它所带来的尚未平复的创伤。然而,各国对历史的记述不同,国家媒体的报道也往往狭隘而有所回避。因此,这些争执被激化了。Conflict and memory are the themes that animate this new collection of essays by John Dower, author of the Pulitzer prize-winning “Embracing Defeat” (1999), which looked at Japan after the second world war. Mr Dower is particularly interested in Japan#39;s sanitisation of its military past, but also the way history in general is often a tool used by the powerful.冲突和回忆这两种主题为约翰·道尔这本新散文集赋予了生命。他另著有《拥抱战败》(1999),该书研究了二战后的日本,获得了普利策奖。道尔对于日本粉饰其军国主义历史的行为特别感兴趣,但他也同样关注当权者通常是如何利用历史的。Mr Dower discusses his surprise at hearing his own work cited after 9/11, when American officials evoked the post-war occupation of Japan as a model for post-invasion Iraq. President George W. Bush should have seen that Japan provided “no model” for occupying Mesopotamia, Mr Dower wrote in a strikingly prescient 2002 New York Times op-ed, reproduced here. “To rush to war without seriously imagining all its consequences, including its aftermath, is not realism but a terrible hubris.”在9.11事件之后,美国官员援引了道尔的作品,要求以战后占领日本的模式在入侵伊拉克之后占领该国。道尔表示他听到这一消息以后有些错愕。他在2002年《纽约时报》的社论专栏里极有先见之明地写道:乔治·W·布什总统应该认识到,日本不能为攻占美索不达米亚“提供模式”。“不认真考虑战争的后果、包括可能带来的创伤就匆匆发动战争,这不是现实主义,而是一种可怕的傲慢狂妄。”He returns to the terrain of “Embracing Defeat”, marvelling at how the vicious racial hatreds of the Pacific war dissipated so quickly, as though “turned off like a spigot”. The lesson for Mr Dower is not only that reluctant civilians must be mobilised by propaganda to fight and die, but also that new realities force new biases.回到《拥抱战败》 的主题上,道尔惊叹于太平洋战争深刻的种族仇视竟然平息得如此之快,就像“水龙头一样关掉了”。道尔得到了一个教训:问题不仅仅在于不情愿的平民被政府宣传所鼓动才去拼死一战;还在于新的现实形成了新的偏见。No side, he argues, launched a more sophisticated propaganda blitz than the Japanese, whosaw their “mongrel” enemies as biologically inferior. But they were hardly alone. During the war Americans viewed their Asian rivals as “monkeys” or “rats”, but with the start of the occupation, Japan became an ally. The popular racism in the American media more or less stopped, and stayed buried until the 1970s, when Japan emerged as an economic superpower. This resurrected Japanese stereotypes of “predatory economic animals” in Western suits who were launching a new “financial Pearl Harbor”. The spigot of racial hatred had been turned back on.道尔指出,日本人最善于在短时间内对人民进行宣传鼓吹,他们认为那些“杂种”敌人天生就低他们一等。但这种现象并不只出现在日本人身上。战时,美国人把亚洲对手视为“猴子”、“老鼠”;但侵占开始以后,日本就成了他们的盟友。后来,美国媒体中盛行的种族歧视或多或少有所收敛,归于沉寂。直到20世纪70年代,日本以经济超级大国的姿态登上世界舞台,于是西方又老调重弹,把日本视为“穿着西装、掠夺成性的经济野兽”,认为日本正准备发动一场新的“金融珍珠港”之战。种族仇视的水龙头再次拧开了。When the fighting is finished, history is written, inevitably by those in power, observes Mr Dower. The standard American view of the struggle against Japan is that it was just and moral. But this grants little space for the ghastly side of victory, which included the airborne destruction of 66 cities and the incineration of more than half a million civilians. China and Korea#39;s political elites have found it endlessly useful to bang the nationalist drum to unite potentially fractiouspopulations against their old enemy. Japanese conservatives have made it easy for them, whitewashing the past and attempting to pass off Imperial Japan#39;s rampage across Asia as a “holy war” against Western colonialism.道尔做出了这样的:当战争结束后,历史将不可避免地由当权者写下。美国人普遍认为对日战争是公正的、合乎道德的。但这份胜利仍然有着极为惨烈的一面——其中日本66座城市遭到空袭破坏,50多万平民灰飞烟灭。中国和韩国的政治精英发现,想要把内心愤怒的民族联合起来对抗其共同的宿敌,敲响民族主义这面大鼓最为有效。日本的保守派粉饰历史,试图将日本帝国在全亚洲的暴行伪装成对西方殖民主义的“圣战”——这给中韩两国的政治精英提供了有利机会。Selective memory is often a harmful feature of children#39;s education. Japanese high-schooltextbooks devote impressively little space to the war, reflecting official attempts to “downplay the dark aspects of Japan#39;s modern history,” writes Mr Dower. For its part, China#39;s government relies on its struggle against Japanese aggression for its historical legitimacy, so memories of wartime atrocities are kept fresh in schools. This helps to explain the strikingly different public reactions to the current island disputes. While the Chinese angrily take to the streets, the Japanese stay at home and watch it on TV.选择性记忆往往不利于对下一代的教育。道尔写道,日本的中学教科书对战争描述极少,反映了官方试图“淡化日本近代史的阴暗面”。在中国这一方面,政府依靠抗日战争来突出其历史合理性,因此学校教育不断提及日本在战时的暴行。这可以解释为什么对于当下的岛屿纠纷两国的公众反应截然不同。中国人愤怒地走上街头抗议,而日本人却待在家里看电视,电视里正是中国人抗议的镜头。For a solution, Mr Dower looks to the 20th-century views of E.H. Norman, a Japan expert and Marxist historian. Like Norman, he feels that most countries need a “revolution from below” against any system that “represses freedom, sacrifices life, and retards the creation of true self-government”. All citizens should be able to challenge the narratives held by elites. At a tense time of toxic nationalism in Asia, this book is a timely reminder of the uses and abuses of history.为了寻求解决方案,道尔研究了日本专家、马克思主义史学家 E.H. 诺曼在20世纪提出的观点。和诺曼一样,道尔认为大多数国家需要一次“自下而上的改革”,推翻所有“压抑自由、牺牲生命、阻碍真正实现自治”的体制。所有公民都应当能够质疑社会精英所持的观点。民族主义正在毒害亚洲国家。在这紧张时刻,道尔的这本书及时地提醒了人们历史是如何被利用和滥用的。 /201209/202406福州不孕不育大概多少钱 英国财经杂志《经济学人》和;经济学人智库;昨日联合发布了全球城市生活成本排行榜。瑞士苏黎世成为全球生活成本最高的城市。而在中国城市中,上海位列第42位,北京排在第59位。The cost of living across the globe世界各地的居住成本ZURICH has become the world#39;s most expensive city to live in, according to the latest Worldwide Cost of Living Survey from the Economist Intelligence , our sister company. The strengthening of the Swiss franc in the past year helped lift the city four places up the table to displace Tokyo at the top. The index measures the cost of an expatriate lifestyle in over 130 cities using a weighted average of the prices of 160 products and services. New York#39;s figure is set to 100 to provide a base for comparisons. The relative strengths of currencies and economies are reflected in changes to the rankings. Thus Sydney has moved from 71st to 7th since 2001, while New York has fallen from 7th to joint 47th。我们的公司;经济学人智库;最新全球生活成本调查显示,苏黎世已经成为全球居住成本最高的城市。过去一年来瑞士法郎的走强促进了该城市在排行榜上迈进了四位,取代东京,位居榜首。该指数用160种产品和务的加权平均值衡量了130多个城市的居住成本。纽约值被设为100作为一个衡量标准。排名的变化也反应了货币及经济的强弱。从2001年开始,悉尼已经从71位升到第7位,而纽约从第7位直降到47位。相关中文报道:英国财经杂志《经济学人》和;经济学人智库;昨日联合发布了全球城市生活成本排行榜。其结果显示,瑞士苏黎世成为全球生活成本最高的城市,而中国城市中,上海位列第42位,北京排在第59位。亚洲国家中排名前十的还有日本的阪神和新加坡,前50名中有14个亚洲城市上榜。上海与美国洛杉矶以及俄罗斯首都莫斯科并列第42位,均高于纽约(排名第47位);中国香港排在第22位,比10年前的第三名大大下滑;北京排在第59位,与去年相比下滑了三位。前十排名:1. 瑞士苏黎世2. 日本东京3. 瑞士日内瓦4. 日本大阪-神户5. 挪威奥斯陆6. 法国巴黎7. 澳大利亚悉尼8. 澳大利亚墨尔本9. 新加坡10. 德国法兰克福 /201202/171981福州去那里复通手术好

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福州市婚检最好三甲医院This the season to gather those you love and soak up the quality time together. And really, we should be doing this all year round -- even research shows that spending time with loved ones is good for health.现在的这个时候,你是不是和你爱的家人朋友在一起共度欢乐时光?事实上,我们天天都应该这样度过,都有研究表明和爱的人共度时光对健康有益。From decreasing loneliness to slashing stress levels, from helping with quitting smoking to making a difference in healthy eating habits, check out these eight reasons why it#39;s healthy to spend time with people you love.从减少孤独感到缓解压力,从帮助戒烟到养成健康的饮食习惯,看看下面这八个原因,告诉你为什么和爱的人共度更健康吧!Parenting Lengthens Life当父母可以长寿Being a parent -- especially being a mom -- is linked with living longer, according to a study of 21, 276 couples from Denmark.对丹麦21276的夫妻调查显示,当父母——尤其是做妈妈,可以长寿。The research, published in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, showed that women who gave birth to children were four times less likely to die early from cancer, accidents or circulatory disease. Fathers also had lower risks of early death from these causes.发表在《流行病学与公众健康》期刊的调查结果表明,生过孩子的女人,因为癌症、事故和循环系统疾病死亡的几率要低四倍,当爸爸同样也会降低得这些病的风险。Big Social Networks Are Good For Your Health大一些的社交圈对健康有益Having many strong social ties could help you live a longer, healthier life, according to a study from Brigham Young University and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill researchers.根据阳伯明翰大学以及北卡大学教堂山分校调查者研究显示,强烈的社交纽带能让你长寿健康。The study showed that social ties#39; impact on longevity is actually the same as that which is seen between people who smoke and don#39;t smoke, TIME reported.根据时代周刊报道,有研究表明社交对长寿的影响,实际上就等同于抽烟的人和不抽烟的人之间寿命的区别。Sisters Decrease Loneliness们减少孤独感Having a sister is good for your mental health, according to research from Brigham Young University.根据阳伯明翰大学的研究,有个对你的精神健康有好处。Specifically, researchers found that having a sister could help preteens to feel less lonely, self-conscious and afraid -- and more loved.另外,调查者发现有一个能让孩子减少孤独感、自私以及担忧--也会更有爱。And researchers found that having a sister or a brother was linked with more inclination to do good deeds, according to the Journal of Family Psychology study.研究者同时还发现,根据《家庭心理周刊》的报道,有兄弟的孩子们似乎更愿意做好事。Friends And Family Make A Difference In Your Healthy Habits朋友们和家人决定你的健康习惯Your friends and family are highly influential when it comes to the kind of lifestyle you lead, according to a 2011 survey.2011年的一项调查显示,你的朋友们和家人会严重影响你的生活方式。Blisstree.com reported that 36 percent of people say their nutrition is affected by influence from their friends and family. And 46 percent of people in the survey said that their loved ones make a difference in their overall healthy lifestyles.Blisstree网站报道说,36%的人说他们的饮食受到了家人和朋友的影响,还有46%的调查者说他们爱的人对自己健康的生活方式有着很大的影响。Dads Influence Teens#39; Sexual Activity爸爸影响青少年的性行为Having a strong bond with Dad makes a big difference when it comes to risky teen sexual behavior, according to a study in the journal Pediatrics.《儿科》期刊调查显示,和爸爸关系亲密,会对青少年性行为产生很大的差别影响。It showed that dads who were open about talking about sex and their opinions on sex with their children made a bigger influence on their children#39;s actual sexual activity.调查显示,如果父亲对自己的孩子开诚布公的谈论性方面的问题以及他们对性的看法,将会对孩子实际的性行为产生重大影响。Mothers Influence Child#39;s Obesity妈妈影响着孩子的体重Being close with your mom could have an impact on your weight, according to a study published last year in the journal Pediatrics.《儿科》期刊去年发表的研究显示妈妈会影响你的体重。The study shows that the relationship between a mom and her child when the child is young seems to be associated with his or her weight later on as a teen. Specifically, young kids with close relationships with their moms were less likely to be obese in the study in adolescence, compared with those with more distant relationships with their moms during toddlerhood, CNN reported.调查显示妈妈和孩子幼年时期的关系,会对孩子青少年时期的体重产生影响。调查中特别指出,和那些幼年时期与妈妈关系 疏远的孩子相比,和妈妈关系密切的孩子成年之后会不怎么可能变胖。Sisters Sp Happiness们能传播幸福Spending time with your sister could help you feel happier, according to a University of Ulster study.奥斯特大学的一项调查显示,和在一起能让你觉得更加幸福。The study, which included 571 people between ages 17 and 25 , showed that people with sisters had greater family communication, B News reported.根据B新闻报道,一项针对571位17-25岁的年轻人的调查显示,有的人会和家人有更多的交流。;Emotional expression is fundamental to good psychological health and having sisters promotes this in families, ; study researcher Tony Cassidy told B News.“情感交流是心理健康的基础,有了能在家庭中促进这一点。” 调查的研究者Tony Cassidy对B新闻这样表示。Talking With Mom Lowers Stress和妈妈聊天缓解压力Spending some quality talk time with Mom could help to lower stress, according to a 2010 study conducted by University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers.威斯康星大学2010年的研究表明和妈妈谈话能缓解压力。Health.com reported that talking on the phone with Mom seemed to decrease stress hormones and increase the feel-good chemical oxytocin among young girls, between ages 7 and 12.健康网站报道称,7-12岁的小女孩和妈妈打电话,似乎能降低压力荷尔蒙,同时增加让人感觉不错的化学物质催产素。 /201508/393944 龙岩做输卵管疏通费用多少福州看多囊那里好

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