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2019年07月17日 11:22:25 | 作者:挂号咨询 | 来源:新华社
With a final blast of flaming gas, and just as the sun rises over the snow-powdered mountains to the east, we begin to float upwards. The inaugural flight of the world’s highest commercial hot-air balloon service is under way. On the ground, our team of young helpers whoop with excitement.随着热气球最后轰地一声点火成功,旭日慢慢东升于白雪皑皑的群山之上,我们乘坐的热气球开始上升。全球飞行高度最高的商用热气球处女航正式拉开了帷幕,地面的年轻助手们见状都欢呼雀跃。For the next hour we drift down Bhutan’s majestic Phobjikha Valley, savouring a bird’s-eye view of the Himalayan scenery unfolding around us. To the north, the 400-year-old Gangtey Goenpa monastery stands on a ridge, dominating the valley. On each side the valley’s forested flanks — home to leopards, bears and boar — rise steeply to the skyline. Below, the Nakey Chhu river meanders like a silver ribbon through pastures and water meadows.在接下来的一个小时里,我们将沿着不丹雄伟壮丽的富毕卡谷地(Phobjikha Valley)一路飘游,从空中欣赏绵延不绝的喜马拉雅山(Himalayan)的壮美景色。极目北望,映入眼帘的是有着400年历史的冈提坚帕寺庙(Gangtey Goenpa Monastery),它矗立于高高的山脊上,俯控了整座山谷。山谷两边,林木茂密(它们是豹子、熊以及野猪们的家园),直插云霄。俯瞰地面,则是蜿蜒曲折、缓缓流淌的纳凯曲河(Nakey Chhu),它如同银色丝带般穿行于牧场与湿草地之中。As the sun burns away the mist, we drift silently above thickets of colourful prayer flags, gold-roofed temples and white-walled Bhutanese farmhouses with ornate wooden eaves and windows. We glide southwards over horses, cattle, the odd yak and a pack of dogs that bark furiously as the huge red translucent globe passes above them. Early-rising schoolchildren stare at the apparition in the sky. A peasant farmer stands in a field and watches — one presumes in amazement — a sight the likes of which he would never have seen before.随着薄雾散尽,艳阳普照大地,我们静静飘游于高空,地面的朵朵五经幡、座座金顶寺院以及不丹的特色白墙农舍尽收眼底。向南飘移时,只见牛群马群、怪异的牦牛以及一群渐入眼帘。儿看到空中飘过的红色半透明巨型热气球后,狂吠不止;早起的学童出神地望着空中的“怪物”;站在田间地头的一位农民也惊讶地抬望半空————他平生可能从未见过这类稀奇玩意儿。A narrowing of the valley funnels the breeze. Soon we are travelling at four or five knots, but so smoothly it seems that the ground, not the balloon, is moving. Our pick-up truck has been left far behind, bumping along a dirt track. Our young helpers, dressed in a traditional Bhutanese ghos, are splashing through bogs, laughing and shouting as they struggle to keep up. Finally Cary Crawley, a professional balloon pilot from England, lands us on a meadow sandwiched between the river and a tilled field, the wicker basket bumping three times along the frosty grass before it comes to rest on its side.阵阵微风顺着渐趋狭窄的山谷吹拂而来。没过一会儿,我们就以每小时八公里左右的速度飘移,但身处四平八稳的热气球里,感觉是地面、而非热气球在移动。我们的皮卡已被远远甩在后面,在土路上不住地颠簸前行。穿着不丹传统帼装(Ghos)的年轻助手们笑着喊着,使劲跟着热气球奔跑,在沼泽地溅起片片水花。最后,来自英国的专业飞行员加里#8226;克劳利(Cary Crawley)把热气球停靠于河流与耕地间的一块草地上,载人的柳条筐顺着结霜的草地冲撞了三下,才最终侧停住。It was a short, experimental flight, but the six passengers are exhilarated — even the two civil aviation officials “inspecting” a means of transport they know absolutely nothing about. “Unbelievable!” cries my daughter Hannah. Khin Omar Win, one of the trip’s organisers, beams and asks rhetorically: “How exciting was that?”尽管这是一次短时试飞,但热气球上的六位乘客却是心花怒放————甚至两位实地检查指导的民航局官员也是如此,他们实际上对热气球一无所知。“难以置信!”我女儿汉娜欢呼道。本次旅程的组织者Khin Omar Win也是笑容满面,反问道:“真有那么爽吗?”“I told you we’d do it — and we did,” Win’s husband, Brett Melzer, declares triumphantly. The Melzers have good reason to be elated, for the flight is the culmination of a 10-year venture — or gamble — that can only be described as quixotic.“我对你说过能行————我们成功了,”Khin Omar Win的丈夫布雷特#8226;梅尔策(Brett Melzer)得意地说道。梅尔策夫妇完全有欣喜若狂的理由,因为该项目是他们推出热气球旅游项目10年来的“巅峰之作”(抑或说是场豪赌),只可比拟为“痴心妄想”。Win was born in Myanmar but raised in London. In 1997 she met Melzer, then a footloose Australian, in Yangon, and left the UN Development Programme to help him pioneer balloon rides over the famous Bagan temple complex. As “Balloons over Bagan” grew, they branched out, opening Malikha Lodge, a luxury retreat in the jungle of northern Myanmar that was accessible only by air. But in 2009 flights were suspended and they were forced to sell the lodge to a Burmese businessman with close links to the military regime.Khin Omar Win出生于缅甸,但在伦敦长大。1997年,她与单身汉梅尔策相识于仰光(Yangon),于是她从联合国开发计划署(UN Development Programme)辞职,与梅尔策一起开创飞越著名的薄甘(Bagan)千座佛塔的热气球旅游项目。随着“飞越薄甘”旅游项目(Balloons over Bagan)渐入佳境,他俩开始拓展业务————于是推出了穿越缅甸北部丛林地带的豪华游项目————Malikha Lodge,因为抵达该地区只能乘坐热气球。但2009年,热气球旅游项目遭“停摆”,夫妻俩被迫把豪华小木屋旅馆卖给了与军政府关系密切的一位缅甸商人。Undaunted, the Melzers resurrected an idea they had begun work on in 2004: ballooning over Bhutan, another exotic, little-known country that was beginning to open up to the world. At their behest, Crawley spent six weeks scouring the tiny, crumpled kingdom of soaring mountains and plunging valleys created when the Indian subcontinent collided with Eurasia. A balloon could not take off or be retrieved on the rocky plateaux and snowfields of Bhutan’s highest peaks, or in its dense southern jungles. Phobjikha, at almost 3,000 metres above sea level, was the only valley wide and open enough.但两口子并没气馁,于是把2004年就已酝酿的想法付诸实施:乘热气球飞越不丹,这个不为人所知的奇异国家开始慢慢向世界开放。在梅尔策夫妻俩的吩咐下,克劳利花了六周时间实地考察了这个地形复杂的小国。这里高山深谷密布,是印度次大陆板块与欧亚板块冲撞挤压的结果。热气球无法在不丹白雪皑皑的高山之巅、岩石遍布的高原以及丛林密布的南部地区起飞和停靠。而海拔近3000米的富毕卡山谷地形开阔,是开发热气球旅游项目的唯一理想地。There were still problems. It was on the outer edge of the tourist circuit — a six-hour drive along the “national highway”, a twisting one-lane ribbon of crumbling tarmac, from Bhutan’s only international airport. The valley is also the winter home of hundreds of thrung thrung karmo — black-necked cranes with six-foot wingspans and flamboyant mating dances — so the balloon cannot fly until those endangered birds have returned to the Tibetan plateau each spring. But Phobjikha was, Crawley says, “the only realistic choice”.但开发这里,仍有不少问题亟待解决。富毕卡山谷地位于环形旅游线路的外边缘地带————从不丹唯一的国际机场沿国道需6个小时车程,而所谓的国道只是一条蜿蜒的单车道沥青碎石路。富毕卡山谷还是成千上万黑颈鹤的冬季栖息地————这种名叫thrung thrung karmo的鹤翼展开达六尺长,能跳华美夸张的求偶舞————因此,必须等到这些濒危鸟类每年春季全部返回青藏高原后,才能开展热气球旅游项目。但克劳利说,富毕卡山谷是“唯一可行的开展地”。The Melzers initially envisaged building a modest guest house for their ballooning clients but ended up creating a spectacular m 12-suite boutique hotel in this most improbable of locations.梅尔策夫妇最初的设想是为乘坐热气球的游客建普通旅馆,但最终的结果却是在这异常偏僻的地区开办了这座耗资400万美元、共设12套客房的绝世精品旅馆。Gangtey Goenpa Lodge opened in 2013 and stands on the same ridge as the monastery, unsignposted and accessible only by a dirt track. From the outside, it resembles two Bhutanese farmhouses connected by a low barn. Inside, however, floor-to-ceiling windows offer sublime views of the cloud-wreathed valley below. The wood and stone is local, but the wood-burning stoves that heat each room come from Switzerland, the fancy bathtubs from the UK, and the fabrics from Australia — all shipped to Kolkata and trucked overland, along with the 0,000 balloon, which was made in Bristol, southwest England.冈提坚帕豪华旅馆(Gangtey Goenpa Lodge)开办于2013年,与冈提坚帕寺院位于同一山脊,一路上并未设任何标识,只能借助一条狭窄的土路抵达那儿。从外面看,它酷似由谷仓接连的两座不丹农舍。但进到旅馆内,从落地窗望出去,脚下白云缭绕的山谷美景一览无遗。盖旅馆用的木头与石料都是就地取材,但取暖用的柴火炉、豪华浴缸以及客房纺织用品则分别产自瑞士、英国和澳大利亚————所有客房用品先海运至印度的加尔各答(Kolkata),再由卡车经陆路运达;同时运抵的还有价值10万美元、产自英国西南部城市布列斯托尔(Bristol)的热气球。Sara Rezgui, the Scandinavian chef, performs marvels with fish and meat imported from India because the Buddhist Bhutanese will not kill animals. Most of the 45 staff, even the masseurs, are villagers trained from scratch and delightfully eager to please. Because the aviation inspectors arrived late, Hannah and I had to spend more days than we bargained for in this luxurious retreat, which was certainly no hardship. It also gave us more time to explore a valley rich in unexpected delights.来自北欧的大厨萨拉用从印度进口的鱼和肉食做出了令人赞不绝口的美味佳肴,因为笃信佛教的不丹禁止杀生。旅馆共有45名员工。多为本地村民(甚至师也不例外),全是从零开始培训,他们竭诚为宾客提供贴心务。由于民航局检查人员与我们会合的时间比约定时间晚,我和汉娜只得在这豪华旅馆多呆了几天,旅馆当然很开心,但同时也让我们有更充裕的时间游览这条旷世美景不绝的山谷。We watched maroon-robed boy monks hurling foot-long homemade darts at a distant target in a game called kuru. We watched two villages compete with astounding skill at the national sport of archery. Dressed in ghos and using bamboo bows, the archers regularly hit a small wooden post 140 metres away, prompting celebratory dances and songs from their teammates. Save for a single rifle shooter, Bhutan has sent only archers to the Olympics, but has never won a medal because Olympic targets are only half that distance.我们观看身穿栗色僧袍的小僧人正玩一种叫kuru的游戏————把一英尺长的自制飞镖掷向远处的目标。我们也观看两个村庄在全国射箭运动会上决一雌雄,村民们箭术精湛————身穿帼装的箭手使用竹弓,不断射中140米远的小木竿,引来自己队友欢庆的舞蹈和歌声。除了一名汽步选手外,不丹只派过射箭选手参加奥运会,但从未夺取任何奖牌,因为奥运会的靶子距离只有70米远,仅为不丹的一半。We explored the courtyards and temples of the ancient monastery as monks performed rituals with horns, drums and a mournful pipe called a kangling, made from human thigh bones. “We dig them up at night or import them from Nepal,” one official replied without a trace of embarrassment when I asked where the bones came from.我们探访了古寺院的庭院与庙宇,此时僧侣们正用号角、鼓乐以及小法号(kangling,用人的大腿骨做成,吹奏哀乐之用)举行法会。当我问一位官员这些人骨的来源时,他毫无愧色地回答道:“我们夜晚偷挖墓园或是从尼泊尔进口。”An elite set of young monks known as tulkus explained to us how they had been identified in infancy as reincarnated Buddhist masters. We visited (but could not enter) a meditation centre ringed by a barbed-wire fence where older monks live incommunicado in single cells for three years, three months and three days, eating food left for them outside the building.年轻僧人中的精英————即所谓的活佛(tulkus)向我们解释自己如何从小被确认为已故藏传佛教大师的转世灵童。我们参观(但不允许进入)了用铁丝栅栏围起来的闭关修行区,年老的僧侣呆在禁闭的小单间里修行三年、三月或是三天不等,所需饮食就径直放在修行室外。There was one other place we could not enter: a chamber deep within the monastery containing a mummified “yeti”. There is certainly something there, though it is more likely the corpse of a deformed child. Italian mountaineer Reinhold Messner saw it in 1991. “Nailed to the wall by the back of its scalp was the hide of a ‘red yeti’,” he wrote later. “I was trembling with excitement. Bones were still attached to the relic’s hands and legs, and from its head, which was largely bald, hung a long, black hank of hair.”还有一处禁止我们进入:寺庙内藏有一具“雪人”干尸的密室。这肯定确有其物,尽管干尸更可能是残疾儿童的尸体。意大利登山运动员莱因霍尔德#8226;梅斯纳尔(Reinhold Messner)1991年曾有幸目睹了真容。“后脑头皮钉在墙上,实为‘红雪人’的皮,”他在书中这样写道。“我万分激动,看到骨头仍连于干尸手腿,几乎秃顶的头部还垂下一束长长的黑发。”Legends and superstitions abound in these parts. The cranes, we were told, circle the monastery three times clockwise when they arrive each winter. Homes are adorned with murals of tigers, snow lions, dragons and mythical serpent-eating garudas, and of giant, erect, sperm-trailing phalluses (commemorating the “Divine Madman”, a 15th-century saint known for unorthodox teaching and sexual encounters). Doorways have raised thresholds to stop the stiff-limbed dead from entering.传奇与迷信交织其中。我们得知黑颈鹤每年冬季来此过冬时,会顺时针绕飞寺庙三圈。房屋画有老虎、雪狮、龙、传说中吞噬毒蛇的银翅鸟(garudas)以及勃起巨型男根(还喷着)的壁画。男根是为纪念15世纪的疯癫圣僧(Divine Madman),他以非正统方法传法以及处处留爱而著称。房子的门槛往往设得较高,以防僵尸进到屋里。We hiked through fragrant pine forests where rhododendrons were bursting into flower. We cycled to a hilltop at the far end of the eight-mile valley, where the lodge had prepared a picnic lunch served on a table laid with linen, glass and china. We encountered a village woman shearing a squirming black sheep, a young shepherdess guarding her flock from leopards and foxes, and a yak herder driving his animals up to the higher pastures for the summer.我们徒步穿过芬芳的松树林,看见争相怒放的杜鹃花;骑自行车抵达山谷(总长八英里)尽头的一座小山头,那儿的旅馆已为我们备好了便当(桌子铺了桌布,上面放着玻璃及瓷器餐具)。一路上,我们曾看到正给一头扭动身躯的黑色绵羊剪羊毛的村姑、一位放羊小女孩(以防猎豹与狐狸觊觎)、以及正赶着牦牛群向海拔更高的夏季牧场的牧人。One night we forsook the lodge for a peasant family’s home — helping them milk cows and churn butter, sharing their rice, potatoes and arra (rice wine) as we sat cross-legged around their stove, playing grandmother’s footsteps with their four enchanting children.晚上,我们没住旅馆,转而留宿在当地农户家里————我们帮他们挤奶与搅酥油,盘腿围坐在火炉旁时,品尝他们做的米饭、土豆以及自家酿制的米酒(arra),并与家里四个可爱的孩子一起模仿老祖母的走路姿势。But the valley is changing fast. Electricity, TV and mobile phones have all arrived — though not yet the internet. The “national highway” from the capital Thimphu is being upgraded to two lanes. The peasants have discovered that potatoes are a lucrative cash crop, so they no longer live semi-nomadic lives and are building new homes with roofs of steel not wooden shingles.但山村正在发生巨变。如今家家户户通了电,用上了电视及手机————尽管还未接通因特网。连接首都廷布(Thimphu)的“国道”正在翻建为两车道公路。农民发现种植土豆是利润丰厚的经济作物后,放弃了昔日的半游牧生活,转而盖起铁皮屋顶的新居(而不是传统的木瓦)。Bhutan, a land sealed off from the world until the 1970s, is now joining it. The much-loved monarchy has surrendered power, volunteering democracy to a population with no experience of it. The young are migrating from the villages to Thimphu. Foreign visitor numbers rose from 23,480 in 2009 to 116,209 in 2013, and new luxury hotels are proliferating.上世纪70年代前,不丹一直是个与世隔绝的国度,如今它开始向世界开放。深受国人爱戴的王室主动放弃权力,自愿向全体国民实行民主,而该国国民以前从未享受过民主。年轻人不断从农村移居廷布。外国游客数从2009年的23480飚升至2013年的11.6209万人,豪华酒店数激增。In the face of such change, Bhutan is struggling to preserve its character and pristine environment — national dress is compulsory in schools and government buildings; the constitution requires 60 per cent of the country to be forested; tobacco and plastic bags are banned, and Tuesdays are dry. Mountaineering is restricted because it angers the deities who live on the snowy summits — at 7,570 metres Gangkhar Puensum is the world’s highest unclimbed mountain.面对如此飞速的变化,不丹仍努力保护其民族性及原生态环境————学生和政府人员必须穿民族饰;宪法规定国土的森林覆盖率不低于60%;禁止销售香烟与使用塑料袋;规定星期二为禁酒日。国家禁止登山活动,因为此举会触怒居住在雪山之巅的神灵————海拔7570米的甘卡本森峰(Gangkhar Puensum)为全球未登顶的最高山峰。Bhutan wants tourists, but not the mass tourism that so often destroys the very attractions it feeds off, so visitors are obliged to spend at least 0 a day.不丹需要游客,但不希望游客大量涌入,担心如此一来,会破坏赖以成名的绝世美景,所以限定每位游客的日消费额不低于250美元。To date its efforts are largely succeeding. Its spectacular dzongs (fortresses) and monasteries are not yet overrun nor ringed by tacky souvenir shops. Its many festivals and masked dances are still staged primarily for locals, and have not morphed into commercial shows for foreigners. Buddhism still dominates Bhutan’s way of life, and its people still seem driven more by their legendary pursuit of happiness than money.迄今为止,不丹的种种努力基本上奏效。它宏伟壮丽的城堡与寺庙没有过度开发,也没有被俗气的纪念品商店所包围。它的很多节日与面具舞主要务对象仍是本国民众,还没有演变成为务外国游客的商业表演。佛教仍在不丹的生活中占据主导地位,国民似乎仍追求精神快乐而非金钱(这一点享誉世界)。In a curious way the Melzers’ project supports the government’s goals. The 30-metre-high balloon makes a magnificent sight as it drifts silently down the Phobjikha Valley, enhancing not marring the natural beauty. The occupants of its wicker basket survey the valley without intruding on it. As befits a country known as Druk Yul, or “Land of the Thunder Dragon”, the balloon is emblazoned with huge golden dragons, and the occasional blasts of flame from its gas cylinders resemble nothing so much as a dragon’s fiery breath.奇妙的是:梅尔策夫妇俩的热气球旅游项目与政府目标“一脉相承”。30米高的热气球静静飘过富毕卡谷地时,显得尤为壮观,而对于自然美景来说,这是锦上添花而非损抑之举。柳条筐里的乘客在不滋扰山谷的情况下,饱览其绝世美景。在这个名符其实的“雷龙之国” (Druk Yul, “Land of the Thunder Dragon),热气球上饰着巨型金龙,而高压气缸因点火而发出的阵阵轰响酷似巨龙之雷霆之怒。Just as they greet the cranes each year, the monks appear to welcome this foreign body in their ancient domain. One senior teacher, Chogyal Zangpo, blessed the balloon before joining its second flight, and again after landing. “I’ve had a wonderful experience,” he said. “I’ve never been in the air before and I’ll remember it all my life. I often watch the birds flying above, so now I know what they see.”正如不丹人会迎接每年前来过冬的黑颈鹤,僧人们似乎也非常欢迎外国游客造访自己的古老国度。一位名叫却加尔#8226;章波(Chogyal Zangpo)的高僧在乘坐热气球(这是它的第二次升空)前做了祈祷,待热气球顺利着陆后,他再次祈祷。“我感觉妙不可言,”他说。“这是贫僧平生第一次升至高空俯瞰大地,我永生难忘。我以前时常看到鸟儿翱翔于高空,我如今感受更深了。”Details详情Martin Fletcher was a guest of The Ultimate Travel Company, which offers a 13-day “Bhutan Journey”, with four nights at Gangtey Goenpa Lodge, from #163;6,675 per person, including ballooning, private transfers, guides and all meals. Flights from London with Qatar Airways would add #163;1,220马丁#8226;弗莱彻是The Ultimate Travel Company旅行社的游客。该旅行社推出了为期13天的“不丹行”旅游项目,留宿冈提坚帕豪华旅馆四个晚上,每位游客的游费不低于6675英镑,这包括了乘坐热气球的费用、个人转乘车的费用、导游费以及全部餐费。从伦敦搭乘卡塔尔航空公司(Qatar Airways)的航班至廷布另需1220英镑。 /201505/3753276.Light the room well.6.使房间灯光明亮。If the dining room looks very upbeat, the meal immediately looks interesting and your family members will reflect the mood of the lighting too. If the place looks very dull, everyone might be running a bit low on their energy so it is best if you put some nice lighting and some VERY low music in the background just so that you have a pleasant eating experience。如果餐厅的光线非常的有雅致,吃饭时就会立马觉得带劲而家人的心情也会通过光线作用变得明朗起来。如果房子里的灯光过于暗淡,大家的食欲可能会有所低落因此最好将光线调好同时放点轻音乐做背景,这样的话会让你吃饭时有一个愉快心情。7.Taste everything even if you don#39;t like it.7.即便是你不喜欢的食物也应试着去品尝。Children and teenagers might reject a new food if you present it to them and I know that some adults might be sceptical about eating certain foods but give them a tip. Ask them to try just a tiny spoonful and if they like it, they can have more. If they don#39;t, then leave them to finish the rest of their meal. A lot of the times people have preconceived ideas that they don#39;t like a particular kind of food but if they try a bit, there is a possibility they might love it. If you cook the dish again and your child rejects it, ask them to try it again. Constant feeding in really tiny spoonfuls may lead to the child or person getting used to it and thinking that it isn#39;t that bad after all。儿童和青少年可能不爱吃一些新的食物,如果你将它摆在他们面前,他们会予以拒绝。而且据我所知一些成年人也对某些食物情有独钟,不妨给他们点建 议。可以叫他们先尝试一小口看,如果喜欢的话,他们就会多吃点。如果不喜欢,就让他们把自己剩余的饭菜吃完。很多时候,由于成见人们不喜欢吃某种特定的食 物,但如果他们愿意先尝试一点,很可能会变得爱吃它了。如果你第二次做它的时候孩子们还是不吃,不妨请他们再尝试尝试。这样每次吃一点点,孩子们及他人就 会习惯吃了并会发现原来它并不难吃。8.Good manners while leaving the table don#39;t hurt.8.离开餐桌时不忘表现得体。If someone has to leave the table immediately because they have to do some important work or attend a call, have them say “Excuse me” and say what that important thing they had to do is. This way, the person is learning manners that are useful if he or she is at a formal dinner place and most of all, good manners just don#39;t hurt! This way you know where the person is going and you are assured that they aren#39;t indirectly saying they don#39;t want to eat with the rest of the family。如果有人因一些重要的事情要急于处理或接听电话需要立即离开餐桌时,他们是否会说声“对不起”,并解释是什么重要的事情他们得去做?这样的话, 对正在学习礼仪的人来说,会使他或她日后出席正式的晚宴场合时会觉得非常受用,而且最重要的是,良好的举止行为并无大碍!这样,他们的离开你就会知道他将 往何处并坚信他们不是不愿与家人一起共餐了。9.Be decent at the table.9.餐桌前应端庄。My parents always told me that eat at home like you would eat outside. Never do silly things like burp or pour gravy on your fingers or something silly. Don#39;t play around with food or make faces in your potato mash. Even laughing loudly isn#39;t very polite especially if you are outside. Teaching this to children and using it yourself means that you are encouraging good manners and that you learn to eat outside the same way. Doing silly things at home are excusable but doing them outside where there are other people isn#39;t really that laudable. So try eating at home as decently as you can. Children will want to muck about but tell them straight off that it isn#39;t very polite. Tell them that they wouldn#39;t want to have someone burping at them or laughing at them。我的父母常跟我说,在家吃饭时什么样子在外面吃也会一样。吃饭时不要做些像打嗝或将肉汁倒在手指上与其他一些滑稽的事情。不要糟蹋食物与将土豆 泥涂在自己的脸上。连放声大笑甚至也会被认为是不礼貌的行为,特别是在外面吃的时候更是这样。倡导文明的举止行为应是在教导孩子们礼仪的同时将这些礼仪运 用于自己身上,这样在外面吃时你会和在家里表现出同样的举止。如果说在家里做些滑稽的行为可以得到原谅,但在外面这样做的话他人就会觉得并不值得称赞了。 因此,在家里吃饭时尽量举止端庄。孩子们可能会胡闹但要直截了当的告诉他们那是不礼貌的行为。告诉他们,在吃饭时人们一般不喜欢有人向他们打嗝和大笑。10.Teach children to eat well.10.教导孩子吃好。Teenagers and children can be quite fussy when it comes to eating food. Refer this article that teaches how to get your children to eat healthily. If you use the tips I#39;ve provided in that article, you will notice a significant change in the eating habits of your children。青少年和儿童在吃东西时可能特别挑剔。请参考这篇教导《如何让孩子吃得健康》的文章。如果您运用了我在那篇文章里提到的一些贴士,你会发现孩子的饮食习惯有了重大的改变。Just little things like the ones I#39;ve listed above will not only teach you and your children how to have a good ettiquette when you go outside but also it is helping your family bond indirectly through a meal. This really is food for thought!我上面列举的一些细节不仅可以让你与你的孩子在外面时怎样去保持良好的举止行为,而且它还可以帮助你通过聚餐间接性地搞好家庭关系。这着实耐人寻味! /201507/386048

LEWISBURG, PA. — The 10 hibernating little brown bats hang from a corner of their tailor-made refrigeration chamber at Bucknell University like a clump of old potato skins, only less animated. In torpor, bats become one with their wintry surroundings, their body temperatures falling to just above freezing, their heart rates slowing to one or two beats a minute, their breathing virtually undetectable.宾夕法尼亚州刘易斯堡——10只冬眠的小棕蝙蝠倒挂在巴克内尔大学专为它们定制的低温舱室里面,仿佛几块陈土豆皮,只是几乎比土豆皮更缺乏生气。冬眠的蝙蝠会和周遭的冬日环境融为一体,体温降低至略微高于冰点,心率只有每分钟一到两次,呼吸几乎感觉不到。But suddenly, a male yanks himself free of the bunch and hops down to a dish on the floor. After taking a long, slow drink of water, the bat uses the claws on his folded wings to hoist himself along the wire mesh of the chamber, his motions angular, deliberative and spidery. A second bat rappels down for a drink, and then a third.突然,其中一只雄性蝙蝠一跃而起,跳到地板上的一只碟子前面。它不紧不慢地饮着水,半晌,才用它那折叠膜翼上的脚爪爬上舱室侧壁的铁丝网。它沿着倾斜的路线向上爬,仿佛深思熟虑的样子,那姿态有点像蜘蛛。第二只蝙蝠翩然而下,去喝水;然后是第三只。“Well, that’s a lucky break,” said Thomas Lilley, a tall and crisply composed postdoctoral fellow from Finland. “Multiple rounds of bat drama.”“真是太走运了,蝙蝠世界好戏连台,”托马斯·利理(Thomas Lilley)说道。这位清炯沉静的高个子学者来自芬兰,在这里做士后。As Bucknell’s de facto bat concierge, Dr. Lilley helps wild bats acclimate to life in captivity, a difficult task with an urgent spur. He and his colleagues are laboring mightily to understand white-nose syndrome, a devastating fungal disease that has killed at least six million North American bats since it first appeared in Albany a decade ago and that threatens to annihilate some bat species entirely.利理士是巴克内尔大学的蝙蝠大管家,他负责让野生蝙蝠适应笼舍的生活。这份工作很艰巨,又很紧迫。他和同事们下了巨大的工夫,研究一种叫做白鼻综合症的疾病。这是一种真菌引起的致命疾病,10年前在奥尔巴尼首次发现以来,北美地区至少600万蝙蝠死于这种病,一些种的蝙蝠几乎因而绝迹。Because the fungus attacks bats as they hibernate in caves, the researchers are exploring the complex biology of normal bat hibernation, and so-called arousal bouts turn out to be a big part of the puzzle, said Kenneth Field, an associate professor of biology.这种真菌是在冬眠期感染蝙蝠的,因此,科学家正在研究正常蝙蝠冬眠的复杂生理现象。其中被称为间歇性苏醒的行为成了揭开谜底的关键,生物学副教授肯尼斯·菲尔德(Kenneth Field)说。Hibernating bats will warm themselves out of torpor every week or two throughout the winter, for several hours at a stretch. Though researchers don’t yet understand the reasons for the thermal interludes, they have quantified just how important such thaws must be to bat survival.冬眠中的蝙蝠每隔一到两周,会醒过来几个小时。学者还不清楚这种体温升降周期的原因,但他们已经可以量化这种苏醒对蝙蝠生存的重要性了。“All the work that bats do during the fall, feeding nonstop and putting on fat until they’re like butterballs on wings, and 90 percent is spent to sustain the winter warm-ups,” said DeAnn Reeder, a professor of biology and one of the nation’s leading bat ecologists.“整个秋天,蝙蝠唯一的工作就是不停进食,储存脂肪,直到它们吃得好像黄油球长了翅膀似的,这些能量90%都被用在冬眠中的间歇性苏醒时了,”美国权威蝙蝠生态专家、生物学教授德安·里德(DeAnn Reeder)说。New research suggests that white-nose syndrome begins disrupting the arousal-torpor cycle long before any telltale white fuzz appears on the bat’s face and wings, and that the disorder really spins out of control when the bat’s immune system behaves in a distinctly unbatlike manner, mounting a zealous response against the fungal spores.新的研究显示,早在蝙蝠面部和翼上出现病态的白色绒毛之前,白鼻综合症已经开始扰乱它们的休眠觉醒周期。等到免疫系统开始出现迥异于正常蝙蝠的行为方式,对真菌孢子做出强烈反应,就已经病入膏肓了。Unbatlike because, as scientists are discovering, the bat immune system is astonishingly tolerant of most pathogens — a trait that could pose risks to people, but that also offers clues to preventing human diseases of aging, including cancer.之所以说这时的免疫系统异于正常蝙蝠,是因为科学家已经知道,蝙蝠的免疫系统对多数病原体有着惊人的耐受力。蝙蝠的这种特性会给人类构成威胁,但也为人类攻克衰老型疾病,包括癌症,提供了启示。Evidence is mounting that bats can serve as reservoirs of many of the world’s deadliest viruses, including the pathogens behind Ebola, Marburg and related hemorrhagic fevers; acute respiratory syndromes like SARS and MERS; and even familiar villains like measles and mumps.不断有据表明,蝙蝠可以成为世界上众多致命病毒的贮主,包括埃拉、马尔堡及引发相关出血热的病原体,还有烈性呼吸道疾病如SARS和中东呼吸道综合症的背后元凶。麻疹和腮腺炎也可由蝙蝠传播。Yet bats appear largely immune to the many viruses they carry and rarely show signs of the diseases that will rapidly overwhelm any human, monkey, horse, pig or other mammalian host the microbes manage to infiltrate.但是,蝙蝠对自身携带的这些病毒基本都可以免疫,很少得病。任何人类、猴子、马、猪和其他哺乳类宿主感染后都会很快病倒。Scientists have also learned that bats live a seriously long time for creatures of their small size. The insectivorous Brandt’s bat of Eurasia, for example, weighs an average of just six grams, compared with 20 grams for a mouse. But while a mouse is lucky to live for a year, the Brandt’s bat can survive well into its 40s — a disparity between life span and body mass that a report in Nature Communications called “the most extreme” of all mammals.科学家还发现,作为体型微小的动物,蝙蝠的寿命极长。亚欧大陆上的布氏鼠耳蝠,体重平均只有六克,一只老鼠也有20克。但老鼠活到一年已属长寿,而布氏鼠耳蝠却能活到40多岁。发表在《自然通讯》上的一篇文章称如此大的寿命与体重差异是所有哺乳动物中“最极端的”。Bats may be girded against cancer, too. “At this stage, the evidence is anecdotal,” said Lin-Fa Wang, a bat virologist at the Duke-NUS Graduate School in Singapore and the Australian Animal Health Laboratory in Geelong. “But of all the bat biologists I’ve spoken with, I’ve only heard of one or two cases of bat tumors.”蝙蝠可能还不会得癌症。“现阶段,还只有零星的据,”新加坡杜克-国大医学研究生院和澳大利亚吉朗的澳大利亚动物卫生实验室的蝙蝠病毒学家王林发(音译,Lin-Fa Wang)说。“但我和这么多蝙蝠病毒学家交谈过,我只听说过一两例蝙蝠得肿瘤的案例。”Researchers are scrutinizing bat DNA and the details of the bat vocation for clues to what sets the flying mammals apart from other members of the lactating clade. Preliminary findings indicate that bats’ apparent indifference to the viral throngs they harbor, together with their Methuselah-grade longevity, probably arose from the adaptations needed to grant them the power of flight.科学家正在研究蝙蝠DNA和蝙蝠生理机能的细节,希望找到是什么让这种会飞的哺乳动物显得如此与众不同。初步的发现显示,蝙蝠对体内的病毒显得若无其事,寿命又超长,这似乎都与它们适应飞翔生活有关。Bat experts argue that a keener understanding of bat biology could not only help prevent the next outbreak of Ebola or other cross-species “zoonotic” infection, but also offer a fresh take on immune and inflammatory disorders like diabetes or heart disease.蝙蝠专家认为,更深入了解蝙蝠的生理机能,不但有助于避免下一次埃拉或其他跨物种疫情的大爆发,而且也会给免疫系统和炎症类疾病如糖尿病和心脏病的研究提供一个新的角度。Scientists warn against misguided calls in some areas for the culling of bats as a way to combat the risk of viral transmission, and they urge the public not to succumb to old-fashioned bat phobia that long linked bats to witches, vampires, demons and cobwebs.科学家呼吁不要在一些地区盲目扑杀蝙蝠,以为那样做可以降低病毒传播的风险;而且他们也敦促公众,不要被传统的蝙蝠恐惧心理影响,因为历史上蝙蝠往往和巫术、吸血鬼、恶魔和蛛网联系在一起。Bats play essential roles in the environment, researchers said. Insectivorous bats are the top predators of night-flying insects, including mosquitoes: Dr. Reeder estimated that for every million bats killed by white-nose syndrome, 692 tons of insects go undevoured each summer. Fruit- and nectar-eating bats are major pollinators and seed dispersers.他们说,蝙蝠在自然环境中发挥着重要的作用。猎食昆虫的蝙蝠是夜行昆虫包括蚊子的头号天敌:里德估计,每有100万只蝙蝠死于白鼻综合症,一个夏季就会有692吨昆虫不能被消灭。摄食果实和吸食花蜜的蝙蝠是重要的传播花粉、散播种子的物种。“A politician in Australia said, ‘Bomb the bats,’ ” Dr. Wang said. “But if you do that, you’ll destroy the ecosystem and then you’ll get more infectious disease, not less.” The risks from wanton batricide could well be immediate: Recent research suggests that bats are likeliest to shed viral particles when they are under stress and their numbers are shrinking.王林发说:“澳大利亚一个政客说要轰炸蝙蝠。如果你这么做,你会破坏生态系统,结果传染性疾病会更多,而不是更少。”过量施用灭菌剂的危险很可能会即时显现:近期的研究显示,蝙蝠在承受生存压力和种群缩小的情况下最容易传播病毒。Besides, wherever you go, there they are. With some 1,200 species under the Chiroptera trademark, bats are the second-most populous mammalian order, after rodents. “One in every five mammals is a bat,” Dr. Reeder said.况且,无论你到哪儿,蝙蝠无处不在。在哺乳动物纲翼手目下面,有大约1200个蝙蝠的种,它们是仅次于啮齿目的第二大哺乳动物类群。“所有的哺乳动物,五分之一是蝙蝠,”里德说。They’re found on every continent but Antarctica and range in size from the Kitti’s hog-nosed bat — which at an inch long vies with the Etruscan shrew for the title of world’s smallest mammal — to the giant golden-crowned flying fox, with a wingspan approaching six feet and a soulful face that Raina Plowright, an infectious disease ecologist and bat expert at Montana State University, likened to that of a puppy dog.除了南极洲之外的各大陆上都有蝙蝠分布,它们的体型从仅有1英寸长的基氏猪鼻蝠(和小臭鼬并称世界最小的哺乳动物)到巨大的鬃毛利齿狐蝠,翼展接近6英尺,有一张表情丰富的脸,蒙大拿大学传染病生态学家和蝙蝠专家雷娜·普罗莱特(Raina Plowright)说样子就像小。Scientists traditionally have divided bats into two big suborders: the fruit-eating megabats and insect-eating microbats, deeming the groups so distinct they might have evolved flight independently.科学家传统上把蝙蝠分为两个亚目:食果实的大型蝙蝠和食昆虫的小蝙蝠,认为这两个群体如此不同,一定是彼此独立进化出飞翔能力的。Yet a recent genomic analysis in the journal Science reveals that the ability to fly dates to the earliest days of the bat lineage, some 90 million years ago, and that megas did not split from micros for another 10 million years, after which the micros alone evolved the capacity for echolocation, to help them hunt their insect prey.但是,不久前发表于《科学》杂志的一个基因组分析显示,飞行的能力早在蝙蝠大家族形成之初就已经具备了,那还是9000万年前的事,之后又过了1000万年,大蝙蝠才和小蝙蝠分道扬镳,那以后,小型蝙蝠才独立进化出了回声定位的功能,用来猎食昆虫。The new study also described other important traits that bats of both suborders share. For one thing, researchers found an “unexpected concentration” of genes involved in repairing damaged DNA. Those fix-it factors, the scientists proposed, are the bat’s solution to the blistering demands of flight.新研究还发现了两大类群之间更多相似点。比如,科学家发现了一个基因的“意外集群”,这些基因和修复受损DNA的需要有关。科学家认为,这些修复基因可能是根据飞行生活的高强度需求而产生的。When a bat flies, its heart beats an impressive 1,000 times a minute, and its metabolism ramps up 15-fold over resting rate. By contrast, said David Blehert of the ed States Geological Survey’s National Wildlife Health Center in Madison, Wis., the metabolism of a running rodent is seven times normal, “and that’s only for a short burst, whereas a bat can fly at 15-fold metabolic rate for hours.”蝙蝠飞行时,心跳达到惊人的每分钟1000次,代谢水平达到安静状态的15倍。相比之下,啮齿类动物奔跑中的代谢水平只是安静状态下的七倍,威斯康星州麦迪逊美国地质测绘局国家野生动物卫生中心的大卫·布莱赫特(David Blehert)说。而且那只是啮齿类“短跑时的能量消耗,蝙蝠却能以15倍的代谢速率飞行好几小时”,他说。All that fiery flapping ends up generating a huge number of metabolic byproducts called free radicals, which could mutilate the bat’s DNA were it not for its extra-strength molecular repair crew. And countering DNA damage happens to be a great strategy for overall health, which could explain bats’ exceptional longevity and apparent resistance to cancer.如此高能耗的振翅运动,其结果是产生大量代谢副产品,被称为自由基。如果不是有超强的修复基因,自由基就会破坏蝙蝠的DNA。而且,对抗DNA受损的机能碰巧还是一个伟大的健康策略,可以解释蝙蝠超长的寿命和抗癌特性。Other clues to bat exceptionalism can be found in its molecular profile. Immune factors that serve as the body’s first responders have been ramped up, while immune molecules that in most mammals turn aggressive at later stages of an infection are damped down in bats.蝙蝠的分子特征也揭示着它们的独特性。作为机体第一道防线的免疫因子被极大地加强,多数哺乳动物体内在感染后积极反抗的免疫分子,在蝙蝠体内却被弱化。As a result, Dr. Wang said, “when a virus comes in, bats are very efficient at handling it, but they don’t overreact.” And the overreaction of the body’s immune system, scientists have found, often proves far more dangerous than the viral infection itself.结果就是,“病毒侵入后,蝙蝠可以高效应对”,王林发说。“但它们不会反应过激。”科学家发现,这种过激反应经常比病毒感染本身更危险。Researchers suggest that changes to the bat’s immune system originated as part of the heightened demand for DNA repair, and later proved valuable for its general life strategy.科学家认为,蝙蝠免疫系统的变化源于这种对修复受损DNA的高强度需求,后来也成为它们日常生存中的有价值的功能。Bats often live in colonies of hundreds of thousands. They travel long distances and are exposed to a staggering array of pathogens. They cannot afford to be flustered by every freeloading microbe, and for the most part, they do not.蝙蝠往往是数十万只结成群体生活。它们长距离飞行,接触到多种多样的病原体。如果每次染上一种微生物,它们都反应过激,蝙蝠会受不了。事实上它们也很少反应过激。That makes the lethality of white-nose syndrome that much more confounding. “Here we have an animal that can survive some of the scariest viruses we know,” Dr. Blehert said, “and it’s undone by a common soil fungus.”这就让白鼻综合症的致命性越发令人不解。“这种动物不怕我们已知的最可怕的病毒,一种普通的土壤里的真菌却能要了它的命,”布莱赫特说。He and his colleagues have found that, starting at the earliest stages of infection, afflicted hibernating bats begin burning twice as much energy as unaffected bats. Dr. Reeder and her colleagues have shown that bats with white-nose come out of hibernation twice as often as healthy bats.他和同事发现,在感染的最初阶段,冬眠的蝙蝠消耗的能量达到健康蝙蝠的两倍。里德和同事们也发现,染上白鼻病的蝙蝠从冬眠中苏醒的次数是健康蝙蝠的两倍。And while normal bats spend much of their arousal time resting, “sick bats don’t,” she said. “Instead, they’re grooming constantly, so their arousals are even more costly.” The ultimate blow may come from the bats’ immune response to the fungus, which preliminary evidence suggests is unusually strong.正常蝙蝠醒来后大部分时间安静不动,但“染病的蝙蝠不是这样,”她说。“它们不停地梳理毛发,因此它们消耗能量也更多。”最后的打击可能来自免疫系统对真菌的反应,初步研究发现,这种反应通常很强烈。“And that,” Dr. Field said, “could be what’s dooming the bats.”“那可能就是导致蝙蝠死亡的原因,”菲尔德说。 /201502/357414

In a recent blog post, ;Waging War on Higher Education,; I wrote about the need to encourage students to think critically. The piece triggered a flurry of comments from Huffington Post ers. Most of the comments took on a populist, no-nonsense tone that I found all too familiar. Even so, I found some of the comments disconcerting. My discomfort stemmed not from the critical nature of the comments, but from their widesp disdain for critical thinking. Many of the commentators suggested that critical thinking was a kind of ;pie in the sky; activity, a luxury we can no longer afford. In this sociocultural orientation to the world, thinking about fine points of philosophy, art or anthropology is often seen as a waste of time. In this narrative, if you go to college, which these days is a major investment of money, you do so to acquire the set of skills to get a good paying job -- end of story. Indeed, the root of my discomfort came from the fact that I#39;ve been hearing these anti-intellectual narratives my whole life.在最近的客文章《向高等教育宣战》中,我写了鼓励学生们有必要进行批判性思考。文章在赫芬顿邮报读者中间掀起轩然。大多数用了一种平民主义的严肃论调,我已经屡见不鲜。尽管如此,有些令我困惑。我的困惑主要并非源自的批判性本质,而是他们普遍不屑于批判性思考。很多者认为批判性思考是一种“天上掉馅饼”,是我们无法承受的奢侈。在这种世界观的社会文化定位之下,思考哲学、艺术或人类学,以得出正确观点总被视为浪费时间。在这种观点之下,如果你上大学,当然这是时下一种主要投资手段,你上学,获得一些技能,找到好工作,故事便结束了。事实上,我困惑的根源在于我这辈子真听了不少这种反智主义的话。Many people think that professors are members of the wealthy elite -- people who are disconnected from the economic and social trials of ;real life.; While it is certainly the case that some professors and other ;intellectuals; come from privileged backgrounds, many of us grew up in more modest circumstances. I grew up in lower middle-class household in suburban Washington, D.C. My mother and father graduated from high school. Only a few of my maternal and paternal aunts and uncles had studied at a college. Most of my relatives worked -- and worked hard--in small family-centered businesses. At family gatherings they would encourage me to go to college to get a good job and find ;the good life.;很多人认为大学教授们是一群有钱的精英们,和“现实生活”中经济与社会实践毫无干系。虽然有些教授和其他“知识分子”肯定具有特权阶层背景,但我们中很多人在更为普通的环境里长大。我便成长在华盛顿郊区的中低收入家庭。我父母只有高中学历。只有父母的几个兄弟上过大学。大多数亲属都在小型家族企业里工作,并且是辛勤劳作。家庭聚会时,他们会鼓励我上大学,找个好工作,并且过上“好生活”。If you don#39;t have what it takes to be a doctor or a lawyer, they would tell me, then study accounting -- it#39;s a good profession. People always need accountants, they would advise again and again. In my family#39;s view of the world, the world -- my world -- was filled with limitations. Accordingly, in life it was good to be pragmatic and make choices that would provide for your family. These pragmatic narratives compelled me to study political science with an eye toward law school. By my junior year in college, though, I knew that I wasn#39;t cut out for law or medicine. When I announced to my parents, who only wanted the best for me, that I didn#39;t want to be a lawyer or doctor, my mother cried. My father#39;s unforgettable frown burned into my being.如果你不想做医生或律师,他们会建议你学会计,这是个好职业。人们总是会需要会计,他们会一遍又一遍地跟我这样说。在我家族看来,世界,尤其是我的世界充满局限。因此,生活中最好要务实并且为了家庭着想做出决定。这些务实的建议逼着我学习政治学,期望进入法学院。然而,当我上到大三时,我觉得我不适合从事法律或医疗职业。当我向一心希望我达到最好目标的父母们宣布我不想当律师或医生时,我母亲哭了。父亲皱起眉头的样子则让我经久难忘。;What are you going to do with yourself?; my father asked.父亲问我“那么你想做什么?;He can always sell insurance like his cousin Ivan,; my mother said reassuringly.妈妈安慰道“可以像他伊万表哥一样卖保险。”;I want to be writer.;“我想成为作家。”;What!; My mother exclaimed. ;There#39;s no money in that. You#39;re a dreamer,; she said shaking her head. She turned to my father. ;He could always work with you, I guess.;“什么?”妈妈大喊道“这挣不到钱。你在做梦。”她边说边摇着头。她转向父亲说“我猜,他起码还能去跟着你工作。”No one in my family could have ever imagined that I would spend seven years of my life in West Africa and learn to speak foreign languages, let alone become a professor who publishes essays and books. That narrative just didn#39;t compute in my family. In my case, a perfect storm of circumstances -- the draft, the war in Vietnam, and the potential of a Peace Corps deferment -- propelled me to the Republic of Niger and eventually a life as scholar, a person who has spent a lot of time ing books, thinking about what#39;s he#39;s , and then writing texts about those ideas.我家里没有人曾想到我会花上7年时间呆在西非,学习外语,更不用说成为一名教授,发表一些散文和出版书籍。这种事我家里根本想不到。对于我,一场环境的完美风暴,包括:出书、越战以及有可能美国和平工作队的暂缓派遣,都推动我来到尼日尔共和国,最终过上学者生活,成为一个花上大量时间阅读,思考以及写出自己想法的人。;And they pay him for this,; my mother would say in wonder. #39;He could have done better in law or business.;“他们雇他做这些,”妈妈好奇的问道“但如果干法律工作或者从商,收入可能更高。”Even after I had been teaching for several years, my parents did not understand what I did for a living. I felt -- falsely as it turned out -- that my career choice had profoundly disappointed them. Eventually they came to better understand what I did and every one of my books, proudly showing them off to family and neighbors.即使我已经教了好几年的书,我父母还是不能理解我靠什么过活。我感到这种错误的结果——我的职业选择让他们深深失望。最终,他们深深地理解了我的做法,并且读了我写的每一本书,并且自豪的向亲属和邻居们炫耀。So what happened to steer me away from the narrow life path that the circumstances of my birth had shaped. For the, college had a profound impact on my life. I stumbled upon professors who took an interest in me. They became mentors who exposed me to the wonders of the world, who convinced me that my life was full of possibilities, and who told me that I had the potential to teach at a university.因此,是什么令我走出了成长环境为我塑造的这条狭窄道路呢。原因是大学生活深深影响了我的生活。我偶然间碰到了对我感兴趣的教授们。他们成为我的导师,引发我对世界的好奇。他们令我相信生活充满了各种可能,告诉我我有潜力在大学里教书育人。You should at least try to follow your dreams, they advised. Maybe things will work out for you. Maybe they won#39;t. But try to follow a different path. Who knows what you#39;ll find他们建议我说,你至少要追逐自己的梦想。或许环境会磨练你,或许不会。但努力找到一条不同的路。谁知道你会发现什么?There is a deep tradition of anti-intellectualism in American cultural and political life. It has a long history, sping its messages into every nook and cranny of American social and political life. We are the ;can-do; nation that values ;common-sense; solutions to our problems. We are suspicious of ;egg heads,; dreamers and ;pointy-headed; intellectuals who drive Volvos, like French food, and drink frothy cappuccinos. Such notions, of course, are gross fabrications that lead to a dangerous ignorance.美国文化和政治领域存在着很深的反智主义传统。长期的历史扩散到美国社会和政治领域的方方面面。我们是“万能”的国度,崇尚用“普遍意识”解决我们的问题。我们总是对那些书呆子、梦想家、酸文人臭老九心存疑虑,觉得他们就是开沃尔沃,吃法国菜,喝溢满泡沫的卡布奇诺的人。当然,这种观念是粗俗的,危险的是还会使人无知。In the past, ;can do; pragmatism was the fuel of America prosperity. But that pragmatism was reinforced with an abiding respect for knowledge and critical thinking. In the past we knew that it was hard to do anything in a place devoid of new ideas, a place where dreamers are discouraged from dreaming. That#39;s why in the present it#39;s important to combat the anti-intellectualism of the public sphere and support enlightened higher education, a space where mentors, to borrow from one of my ers, don#39;t teach students what to think but show them how to think -- a skill that prepares them for a productive life in the world, a skill that moves all of us forward.过去,“万能”的实用主义为美国的繁荣充满动力。但坚持对知识的尊重和批判性思考会强化实用主义。过去我们知道,在缺乏新理念的地方,在梦想家无法追逐梦想的地方,很难做好任何事情。这就是现在很重要的是要战胜公众中反智主义思想和持进步高等教育的原因。这个世界里,借鉴我的一位读者的经验,希望导师们不要教导学生去思考什么,而是教他们如何去思考。这种技能令学生们能够在世界中创造丰富多的生活,这种技能令我们所有人继续前进。 /201501/352037

Why do some travelers squabble about overhead bin space? Or feud over an armrest? Why, when a passenger reclines his seat, does another respond with rage befitting the pages of “Lord of the Flies”?为什么有些旅客会为舱顶行李箱或扶手发生口角?为什么前排乘客把椅背向后调,后排乘客会用简直可以写进《蝇王》(Lord of the Flies)式的狂怒去回应?What makes rational travelers like you and me suddenly explode?为什么你我这样理智的旅客会突然之间勃然大怒?Some factors are environmental (packed planes, teeming gates); others are internal (stress, fatigue). Together, they can make a perfect storm. Last month at least three flights were diverted because passengers got into fights about reclining seats (and that’s to say nothing of the other unruly passenger incidents that regularly transpire). While the percentage of flights diverted each year is low — it’s been well under 0.40 percent since at least 2004, according to the Bureau of Transportation Statistics — even a handful of diversions due to passengers who can’t play nice is too many. We may be animals, but need we prove it on a flight to West Palm Beach?有环境方面的原因(拥挤的机舱和入口处的排队等候);也有旅客自身的原因(压力、疲惫)。这些因素结合在一起很容易让人发怒。上个月,至少有三个航班因为有乘客向后调节椅背导致打架而改变航线(更不必说其他难以约束的的乘客事件也经常发生)。虽然每年航班改道的比率很低——据美国运输统计局称,至少从2004年起,远低于0.40%)——但就算只有几起改道航班事件是由不友好的乘客引起的,也还是显得太多了。我们也许真的是动物,但我们需要在飞往西棕榈滩的航班上明这一点吗?One of the most obvious catalysts is, of course, a crowded cabin. Many seats are thinner and narrower than in the past, and planes like some 777s, which used to have only nine seats across in coach, now cram 10 across.当然,一个最明显的催化剂是拥挤的机舱。很多飞机的座位比过去更窄,比如,波音777的某些飞机过去一排有九个座位,现在却挤了十个。“When you crowd people together, there is a point at which they are no longer able to function appropriately,” said Leon James, a professor of psychology at the University of Hawaii who has studied road and air rage. Crowding breeds feelings of alienation, cynicism and anonymity. It leads, as Dr. James put it, to “a breakdown of ordinary social inhibitions” — such as controlling one’s explosive emotions.“如果你让人们挤在一起,到了一定程度,他们就不再能做出适当的行为,”夏威夷大学研究路上和机上愤怒的心理学教授利昂·詹姆斯(Leon James)说。拥挤会滋生异化、利己和匿名的感觉。就像詹姆斯士说的,它会导致“普通社交控制力的崩溃”——诸如控制情绪爆发等能力。Planes today are, in a word, antisocial, he said. Little wonder that people recline their seats without a friendly warning. “They just do it,” said Dr. James, adding that it’s a sign of “impersonal hostility among passengers,” an atmosphere “created by the airlines by the way they manage the passengers.” Most airlines don’t encourage social cabin environments (more on how to do that later). Rather, he said, their service changes have reinforced the hostile climate. By increasing fees for checked bags, passengers on a budget have had to compete for overhead bin space. By eliminating hot meals in coach, travelers have resorted to carrying on their own sometimes odoriferous food at the expense of their seatmates’ noses.他总结说,如今的飞机是反社交的。难怪人们调节座椅时不会友好地提醒后座的人。“他们就这么做了,”詹姆斯说。他补充说,这是“乘客间冷漠敌意”的一个表现,这种气氛是“航空公司对待乘客的方式造成的”。大部分航空公司不去营造彼此交流的机舱氛围(我后面再具体谈谈如何改善这一点)。他说,相反,航空公司务的改变强化了这种敌意气氛。由于托运行李费用增加,节省的乘客们不得不争夺舱顶行李箱。由于取消机上热餐,乘客们就自带食物,有时食物的味道不太好闻,邻座的鼻子就会遭罪。I find myself thinking of John B. Calhoun’s seminal overpopulation research, published in Scientific American in the 1960s, which found that as rats were increasingly crowded together they became ever more aggressive and exhibited “behavior disturbances” from “frenetic overactivity” to “pathological withdrawal.”我想起了20世纪60年代约翰·B·卡尔霍恩(John B. Calhoun)在《科学美国人》(Scientific American)上发表的一项关于人口过剩的重要研究。他发现,老鼠所在的空间越拥挤,它们就越好斗,表现出“疯狂的过度活跃”或“病态退缩”等“行为障碍”。In a congested plane, it’s not just other passengers from whom we feel estranged, though.不过,在拥挤的飞机上,我们不只是对其他乘客感到疏远。“You feel a distance from your sense of self,” said Emma Seppala, the associate director of the Center for Compassion and Altruism Research and Education at Stanford University School of Medicine. “You lose self-awareness,” she continued, referring to one interpretation of a psychological theory known as deindividuation, “and it’s been shown to lessen rationality.”“你对自己的自我意识感到疏远,”斯坦福大学医学院同情与利他研究教育中心的副所长艾玛·斯帕拉(Emma Seppala)说。她继续说道,“你失去自我意识”——这是对“去个体化”(deindividuation)心理学理论的一种解释——“有据表明,这会降低理性”。The cabin is perhaps the most glaring environmental factor contributing to air rage, but there’s also the theater of getting to the airport and checking in: stop-and-go traffic, the obstacle course of suitcases on the curb, noise bouncing off the terminal walls, snail-like security lines, endless pings from your smartphone as work emails continue to land even as you remove your shoes and shove them into an X-ray machine.机舱可能是最明显的导致机上愤怒的环境因素,但是去机场、办理登机手续也让人烦躁:交通状况不好,路边的行李箱带来障碍,航站楼中回荡的噪音,安检队伍像蜗牛爬行一样缓慢,智能手机的提示音不停作响——因为工作邮件还是会不断到来,就算你脱掉鞋子,把它们塞进安检机后,手机还是响个不停。“Evolutionarily we’re currently experiencing more stimulation than we ever have before,” Dr. Seppala said. Many people feel overtaxed and depleted, especially when traveling, and “that really impacts our self-control and willpower,” she said.“从进化角度看,我们现在感受到的刺激超过之前任何时候,”斯帕拉士说。很多人感到负担过重,筋疲力尽,特别在旅行时,她说,“那真的会影响我们的自控力和意志力。”Self-control, however, is not a neat, unitary concept. It’s not as if some people have it and some people don’t.不过,自控不是个简单、单一的概念。不是说有些人有,有些人没有。“There are multiple ways to fail at self-control, and each of these are supported by different brain circuits,” said Joshua W. Buckholtz, an assistant professor in the department of psychology and center for brain science at Harvard. “As it turns out self-control is this heterogeneous construct, and we’re only now beginning to parse it and understand what these distinct faculties are.”“很多因素会让我们失控,每个因素由大脑的不同回路控制,”哈佛大学心理系和脑科学中心副教授约书亚·W·巴克霍茨(Joshua W. Buckholtz)说,“结果发现,自控是个包含很多因素的复杂机制,我们现在刚开始分析它,想弄清它由哪些不同的机能组成。”What we do know is that certain things can affect our capacity for self-control, particularly stress and sleep deprivation — which tend to be as much a part of travel as luggage.我们确切知道的是,某些因素会影响我们的自控力,特别是压力和睡眠不足——它们和行李一样,是旅行的一部分。A study by neuroscientists at New York University, published last year in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, found that “even mild stress can make it difficult to control your emotions.” Other studies have shown that stress can make you more self-focused, said Dr. Seppala, resulting in tunnel vision for whatever it is you want, and woe be to anyone who gets in the way.纽约大学的神经系统科学家们去年在美国国家科学院学报上发表了一项研究。他们发现“甚至连轻微的压力都会让人很难控制情绪”。斯帕拉士说,其他一些研究表明,压力会让你更专注自我,视野狭隘,只关注自己想要的东西,厌烦任何妨碍你的人。Being jet-lagged, or simply not having had a good night’s rest, also makes you vulnerable.时差或睡眠不足也会让你变得脆弱。“Sleep deprivation can play a really important role in making people act much more emotional,” said Iris Mauss, an associate professor in the department of psychology at the University of California, Berkeley. A study by her colleague Matthew Walker, director of the university’s Sleep and Neuroimaging Laboratory, found that “without sleep, the brain had reverted back to more primitive patterns of activity,” he said in a news release, “in that it was unable to put emotional experiences into context and produce controlled, appropriate responses.”“睡眠不足真的会让人变得更情绪化,”加州大学伯克利分校心理系副教授艾丽斯·莫斯(Iris Mauss)说。她的同事、该校睡眠与神经影像研究室主管马修·沃克(Matthew Walker)做过一项研究,他在新闻发布会上说,“大脑在缺乏睡眠的情况下回到更原始的运行模式,无法把情绪体验放在具体环境中思考,无法做出克制的适当反应。”Stress and sleep deprivation also hurt our ability to interpret other people’s intentions and mental states. For instance, you might jump to the conclusion that the person who reclined his seat onto your lap is a jerk, when in fact maybe he’s a tired soldier returning from duty, or someone with a disability. “The very rich representations of other people’s minds become degraded and impoverished when we are stressed and sleep deprived,” said Dr. Buckholtz of Harvard. “Your predictions about other people are wrong.”压力和睡眠不足还会影响我们对他人意图和精神状态的理解。例如,前排的人把椅背向后调,压到你的手提电脑,你可能会马上认定他是个蠢货,而实际上他可能是个疲惫的退伍士兵或者残疾人士。“在有压力、缺乏睡眠的情况下,你会简单粗暴地理解他人头脑的丰富表现,”哈佛大学的巴克霍茨士说,“那时你对他人的理解是错误的。”Even those who pick fights at 35,000 feet?甚至包括那些在3.5万英尺的高空寻衅滋事的人?“They may be really nice people, but in that situation they got really deindividuated,” said Dr. Seppala of Stanford, referring to a loss of self-awareness. When we see another person act badly, we conclude, often incorrectly, that he or she is a bad person. Psychologists call this “fundamental attribution error.” After all, when we ourselves act badly, we simply say, “I had a bad day,” or “I wasn’t myself.” We don’t define ourselves as bad.“他们可能是很好的人,但是在那种情况下,他们真的失去了自我,”斯坦福大学的斯帕拉士说。她指的是自我意识的丧失。当我们看到有人行为恶劣时,经常会错误地认定他/她是个坏人。心理学家们称之为“基本归因错误”。毕竟,我们自己表现恶劣时会说,“我今天心情不好”或者“我平常不是这样的”。我们不认为自己是坏人。In a heated exchange, it can help to view the other person as someone who is fundamentally good, yet going through something stressful. Some people are obviously better at doing that — and at regulating their emotions — than others. They’re resilient, able to distance themselves from a stressful situation while others in the same situation fall apart. Are these stoics just born that way? Scholars like Dr. Mauss of the University of California, Berkeley, are still trying to find out. But she said being good at regulating emotion seems to be something that’s learned either early in life from, say, your parents, or later in life through conscious reflection on yourself as well as analysis of situations in which you learn to think, “this will pass,” or “it’s not relevant in the grand scheme of things.”在激烈争吵时,想想对方本质上是个好人,只是现在有些压力,会对情况有所帮助。有些人明显更擅长于此,能控制住自己的情绪。他们更有弹性,能让自己从紧张情况中脱离出来,而其他人在同样的情况下可能已经崩溃了。这些镇定的人是天生如此吗?加州大学伯克利分校的莫斯士等学者仍在努力弄清这个问题。不过她说,善于控制情绪似乎是早年从父母那里学来的,或者是后来在生活中通过有意识的自我反省或者通过分析情况养成的——在这个过程中你学会这样想:“这会过去的”或者“从更广阔的角度看,这无关紧要”。When our emotions are high and we’re physiologically aroused, however, it’s difficult to reason with ourselves. Thankfully, there are other ways to control the mind. Take breathing, for instance. Dr. Seppala cited a study that showed that different emotions such as joy, anger, fear and sadness, each have distinct patterns of breathing (like faster and shallow when afraid, she said). What’s revolutionary, she added, is that the study also showed that by breathing in different ways, people were actually able to generate different emotions.不过,当我们在情绪上和生理上很激动时,我们很难理智思考。幸好还有其他方法来控制大脑。比如,深呼吸。斯帕拉士说,一项研究表明,处于高兴、生气、恐惧和悲伤等不同的情绪之下,会有不同的呼吸方式(她说,比如恐惧时呼吸会更快、更浅)。她补充说,具有革命意义的是,这项研究还发现,用不同的方式呼吸真的能产生不同的情绪。“It’s the only autonomic process that can be controlled,” said Dr. Seppala, who is also the lead author of a study published last month in The Journal of Traumatic Stress that found that a breathing-based meditation was able to decrease post-traumatic stress in American military veterans. “We can learn to have an impact on our nervous system,” she said.“它是唯一可控的自发过程,”斯帕拉士说。她也是上月发表在《创伤压力杂志》(The Journal of Traumatic Stress)上的一项研究的主要作者。那项研究发现,以呼吸为基础的冥想能减轻美国退伍军人的创伤后压力。“我们能学会对自己的神经系统施加影响,”她说。The breathing-based meditation that was used by the researchers is known as Sudarshan Kriya Yoga, and it has also been shown to increase self-reported “optimism and well-being” in college students, and to decrease self-reported anxiety in people with general anxiety disorder. Don’t have time for meditation or yoga? Experts say to make time, because the better you are, the better your fellow travelers will be.研究者们所使用的呼吸冥想被称为净化呼吸法,大学生练习后自称变得“更乐观、健康”,有焦虑障碍的人练习后自称焦虑减轻。没时间冥想或做瑜伽?专家们说,那就腾出时间来,因为你变得更好,跟你同行的旅客们也会变得更好。“Taking care of yourself,” Dr. Seppala said, “is the most unselfish thing you can do.”斯帕拉士说,“照顾好自己是你能做的最无私的事情。”There’s plenty the airlines could be doing, too (aside from configuring planes with seats that actually fit their ticket holders). For example: Improve the cabin atmosphere.航空公司也有很多方面需要提高(除了把机舱座位设计得可以真正容纳购票者之外)。比如,改善机舱气氛。“They have to think of the crowd as a potential community,” said Dr. James of the University of Hawaii, and enact certain community-building principles. One simple tactic is what he refers to as live demography: a flight attendant standing in front of the cabin asking questions like “How many of you are going home?” or “Raise your hand if you’ve never been on an airplane before.” It may sound like a kindergarten exercise, but it encourages passengers to relax, be friendly and communicate with one another. “It breaks the anonymity and the hostility,” Dr. James said.夏威夷大学的詹姆斯士说,“他们必须把机上乘客当成一个潜在团体”,并且采取某些团体建设的方法。一个简单的方法是他所谓的现场人口统计:一位空乘人员站在机舱前问一些问题,比如“你们中间有多少人是返乡?”或者“以前从未坐过飞机的请举手”。这可能听起来像幼儿园活动,但它能帮助乘客放松,让他们更友好,愿意相互交流。“它能打破隔膜和敌意,”詹姆斯士说。Airline personnel also need to be trained, or better trained, to be more compassionate in how they handle people, he said, be it demonstrating sympathy when problems arise or simply being specific when asked about delays, saying “20 minutes” instead of just “a few more minutes,” which creates uncertainty and increases frustration.他说,航空公司的人员还需要接受更多培训,以便在对待乘客时更有同情心,不管是在问题出现时表现出同情心,还是在乘客询问延误时间时具体地说“20分钟”,而不是“几分钟”,后面这种说法给人一种不确定的感觉,让人更沮丧。“The airlines have to learn how to help people cope,” he said. “If they don’t, it’s going to get a lot worse.”“航空公司必须学会如何帮助乘客应对糟糕情况,”他说,“否则,情况会变得糟糕很多。” /201412/349716

Pre-drinks at Starbucks? That#39;s probably not a phrase you would have expected one of your mates to say but it#39;s becoming a reality。在星巴克Pre-drinks吗?这可能不是一个词,你会期望你的朋友说,但它真的能成为现实。The coffee chain have now announced as part of a new #39;evening #39; to start after 4pm each day, beer and wine will be available for those who have had enough caffeine throughout the day。星巴克咖啡连锁店已经宣布了一个新的“晚上菜单”,在每天下午4点后,为那些已经摄入足够的咖啡因的人来电啤酒和葡萄酒。It#39;s not just alcohol introduced on the new though, hot meals and late night snacks will also be made available. The idea is to lengthen the business hours of the company and increase revenue with the idea to combat competitors such as McDonald#39;s and Krispy Kreme Donuts entering the coffee game by selling more adult drinks late in the day, bringing a new meaning to #39;coffee bar#39;。未来,不仅仅是酒精将被引入的新菜单,热的食物和宵夜也将在星巴克提供。当然,这个想法是为了延长公司的营业时间,和增加收入。与像麦当劳和甜甜圈激烈的竞争,在未来的日子能售出更多的饮料。在今后的日子里,带来了一个新的意义上的“咖啡馆”。Like with anything good that#39;s introduced, it will be trialled in one location first, the Starbucks in Stansted Airport, before being rolled out to the rest of their 700 cafes in the UK。这将在英国斯坦斯特德机场进行测试,之后在英国700家咖啡馆推出。We are delighted to launch the first Evenings Programme in the UK. Providing a welcoming coffeehouse environment has always been our focus and now we can offer something new for the evening too. Ian Cranna, spokesperson for Starbucks我们很高兴在英国推出的第一个晚上,能够提供一个友好的环境,并得到更多的顾客,我们提供了一些新的东西。发言人Ian Cranna星巴克Americans in Chicago, Atlanta and Seattle have aly been able to order a round at their local Starbucks and the company are considering introducing alcoholic drinks for sale in Canada as well as in the UK。在美国芝加哥、亚特兰大和西雅图已经能够有序的点酒,星巴克正在考虑将其引进加拿大以及英国。Will Starbucks become your new local morning-and-night?他将会早晚伴随你吗? /201507/384727

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