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The Terra Cotta Warriors and Horses秦始皇陵兵马俑The Terra Cotta Warriors and Horses are one of the most significant archeological discoveries in the 20th century. The excavation work is on-going at this site, which is around l. 5 kilometers east of Emperor Qin Shihuang#39;s missed by any visitor to China. Upon ascending the throne at the age of 13 in 246 , Qin Shihuang, later the first feudal emperor in the Chinese history, began to work for his mausoleum. It took ii years to finish. It is speculated that many buried treasures and sacrificial objects had accompanied the emperor in his afterlife. A group of peasants uncovered some pottery while digging for a well nearby the royal tomb in 1974. It caught the attention of archeologists immediately, who, after massive on-site excavations, claimed that the Terra Cotta Warriors and Horses had been associated with the Qin Dynasty. The museum covers an area of 16,300 square meters, divided into three sections, i.e.No.1 Pit, No.2 Pit, and No.3 Pit respectively. No. I Pit, the largest of the three, was first opened to the public on China#39;s National Day, 1979. No. 2 Pit, found in 1976, is 20 meters northeast of No. 1 Pit. It contained over one thousand warriors and 90 chariots. It was unveiled to the public in l994. Archeologists came upon No. 3 Pit also in 1976, 25 meters northwest of No. I Pit. It looked like the command center of the armed forces. It went on display in 1989, with 68 warriors. a war chariot and four horses. Up to now, over 7,000 pottery soldiers and horses, chariots, and weapons have been unearthed from these pits. Most of them have been restored to their former grandeur. The Terra Cotta Warriors and Horses were listed by UNESCO in 1987 as one of the world cultural heritages.秦始皇陵兵马俑是20世纪最重要的考古发现之一。在陕西西安市临潼区秦始皇陵以东约1.5千米处,考古发掘工作正在进行。到中国的游客都不会错过参观这一景点。秦始皇后来成为中国历史上首位封建帝王。13岁的他于公元前246年继承王位之后就着手营造自己的陵墓,历时11年方修建完成。有人猜测,始皇帝死后有大量的宝物和陪葬品埋入陵墓陪伴这位帝王。1974年,几个农民在帝王陵寝附近打井时发掘出一些陶制品,这立即引起了考古学家们的注意,他们在经过大量的现场发掘后认为兵马俑和秦代关系密切。兵马俑物馆占地16300平方米,由三部分组成,即分别是l号俑坑、2号俑坑和3号俑坑。一号坑在三个坑中最大,首先于1979年中国的国庆节当天向公众开放。1976年发现的2号坑,在一号坑东北方向20米处,有1000多个陶俑和90乘马车。2号坑于1994年向公众开放。3号坑也是考古学家在1976年发现的,在l号坑西北方向25米处,该俑坑看上去像是军队的指挥中心。1989年公开展览的3号坑,由68个陶俑、一乘战车和四个马佣。迄今从这些俑坑中共发掘出7000余件陶俑、陶马、战车和兵器,大部分经过修复都已重获了昔日的威武和庄严。秦始垒陵兵马俑于1987年被联合国教科文组织列为世界文化遗产之一。 /201601/419349

Beijing National Stadium( Bird’s Nest)北京国家体育场(鸟巢)Beijing National Stadium ( the “Bird#39;s Nest”) ,is the centerpiece of the Olympic Green in Beijing, China. The stadium was designed for use throughout the 2008 Summer Olympics and Paralympics.The “ Bird#39;s Nest”,with the building area of 258,000 nf , has room for 91,000 spectators, but the capacity will be reduced t0 80,000 after the Olympics.In 2001, after Beijing had been awarded the right to host the 2008 Summer Olympics, the city held a bidding process to select the best arena design. The “nest scheme” design, joint venture by architects Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron of Herzog de Meuron and Li Xing- gang of China Architecture Design and Research ( CADG) , was approved by as the top design and became official in 2003.国家体育场的外形是以众多钢铁不规则地“编织”而成,外形如一个鸟巢般,因此又称为“鸟巢”体育场。国家体育场位于北京奥林匹克公园中心区,为2008年第29届奥林匹克运动会和残疾人奥运会的主体育场。工程建筑面积258,000平方米,场内观众坐席约为91000个,其中临时坐席约11000个。在2002年,北京市规划委员会举办了2008年北京市奥运会主场馆的全球方案征集活动。由瑞士建筑事务所赫尔佐格和德梅隆与中国建筑设计研究院合作设计的“鸟巢”在众多作品中脱颖而出,成为2008年北京奥运会的主场馆。Ground was broken in December 2003 and the stadium officially opened in June 2008.Beijing National Stadium hosted the Opening and Closing Ceremonies, athletic events, and football final of the 2008 Summer Olympics and the 2008 Summer Paralympics. Though designed for track amp;field events of the Olympics, the stadium will continue to host sporting events, such as football, afterwards.It is one of the most important public space in Beijing and the landmark sports architecture.国家体育场于2003年12月开工建设,2008年6月投入使用,举行过2008年夏季奥运会和2008年残奥会的开幕式、闭幕式、田径及足球比赛决赛。奥运会后将成为北京市民广泛参与体育活动及享受体育的大型专业场所,并成为具有地标性的体育建筑和奥运遗产。 /201603/430101

Innovation is an essential yet elusive ingredient in corporate success, and one that is notoriously difficult to measure.创新对于企业的成功至关重要,但它往往难以实现,而且众所周知,它也很难衡量。But for the past decade, the Boston Consulting Group has picked up the challenge, publishing a ranking of the 50 most innovative companies in the world and an accompanying analysis of successful innovators. The 2015 ranking and report, published on Wednesday, shows the top two companies, Apple and Google, are the same pair as last year.但是在过去十年,波士顿咨询集团(Boston Consulting Group)直面这项挑战,持续发布全球最具创新力企业50强榜单,同时也对最成功的创新者进行分析。周三发布的2015年榜单和报告显示,排名最靠前的两家公司,仍是去年高居榜首的苹果(Apple)和谷歌(Google)。American corporations account for six of the top 10. In addition to Apple and Google, they are Tesla (ranked third), Microsoft (fourth), Gilead Sciences (eighth) and Amazon (ninth). But the company that has climbed the most since last year, up 35 places to the 12th spot, is the Chinese company Tencent.排名前十的公司,有六个都是美国公司。除了苹果和谷歌,还有特斯拉(Tesla,排名第三)、微软(Microsoft,第四)、吉利德科学(Gilead Sciences,第八)和亚马逊(Amazon,第九)。但和去年相比,排名上升最快的是中国公司腾讯,它今年上升了35个位次,排名第12位。Technology companies occupy the most slots at the top of the list, but car companies are a rising presence. Besides Tesla, the top auto innovators include Toyota (sixth), BMW (seventh) and Daimler (10th). The automotive ascent on the list has been evident for the last three years, said Andrew Taylor, a senior partner at Boston Consulting Group and co-author of the report.榜单顶端的位置大多被科技企业占据,但汽车厂商的排名正在上升。除了特斯拉,最具创新力的汽车企业还有丰田(Toyota,第六)、宝马(BMW,第七)和戴姆勒(Daimler,第十)。波士顿咨询集团高级合伙人、同时也是这份报告共同作者的安德鲁·泰勒(Andrew Taylor)表示,过去三年,汽车企业排名上升非常明显。“Cars have become delivery systems for technology,” Mr. Taylor explained, including hybrid and electric power systems, driver-assisting safety features, heads-up displays and touch screens for entertainment and information. “The amount of consumer-facing technology is incredible compared with five years ago,” he added.“汽车已经成为技术应用的载体,”泰勒解释说,比如混合动力和电力系统、安全驾驶辅助功能、平视显示器和用来提供和信息的触摸屏。“相比于五年前,面向消费者的技术数量之多,让人难以置信,”他接着说。The rankings are determined largely by a survey of 1,500 chief executives and senior executives worldwide. They are asked what companies in their own industry and in general they consider most innovative. They can’t name their own company. The rest of the ranking formula, 40 percent, is based on a company’s total return to shareholders over five years.这些排名主要基于对全球1500名企业首席执行官和高管进行的问卷调查。他们需要回答在自己所在领域,以及在普遍意义上,哪些企业最具创新力,还需要将自己所在企业排除在外。剩余40%的排名依据是各企业在过去五年的股东权益总回报率。But the ranking questions are only a few of the dozens included in the annual survey. The Boston Consulting Group report is grounded mainly in answers to the wider set of responses, supplemented by the management consultant’s other research.但有关排名的问题,只是这个年度问卷中出现的几十个问题中的少数。波士顿咨询集团的报告主要是基于高管们针对更广泛问题的回答,然后再结合该咨询公司的其他研究。Reading the report, two themes seem most prominent: speed and technology. The executives were asked which of more than a dozen “areas of innovation, research and development or product development will have the most impact on your industry over the next three to five years?” The top three choices were “speed of adopting new technology,” “big-data analytics” and “technology platforms.”这份报告似乎有两个最为显著的主题:速度和技术。高管们被问到,在所列出的十多个“创新、研发或产品开发领域中,哪一个会在未来三五年对你所在行业产生最大影响?”被提到最多的前三个选项是“采用新技术的速度”、“大数据分析”和“技术平台”。In the survey and in follow-up interviews with executives, Mr. Taylor said, “The word that keeps coming up is speed” — accelerating traditional innovation processes to rapidly develop products and experiment with ideas.泰勒表示,在对高管们进行的问卷调查和后续采访中,“不断被提到的词是速度”——加速传统创新过程,以快速开发产品和实践新想法。Technology, Mr. Taylor noted, opens the door to faster innovation — as even industrial companies, for example, use sensors and software to build more intelligence and flexibility into their products. And techniques originally employed by software engineers, like agile programming and quickly building prototypes and testing them on customers, are being embraced in many industries. “It’s all about learning fast,” Mr. Taylor said.泰勒还指出,技术可以带来更快的创新——比如,即使是工业公司,也可以利用传感器和软件使自己的产品更智能、更灵活。而且,原先只有软件工程师使用的技术,如敏捷编程、快速建模和在消费者中进行测试,也正被很多行业采用。“重要的是快速学习,”泰勒说。However achieved, innovation seems to be increasingly valued by senior executives. This year, 79 percent replied that innovation was either their company’s top priority or among the top three. That is the highest percentage since the survey began in 2005, when the innovation priority share was 66 percent.无论以什么方式实现,创新似乎都越来越被高管们看重。今年接受采访的高管有79%都回答,创新是他们所在企业的第一要务,或者头三要务之一。自2005年进行这项问卷调查以来,今年这个比例是最高的。在2005年,这个数字是66%。Have they just browbeaten by the term over the years, so that nearly everyone would say yes? That is not the explanation Mr. Taylor offered.是不是因为他们在过去数年被创新这个词给唬住了,所以几乎所有人都给了肯定的回答?泰勒可不是这么解释的。Instead, he suggested that so many of the other steps to create higher corporate value — like acquisitions, cost-cutting and outsourcing, restructuring and financial engineering — have run their course at many major companies. “As the toolkit gets narrower, innovation rises to the top,” he said. And Wall Street investors, he added, bid up the shares of companies that produce strong organic growth through innovation, like Apple and Google.相反,他表示,很多其他的创造更高企业价值的方法,比如收购、削减成本、外包、重组和金融工程,都已经被很多大公司采用过。“当可选择的工具选项减少时,创新就一跃成为首选,”他说。他还表示,华尔街投资者也会抬高通过创新实现有机增长的企业的股价,比如苹果和谷歌。 /201512/414142

To really learn, fail — then fail again!想学到更多?那么就放肆的失败吧!On a spring morning, Hogan had given each of her students a tool kit containing a plastic foam dinner plate, a balloon, a small plastic stirrer straw, a sharp pencil and masking tape.一个春天的早上,Hogan给她的学生每人分发一个工具箱,里面包括一个塑料泡沫餐盘,一个气球,一个塑料搅拌吸管,一个削尖的铅笔和一个胶条。She instructed her young inventors to use the parts in any way they wanted to make racing cars from the foam plates. They also were charged with figuring out how to propel those cars great distances across the floor. The kit#39;s balloon would be a key component of these ;rocket; racers.她指导学生们开动脑筋使用她们想到的任何方法去利用泡沫盘制作一个赛车。并且他们还负责让小赛车在地上驱动行驶。毫无疑问,气球变成了推动赛车行驶的主要元素。Kids in many classrooms across the ed States are learning science in much the same way. Instead of explaining things to kids from the front of a classroom, teachers are beginning to instead ;guide from the side.; They are nudging kids to become Edisons - tinkerers who learn by doing.美国的小孩在科学课上几乎使用同样的方法学习,即老师先不给孩子们讲解原理,而是从侧面入手,让他们自己动手操作。这样可以培养出更多的爱迪生---一位乐于实践的思想者。A big take-home lesson from such projects is that there may be no one single right answer to a problem. There may instead be many. Along the path to discovering this, kids were being encouraged to propose theories - and then test them.这样可以带回家的实验项目是不限定正确的,因为也许有很多。在这条寻求之路上,学生们可以提出自己的理论然后进行验。Along the way, many students will fail. Often, they#39;ll fail many times. Perhaps not several thousand times (like Edison). But along the way they may just find out that by analyzing why something went horribly wrong, they#39;ve learned a lot. And they can take ownership of that learning, knowing that they earned it from hard-won experience.在这条路上,许多学生会失败,而且不止一次,当然可能不会像爱迪生那样失败上千次。但只有通过去分析错误的原因,他们才会学到更多,才能取得某个知识的拥有权,才能真正体会到通过多次试验才能得到来之不易的结果。译文属 /201506/378504


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